[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over-expression of mutant copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mice induces ALS and has become the most widely used model of neurodegeneration. However, no pharmaceutical agent in 20years has extended lifespan by more than a few weeks. The Copper-Chaperone-for-SOD (CCS) protein completes the maturation of SOD by inserting copper, but paradoxically human CCS causes mice co-expressing mutant SOD to die within two weeks of birth. Hypothesizing that co-expression of CCS created copper deficiency in spinal cord, we treated these pups with the PET-imaging agent CuATSM, which is known to deliver copper into the CNS within minutes. CuATSM prevented the early mortality of CCSxSOD mice, while markedly increasing Cu, Zn SOD protein in their ventral spinal cord. Remarkably, continued treatment with CuATSM extended the survival of these mice by an average of 18months. When CuATSM treatment was stopped, these mice developed ALS-related symptoms and died within 3months. Restoring CuATSM treatment could rescue these mice after they became symptomatic, providing a means to start and stop disease progression. All ALS patients also express human CCS, raising the hope that familial SOD ALS patients could respond to CuATSM treatment similarly to the CCSxSOD mice.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Neurobiology of Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is regulated by interaction of particular miRNA precursors with specific RNA-binding proteins.
Following their biogenesis, mature miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) where they interact
with mRNAs to negatively regulate protein production. However, little is known about how mature miRNAs are regulated at the
level of their activity. To address this, we screened for proteins differentially bound to the mature form of the miR-1 or miR-133 miRNA families. These muscle-enriched, co-transcribed miRNA pairs cooperate to suppress smooth muscle gene expression in
the heart. However, they also have opposing roles, with the miR-1 family, composed of miR-1 and miR-206, promoting myogenic differentiation, whereas miR-133 maintains the progenitor state. Here, we describe a physical interaction between TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein that forms
aggregates in the neuromuscular disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the miR-1, but not miR-133, family. Deficiency of the TDP-43 Drosophila ortholog enhanced dmiR-1 activity in vivo. In mammalian cells, TDP-43 limited the activity of both miR-1 and miR-206, but not the miR-133 family, by disrupting their RISC association. Consistent with TDP-43 dampening miR-1/206 activity, protein levels of the miR-1/206 targets, IGF-1 and HDAC4, were elevated in TDP-43 transgenic mouse muscle. This occurred without corresponding Igf-1 or Hdac4 mRNA increases and despite higher miR-1 and miR-206 expression. Our findings reveal that TDP-43 negatively regulates the activity of the miR-1 family of miRNAs by limiting their bioavailability for RISC loading and suggest a processing-independent mechanism for differential
regulation of miRNA activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanisms underlying mutant Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase-related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. These include aggregation pathology, mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress, and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Mitochondrial disease may be a primary event in neurodegeneration, contributing to oxidative stress and apoptosis, or it may be caused by other cellular processes. Mitochondrial structural abnormalities have been detected in the skeletal muscle, lymphoblast and central nervous system of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients. The cause or even the extent of mitochondrial defects in spinal cord and brain of patients with Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase mutations is difficult to determine because of rapid mitochondrial deterioration in autopsy samples. The focus of this review is how abnormalities in Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase redox states, folding and metallation contribute to mitochondrial deficiencies, investigating the differences in mitochondrial defects observed among transgenic mice expressing various Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase mutations.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of the neurological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of proteins which determine fat and lean body mass composition is critical to better understanding and treating human obesity. TDP-43 is a well-conserved RNA-binding protein known to regulate alternative splicing and recently implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While TDP-43 knockout mice show early embryonic lethality, post-natal conditional knockout mice show weight loss, fat depletion, and rapid death, suggesting an important role for TDP-43 in regulating energy metabolism. Here we report, that over-expression of TDP-43 in transgenic mice can result in a phenotype characterized by increased fat deposition and adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, TDP-43 over-expression in skeletal muscle results in increased steady state levels of Tbc1d1, a RAB-GTPase activating protein involved in Glucose 4 transporter (Glut4) translocation. Skeletal muscle fibers isolated from TDP-43 transgenic mice show altered Glut4 translocation in response to insulin and impaired insulin mediated glucose uptake. These results indicate that levels of TDP-43 regulate body fat composition and glucose homeostasis in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2011) 118, 891–901.
This study presents the initial characterization of transgenic mice with mutations in a primary zinc-binding residue (H80), either alone or with a G93A mutation. H80G;G93A superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic mice developed paralysis with motor neuron loss, and ubiquitin inclusion-type rather than mitochondrial vacuolar pathology. Unlike G93A SOD1-related disease, the course was not accelerated by over-expression of copper chaperone for SOD1. H80G SOD1 transgenic mice did not manifest disease at levels of SOD1 transgene expressed. The H80G mutation altered certain biochemical parameters of both human wild-type SOD1 and G93A SOD1. The H80G mutation does not substantially change the age-dependent accumulation of G93A SOD1 aggregates and hydrophobic species in spinal cord. However, both H80G;G93A SOD1 and H80G SOD1 lack dismutase activity, the ability to form homodimers, and co-operativity with copper chaperone for SOD1, indicating that their dimerization interface is abnormal. The H80G mutation also made SOD1 susceptible to protease digestion. The H80G mutation alters the redox properties of SOD1. G93A SOD1 exists in either reduced or oxidized form, whereas H80G;G93A SOD1 and H80G SOD1 exist only in a reduced state. The inability of SOD1 with an H80G mutation to take part in normal oxidation-reduction reactions has important ramifications for disease mechanisms and pathology in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been a few case reports of motor neuron disease in association with Huntington disease (HD).
To describe a patient presenting with prominent fasciculations, chorea, and possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in whom genetic testing revealed HD mutation.
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Patient A 69-year-old man with chorea and fasciculations.
Genetic and electrophysiologic testing.
Genetic test result, electrophysiologic test result, and physical examination.
A 69-year-old man with long-standing depression and failing memory presented with muscle twitches of 8 months' duration. He was found to have choreoathetoid movements and distal weakness on neurological examination. Electrophysiologic studies revealed evidence of motor neuron disease. Genetic test showed CAG repeat of 40 on chromosome 4, confirming the diagnosis of HD.
Motor neuron disease can rarely occur in patients with HD and could be one of its presenting features.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Archives of neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2011) 118, 891–901. AbstractThis study presents the initial characterization of transgenic mice with mutations in a primary zinc‐binding residue (H80), either alone or with a G93A mutation. H80G;G93A superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic mice developed paralysis with motor neuron loss, and ubiquitin inclusion‐type rather than mitochondrial vacuolar pathology. Unlike G93A SOD1‐related disease, the course was not accelerated by over‐expression of copper chaperone for SOD1. H80G SOD1 transgenic mice did not manifest disease at levels of SOD1 transgene expressed. The H80G mutation altered certain biochemical parameters of both human wild‐type SOD1 and G93A SOD1. The H80G mutation does not substantially change the age‐dependent accumulation of G93A SOD1 aggregates and hydrophobic species in spinal cord. However, both H80G;G93A SOD1 and H80G SOD1 lack dismutase activity, the ability to form homodimers, and co‐operativity with copper chaperone for SOD1, indicating that their dimerization interface is abnormal. The H80G mutation also made SOD1 susceptible to protease digestion. The H80G mutation alters the redox properties of SOD1. G93A SOD1 exists in either reduced or oxidized form, whereas H80G;G93A SOD1 and H80G SOD1 exist only in a reduced state. The inability of SOD1 with an H80G mutation to take part in normal oxidation‐reduction reactions has important ramifications for disease mechanisms and pathology in vivo.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial ALS patients with TDP-43 gene mutations and sporadic ALS patients share common TDP-43 neuronal pathology. To delineate mechanisms underlying TDP-43 proteinopathies, transgenic mice expressing A315T, M337V or wild type human TDP-43 were generated. Multiple TDP-43 founders developed a severe early motor phenotype that correlated with TDP-43 levels in spinal cord. Three A315T TDP-43 lines developed later onset paralysis with cytoplasmic ubiquitin inclusions, gliosis and TDP-43 redistribution and fragmentation. The WT TDP-43 mouse line with highest spinal cord expression levels remains asymptomatic, although these mice show spinal cord pathology. One WT TDP-43 line with high skeletal muscle levels of TDP-43 developed a severe progressive myopathy. Over-expression of TDP-43 in vivo is sufficient to produce progressive motor phenotypes by a toxic gain of function paradigm. Transgenic mouse lines expressing untagged mutant and wild type TDP-43 under the same promoter represent a powerful new model system for studying TDP-43 proteinopathies in vivo.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Neurobiology of Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary biological function of the endogenous cellular prion protein has remained unclear. We investigated its biological function in the generation of cellular immune responses using cellular prion protein gene-specific small interfering ribonucleic acid in vivo and in vitro. Our results were confirmed by blocking cellular prion protein with monovalent antibodies and by using cellular prion protein-deficient and -transgenic mice. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment effects were of limited duration, restricted to secondary lymphoid organs and resulted in a 70% reduction of cellular prion protein expression in leukocytes. Disruption of cellular prion protein signalling augmented antigen-specific activation and proliferation, and enhanced T cell receptor signalling, resulting in zeta-chain-associated protein-70 phosphorylation and nuclear factor of activated T cells/activator protein 1 transcriptional activity. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment promoted T cell differentiation towards pro-inflammatory phenotypes and increased survival of antigen-specific T cells. Cellular prion protein silencing with small interfering ribonucleic acid also resulted in the worsening of actively induced and adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Finally, treatment of myelin basic protein(1-11) T cell receptor transgenic mice with prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid resulted in spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, central nervous system autoimmune disease was modulated at all stages of disease: the generation of the T cell effector response, the elicitation of T effector function and the perpetuation of cellular immune responses. Our findings indicate that cellular prion protein regulates T cell receptor-mediated T cell activation, differentiation and survival. Defects in autoimmunity are restricted to the immune system and not the central nervous system. Our data identify cellular prion protein as a regulator of cellular immunological homoeostasis and suggest cellular prion protein as a novel potential target for therapeutic immunomodulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons, denervation of
target muscles, muscle atrophy, and paralysis. Understanding ALS pathogenesis may require a fuller understanding of the bidirectional
signaling between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers at neuromuscular synapses. Here, we show that a key regulator of
this signaling is miR-206, a skeletal muscle–specific microRNA that is dramatically induced in a mouse model of ALS. Mice
that are genetically deficient in miR-206 form normal neuromuscular synapses during development, but deficiency of miR-206
in the ALS mouse model accelerates disease progression. miR-206 is required for efficient regeneration of neuromuscular synapses
after acute nerve injury, which probably accounts for its salutary effects in ALS. miR-206 mediates these effects at least
in part through histone deacetylase 4 and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways. Thus, miR-206 slows ALS progression
by sensing motor neuron injury and promoting the compensatory regeneration of neuromuscular synapses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over-expression of CCS in G93A SOD1 mice accelerates neurological disease and enhances mitochondrial pathology. We studied the effect of CCS over-expression in transgenic mice expressing G37R, G86R or L126Z SOD1 mutations in order to understand factors which influence mitochondrial dysfunction. Over-expression of CCS markedly decreased survival and produced mitochondrial vacuolation in G37R SOD1 mice but not in G86R or L126Z SOD1 mice. Moreover, CCS/G37R SOD1 spinal cord showed specific reductions in mitochondrial complex IV subunits consistent with an isolated COX deficiency, while no such reductions were detected in CCS/G86R or CCS/L126Z SOD1 mice. CCS over-expression increased the ratio of reduced to oxidized SOD1 monomers in the spinal cords of G37R SOD1 as well as G93A SOD1 mice, but did not influence the redox state of G86R or L126Z SOD1 monomers. The effects of CCS on disease are SOD1 mutation dependent and correlate with SOD1 redox susceptibility.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Neurobiology of Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCS copper chaperone is critical for maturation of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) through insertion of the copper co-factor and oxidization of an intra-subunit disulfide. The disulfide helps stabilize the SOD1 polypeptide, which can be particularly important in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) linked to misfolding of mutant SOD1. Surprisingly, however, over-expressed CCS was recently shown to greatly accelerate disease in a G93A SOD1 mouse model for ALS. Herein we show that disease in these G93A/CCS mice correlates with incomplete oxidation of the SOD1 disulfide. In the brain and spinal cord, CCS over-expression failed to enhance oxidation of the G93A SOD1 disulfide and if anything, effected some accumulation of disulfide-reduced SOD1. This effect was mirrored in culture with a C244,246S mutant of CCS that has the capacity to interact with SOD1 but can neither insert copper nor oxidize the disulfide. In spite of disulfide effects, there was no evidence for increased SOD1 aggregation. If anything, CCS over-expression prevented SOD1 misfolding in culture as monitored by detergent insolubility. This protection against SOD1 misfolding does not require SOD1 enzyme activation as the same effect was obtained with the C244,246S allele of CCS. In the G93A SOD1 mouse, CCS over-expression was likewise associated with a lack of obvious SOD1 misfolding marked by detergent insolubility. CCS over-expression accelerates SOD1-linked disease without the hallmarks of misfolding and aggregation seen in other mutant SOD1 models. These studies are the first to indicate biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzymatic activation.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidating the cross-talk between inflammatory and cell proliferation pathways might provide important insights into the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced cancer. Here, we show that the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-an essential mediator of inflammation-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation-regulates p27(Kip1) levels and cell-cycle progression. RIP1 regulates p27(Kip1) levels by an NF-kappaB-independent signal that involves activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-forkhead pathway. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from RIP1-knockout mice express high levels of p27(Kip1). Reconstitution of MEFs with RIP1 downregulates p27(Kip1) levels in a PI3K-dependent manner. RIP1 regulates p27(Kip1) at the messenger RNA level by regulating the p27(Kip1) promoter through the forkhead transcription factors. RIP1 expression blocks accumulation of cells in G(1) in response to serum starvation and favours cell-cycle progression. Finally, we show that overexpression of p27(Kip1) blocks the effects of RIP1 on the cell cycle. Thus, our study provides a new insight into how components of inflammatory and immune signalling pathways regulate cell-cycle progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G93A SOD1 transgenic mice overexpressing CCS protein develop an accelerated disease course that is associated with enhanced mitochondrial pathology and increased mitochondrial localization of mutant SOD1. Because these results suggest an effect of mutant SOD1 on mitochondrial function, we assessed the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 and control mice. CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord demonstrates a 55% loss of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity compared with spinal cord from age-matched non-transgenic or G93A SOD1 mice. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 spinal cord shows no reduction in the activities of complex I, II, or III. Blue native gel analysis further demonstrates a marked reduction in the levels of complex IV but not of complex I, II, III, or V in spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 mice compared with non-transgenic, G93A SOD1, or CCS/WT SOD1 controls. With SDS-PAGE analysis, spinal cords from CCS/G93A SOD1 mice showed significant decreases in the levels of two structural subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, COX1 and COX5b, relative to controls. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord showed no reduction in levels of selected subunits from complexes I, II, III, or V. Heme A analyses of spinal cord further support the existence of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in CCS/G93A SOD1 mice. Collectively, these results establish that CCS/G93A SOD1 mice manifest an isolated complex IV deficiency which may underlie a substantial part of mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial cytopathy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of protein aggregates is thought to be an important component in the pathogenesis of mutant SOD1-induced disease. Mutant SOD1 aggregates appear to be cleared by proteasomes, at least in vitro, suggesting a potentially important role for proteasome degradation pathways in vivo. G93A SOD1 transgenic mice show an increase in proteasome activity and induction of immuno-proteasome subunits within spinal cord as they develop neurological symptoms. To determine what role immuno-proteasomes may have in mutant SOD1-induced disease, we crossed G93A SOD1 transgenic mice with LMP2-/- mice to obtain G93A SOD1 mice lacking the LMP2 immuno-proteasome subunit. G93A SOD1/LMP2-/- mice show significant reductions in proteasome function within spinal cord compared to G93A SOD1 mice. However, G93A SOD1/LMP2-/- mice show no change in motor function decline, or survival compared to G93A SOD1 mice. These results indicate that the loss of immuno-proteasome function in vivo does not significantly alter mutant SOD1-induced disease.
Preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Experimental Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been detected within spinal cord mitochondria of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, a model of familial ALS. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) provides SOD1 with copper, facilitates the conversion of immature apo-SOD1 to a mature holoform, and influences in yeast the cytosolic/mitochondrial partitioning of SOD1. To determine how CCS affects G93A-SOD1-induced disease, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing CCS and crossed them to G93A-SOD1 or wild-type SOD1 transgenic mice. Both CCS transgenic mice and CCS/wild-type-SOD1 dual transgenic mice are neurologically normal. In contrast, CCS/G93A-SOD1 dual transgenic mice develop accelerated neurological deficits, with a mean survival of 36 days, compared with 242 days for G93A-SOD1 mice. Immuno-EM and subcellular fractionation studies on the spinal cord show that G93A-SOD1 is enriched within mitochondria in the presence of CCS overexpression. Our results indicate that CCS overexpression in G93A-SOD1 mice produces severe mitochondrial pathology and accelerates disease course.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in SOD1 cause FALS by a gain of function likely related to protein misfolding and aggregation. SOD1 mutations encompass virtually every domain of the molecule, making it difficult to identify motifs important in SOD1 aggregation. Zinc binding to SOD1 is important for structural integrity, and is hypothesized to play a role in mutant SOD1 aggregation. To address this question, we mutated the unique zinc binding sites of SOD1 and examined whether these changes would influence SOD1 aggregation. We generated single and multiple mutations in SOD1 zinc binding residues (H71, H80 and D83) either alone or in combination with an aggregate forming mutation (A4V) known to cause disease. These SOD1 mutants were assayed for their ability to form aggregates.
Using an in vitro cellular SOD1 aggregation assay, we show that combining A4V with mutations in non-zinc binding domains (G37R or G85R) increases SOD1 aggregation potential. Mutations at two zinc binding residues (H71G and D83G) also increase SOD1 aggregation potential. However, an H80G mutation at the third zinc binding residue decreases SOD1 aggregation potential even in the context of other aggregate forming SOD1 mutations. These results demonstrate that various mutations have different effects on SOD1 aggregation potential and that the H80G mutation appears to uniquely act as a dominant inhibitor of SOD1 aggregation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry