I M Anderson

The University of Manchester, Manchester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (91)387.46 Total impact

  • P. J. Cowen · I. M. Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent major depression that does not respond to adequate first- or second-line treatment is a common problem in psychiatry. This article updates evidence on recommended treatment strategies and reviews the prospects of more experimental approaches. The main pharmacological development in recent years has been the demonstration that several atypical antipsychotic drugs are effective adjunctive agents in improving symptoms in depression unresponsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, although their adverse effect burden is high. There is optimism about novel pharmacological strategies based on glutamatergic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It is important to combine drug and psychological treatments whenever possible. With persistent therapeutic engagement, the majority of patients remit eventually, but subsequent relapse remains a problem. Clinicians should pursue an active and collaborative treatment plan that makes use of all effective therapeutic modalities and continues into the relapse-prevention phase.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants was undertaken in order to incorporate new evidence and to update the recommendations where appropriate. A consensus meeting involving experts in depressive disorders and their management was held in September 2012. Key areas in treating depression were reviewed and the strength of evidence and clinical implications were considered. The guidelines were then revised after extensive feedback from participants and interested parties. A literature review is provided which identifies the quality of evidence upon which the recommendations are made. These guidelines cover the nature and detection of depressive disorders, acute treatment with antidepressant drugs, choice of drug versus alternative treatment, practical issues in prescribing and management, next-step treatment, relapse prevention, treatment of relapse and stopping treatment. Significant changes since the last guidelines were published in 2008 include the availability of new antidepressant treatment options, improved evidence supporting certain augmentation strategies (drug and non-drug), management of potential long-term side effects, updated guidance for prescribing in elderly and adolescent populations and updated guidance for optimal prescribing. Suggestions for future research priorities are also made. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Psychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prosocial emotions related to self-blame are important in guiding human altruistic decisions. These emotions are elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD), such that MDD has been associated with guilt-driven pathological hyper-altruism. However, the impact of such emotional impairments in MDD on different types of social decision-making is unknown. Method: In order to address this issue, we investigated different kinds of altruistic behaviour (interpersonal cooperation and fund allocation, altruistic punishment and charitable donation) in 33 healthy subjects, 35 patients in full remission (unmedicated) and 24 currently depressed patients (11 on medication) using behavioural-economical paradigms. Results: We show a significant main effect of clinical status on altruistic decisions (p = 0.04) and a significant interaction between clinical status and type of altruistic decisions (p = 0.03). More specifically, symptomatic patients defected significantly more in the Prisoner's Dilemma game (p < 0.05) and made significantly lower charitable donations, whether or not these incurred a personal cost (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Currently depressed patients also reported significantly higher guilt elicited by receiving unfair financial offers in the Ultimatum Game (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Currently depressed individuals were less altruistic in both a charitable donation and an interpersonal cooperation task. Taken together, our results challenge the guilt-driven pathological hyper-altruism hypothesis in depression. There were also differences in both current and remitted patients in the relationship between altruistic behaviour and pathological self-blaming, suggesting an important role for these emotions in moral and social decision-making abnormalities in depression.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Psychological Medicine
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    Kate Williams · Ian Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Psychological therapies can be effective in the treatment of depression and are valued by patients. Here, the authors provide an overview of the main psychological therapies available, their evidence base and their use in practice.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Prescriber
  • C.S. Symonds · C.C. Henson · J.F.W. Deakin · I.M. Anderson

    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · European Neuropsychopharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · European Neuropsychopharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of working and episodic memory, including the encoding and retrieval of emotional memories, in patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). Main conclusion: We demonstrated neural activity abnormalities in working & episodic memory in TRD. Decreased activity of the dlPFC in the n-back task could be a manifestation of the frontal hypoactivity found in depression; this is probably related to attentional and cognitive impairments. Posterior cingulate hypoactivity, shown during encoding, may represent the greater effort required for TRD patients due to attentional difficulties. Manifested by a greater need to switch off the default mode network. The anterior cingulate is associated with emotional processing and the emotion-specific under activity to positive image retrieval may contribute to memory/evaluation biases in TRD. Posterior insula activation has been associated with emotional significance during image recognition; increased activity in TRD may contribute to emotional bias.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in financial reward processing. Previous research suggests that patients with MDD show reduced sensitivity to frequency of financial rewards. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence from studies investigating the evaluation of financial rewards over time, an important aspect of reward processing that influences the way people plan long-term investments. Beck's cognitive model posits that patients with MDD hold a negative view of the future that may influence the amount of resources patients are willing to invest into their future selves. We administered a delay discounting task to 82 participants: 29 healthy controls, 29 unmedicated participants with fully remitted MDD (rMDD) and 24 participants with current MDD (11 on medication). Patients with current MDD, relative to remitted patients and healthy subjects, discounted large-sized future rewards at a significantly higher rate and were insensitive to changes in reward size from medium to large. There was a main effect of clinical group on discounting rates for large-sized rewards, and discounting rates for large-sized rewards correlated with severity of depressive symptoms, particularly hopelessness. Higher discounting of delayed rewards in MDD seems to be state dependent and may be a reflection of depressive symptoms, specifically hopelessness. Discounting distant rewards at a higher rate means that patients are more likely to choose immediate financial options. Such impairments related to long-term investment planning may be important for understanding value-based decision making in MDD, and contribute to ongoing functional impairment.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Psychological Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced hippocampal volume has been reported in depression and may be involved in the aetiology of depressive symptoms and vulnerability to depressive relapse. Neuroplasticity following antidepressant drug treatment in the hippocampus has been demonstrated in animal models but adaptive changes after such treatment have not been shown in humans. In this study, we determined whether grey matter loss in the hippocampus in depression (1) is present in medication-free depressed (2) changes in response to antidepressant treatment and (3) is present as a stable trait in medication-free remitted patients. Sixty-four medication-free unipolar depressed patients: 39 currently depressed and 25 in remission, and 66 healthy controls (HC) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Thirty-two currently depressed participants were then treated with the antidepressant citalopram for 8 weeks. Adherence to treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma citalopram concentration. We measured regional variation in grey matter concentration by using voxel-based morphometry-Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra. Patients with current depression had bilaterally reduced grey matter in the hippocampus compared with HC and untreated patients in stable remission with the latter groups not differing. An increase in grey matter was observed in the hippocampus following treatment with citalopram in currently depressed patients. Grey matter reduction in the hippocampus appears specific to the depressed state and is a potential biomarker for a depressive episode.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 November 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.150.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Molecular Psychiatry
  • D. Pap · I.M. Anderson · J. Deakin · G.Y. Bagdy · G. Juhasz

    No preview · Article · Mar 2012
  • Anderson I · Haddad P · Scott J.

    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    CS Symonds · IM Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Although fewer men than women experience depression, it has more serious consequences for men, who are particularly likely to commit suicide. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Interface Ltd
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011
  • C. S. Symonds · S. McKie · R. Elliott · J. F. W. Deakin · I. M. Anderson

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · European Neuropsychopharmacology
  • D Arnone · A.M. McIntosh · K.P. Ebmeier · M.R. Munafò · I.M. Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Previous meta-analyses of structural MRI studies have shown diffuse cortical and sub-cortical abnormalities in unipolar depression. However, the presence of duplicate publications, recruitment of particular age groups and the selection of specific regions of interest means that there is uncertainty about the balance of current research. Moreover, the lack of systematic exploration of highly significant heterogeneity has prevented the generalisability of finding. A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis was carried out to estimate effect sizes. Possible publication bias, and the impact of various study design characteristics on the magnitude of the observed effect size were systematically explored. The aim of this study was 1) to include structural MRI studies systematically comparing unipolar depression with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers; 2) to consider all available structures of interest without specific age limits, avoiding data duplication, and 3) to explore the influence of factors contributing to the measured effect sizes systematically with meta-regression analyses. Unipolar depression was characterised by reduced brain volume in areas involved in emotional processing, including the frontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and striatum. There was also evidence of pituitary enlargement and an excess of white matter hyperintensity volume in unipolar depression. Factors which influenced the magnitude of the observed effect sizes were differences in methods, clinical variables, pharmacological interventions and sample age.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    M E Palm · R Elliott · S McKie · J F W Deakin · I M Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is under-researched despite its high prevalence and large impact on the healthcare system. There is a paucity of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that explore the neural correlates of emotional processing in GAD. The present study investigated the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to processing positive and negative facial emotions in patients with GAD. A total of 15 female GAD patients and 16 female controls undertook an implicit face emotion task during fMRI scanning. They also performed a face emotion recognition task outside the scanner. The only behavioural difference observed in GAD patients was less accurate detection of sad facial expressions compared with control participants. However, GAD patients showed an attenuated BOLD signal in the prefrontal cortex to fearful, sad, angry and happy facial expressions and an attenuated signal in the anterior cingulate cortex to happy and fearful facial expressions. No differences were found in amygdala response. In contrast with previous research, this study found BOLD signal attenuation in the ventrolateral and medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex during face emotion processing, consistent with a hypothesis of hypo-responsivity to external emotional stimuli in GAD. These decreases were in areas that have been implicated in emotion and cognition and may reflect an altered balance between internally and externally directed attentional processes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Psychological Medicine
  • I M Anderson

    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Psychological Medicine
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    E.J. Thomas · R Elliott · S McKie · D Arnone · D Downey · G Juhasz · J.F.W. Deakin · I.M. Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Both past depressive episodes and the personality trait of depressive rumination are strong risk factors for future depression. Depression is associated with abnormal emotional processing, which may be a neurobiological marker for vulnerability to depression. A consistent picture has yet to emerge as to how a history of depression and the tendency to ruminate influence emotional processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rumination, past depression and neural responses when processing face emotions. The Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS) was completed by 30 remitted depressives and 37 controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing happy, sad, fearful and neutral faces. The remitted depressives showed overall reductions in neural responses to negative emotions relative to the controls. However, in the remitted depressives, but not the controls, RRS scores were correlated with increased neural responses to negative emotions and decreased responses to happiness in limbic regions. Automatic emotion processing biases and rumination seem to be correlated to aspects of vulnerability to depression. However, remission from depression may be maintained by a general suppression of limbic responsiveness to negative emotion.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Psychological Medicine
  • J F W Deakin · J Harro · I M Anderson

    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Acta Dermato Venereologica