[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed that presents antithrombotic and pro-angiogenic properties. However, its mechanism of action is not well-characterized. Here, we studied the effects of LMWF on cell signaling and whole genome expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. We observed that LMWF and vascular endothelial growth factor had synergistic effects on cell signaling, and more interestingly that LMWF by itself, in the absence of other growth factors, was able to trigger the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We also observed that the effects of LMWF on cell migration were PI3K/AKT-dependent and that LMWF modulated the expression of genes involved at different levels of the neovessel formation process, such as cell migration and cytoskeleton organization, cell mobilization and homing. This provides a better understanding of LMWF's mechanism of action and confirms that it could be an interesting therapeutic approach for vascular repair.
angiogenesis; fucoidan; migration; signaling; transcriptomics; vasculogenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 20 years old man presenting two episodes of hematemesis. The patient was known to suffer from depression and was treated with sertraline (Zoloft®) for 6 months at the dosage of 100 mg/day. No endoscopic and radiological abnormality was found. The haemostasis report was normal. Exploration of platelet function was in favor of an abnormality of platelet secretion as evidenced by low epinephrine-induced aggregation, a slightly reduced aggregation for following agonists: TRAP, ADP 5 μM and 10 μM, and a longer latency to collagen. The diagnosis of an acquired platelet disorder was strongly suspected and in particular an acquired platelet disorder induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that is known to interfere with platelet activation pathways involving serotonin.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Annales de biologie clinique
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which angiogenic endothelial cells break the physical barrier of the vascular basement membrane and consequently sprout to form new vessels in mature tissues is unclear. Here, we show that the angiogenic endothelium is characterized by the presence of functional podosome rosettes. These extracellular-matrix-degrading and adhesive structures are precursors of de novo branching points and represent a key feature in the formation of new blood vessels. VEGF-A stimulation induces the formation of endothelial podosome rosettes by upregulating integrin α6β1. In contrast, the binding of α6β1 integrin to the laminin of the vascular basement membrane impairs the formation of podosome rosettes by restricting α6β1 integrin to focal adhesions and hampering its translocation to podosomes. Using an ex vivo sprouting angiogenesis assay, transgenic and knockout mouse models and human tumour sample analysis, we provide evidence that endothelial podosome rosettes control blood vessel branching and are critical regulators of pathological angiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The α6 integrin subunit (α6) has been implicated in cancer cell migration and in the progression of several malignancies, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In mice, anti-α6 blocking antibodies reduce tumor angiogenesis, whereas Tie1-dependent α6 gene deletion enhances neovessel formation in melanoma and lung carcinoma. To clarify the discrepancy in these results we used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line, α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre+, with α6 gene deletion specifically in Tie2-lineage cells: endothelial cells, pericytes, subsets of hematopoietic stem cells, and Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs), known for their proangiogenic properties. Loss of α6 expression in α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre+ mice reduced tumor growth in a murine B16F10 melanoma model. Immunohistological analysis of the tumors showed that Tie2-dependent α6 gene deletion was associated with reduced tumor vascularization and with reduced infiltration of proangiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. These findings demonstrate that α6 integrin subunit plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis and TEM infiltration. Targeting α6 could be used as a strategy to reduce tumor growth.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: THE ENDOTHELIUM IS NOWADAYS DESCRIBED AS AN ENTIRE ORGAN THAT REGULATES VARIOUS PROCESSES: vascular tone, coagulation, inflammation, and immune cell trafficking, depending on the vascular site and its specific microenvironment as well as on endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms like epigenetic changes. In this review, we will focus on the control of the adaptive immune response by the tumor vasculature. In physiological conditions, the endothelium acts as a barrier regulating cell trafficking by specific expression of adhesion molecules enabling adhesion of immune cells on the vessel, and subsequent extravasation. This process is also dependent on chemokine and integrin expression, and on the type of junctions defining the permeability of the endothelium. Endothelial cells can also regulate immune cell activation. In fact, the endothelial layer can constitute immunological synapses due to its close interactions with immune cells, and the delivery of co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory signals. In tumor conditions, the vasculature is characterized by an abnormal vessel structure and permeability, and by a specific phenotype of endothelial cells. All these abnormalities lead to a modulation of intra-tumoral immune responses and contribute to the development of intra-tumoral immunosuppression, which is a major mechanism for promoting the development, progression, and treatment resistance of tumors. The in-depth analysis of these various abnormalities will help defining novel targets for the development of anti-tumoral treatments. Furthermore, eventual changes of the endothelial cell phenotype identified by plasma biomarkers could secondarily be selected to monitor treatment efficacy.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Frontiers in Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) may hold potential for bone tissue engineering. Osteogenic differentiation of these cells is crucial to bone formation. Low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) is a sulphated polysaccharide that potentiates several growth factors including pro-angiogenic growth factors. To investigate whether hASC preconditioning with LMWF promoted bone repair, we compared the effects of LMWF and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on hASC phenotype and osteogenic differentiation. LMWF did not modify the stem-cell phenotype of hASCs but enhanced their osteogenic differentiation (formation of calcium deposits, increased activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase, and increased expression of osteopontin and RUNX2). However, when hASCs were exposed to LMWF before their adhesion to biphasic calcium phosphate particles and implantation in a bone-growth mouse model, no bone formation was apparent after 5 or 8 weeks, probably due to cell death. In conclusion, LMWF may hold promise for enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs before their implantation. However, concomitant vascularisation would be required to enhance bone formation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Tissue Engineering Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins α6β1 and α6β4 are receptors for laminins, the main components of the basement membrane underlying the endothelial cells. In vitro, α6 integrin subunit (α6) expression at the surface of endothelial cells and their progenitors (EPCs) is up-regulated by pro-angiogenic growth factors and is crucial for adhesion, migration, and pseudotube formation. We investigated the role for α6 in post-ischaemic vascular repair in vivo.
We used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line with specific α6 gene deletion in Tie2-lineage cells. In a model of hind-limb ischaemia, Tie2-dependent α6 deletion reduced neovessel formation and reperfusion of the ischaemic limb. Concerning the role for α6 in post-ischaemic vasculogenesis, we showed previously that α6 was required for EPC recruitment at the site of ischaemia. Here, we found that α6 deletion also reduced EPC mobilization from the bone marrow after ischaemia. Examination of the ischaemic muscles showed that Tie2-dependent α6 deletion decreased the recruitment of pro-angiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. In the Matrigel plug assay, fibroblast growth factor-2-induced vascularization was diminished in mice lacking endothelial α6. To specifically investigate the role for α6 in angiogenesis, aortic rings were embedded in Matrigel or collagen and cultured ex vivo. In Matrigel, neovessel outgrowth from rings lacking α6 was strongly diminished, whereas no genotype-dependent difference occurred for rings in collagen.
α6 plays a major role in both post-ischaemic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Cardiovascular Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications.