[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Shedding of microparticles (MPs) is a consequence of apoptotic cell death and cellular activation. Low levels of circulating MPs in blood help maintain homeostasis, whereas increased MP generation is linked to many pathological conditions. Herein, we investigated the role of MPs in dengue virus (DENV) infection. Infection of various susceptible cells by DENV led to apoptotic death and MP release. These MPs harbored a viral envelope protein and a nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on their surfaces. Ex vivo analysis of clinical specimens from patients with infections of different degrees of severity at multiple time points revealed that MPs generated from erythrocytes and platelets are two major MP populations in the circulation of DENV-infected patients. Elevated levels of red blood cell-derived MPs (RMPs) directly correlated with DENV disease severity, whereas a significant decrease in platelet-derived MPs was associated with a bleeding tendency. Removal by mononuclear cells of complement-opsonized NS1-anti-NS1 immune complexes bound to erythrocytes via complement receptor type 1 triggered MP shedding in vitro, a process that could explain the increased levels of RMPs in severe dengue. These findings point to the multiple roles of MPs in dengue pathogenesis. They offer a potential novel biomarker candidate capable of differentiating dengue fever from the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Dengue is the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease in the world. No vaccines or specific treatments are available. Rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment are the keys to achieve a positive outcome. Dengue virus (DENV) infection, like some other medical conditions, changes the level and composition of microparticles (MPs), tiny bag-like structures which are normally present at low levels in the blood of healthy individuals. This study investigated how MPs in culture and patients' blood are changed in response to DENV infection. Infection of cells led to programmed cell death and MP release. In patients' blood, the majority of MPs originated from red blood cells and platelets. Decreased platelet-derived MPs were associated with a bleeding tendency, while increased levels of red blood cell-derived MPs (RMPs) correlated with more severe disease. Importantly, the level of RMPs during the early acute phase could serve as a biomarker to identify patients with potentially severe disease who require immediate care.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular permeability, thrombocytopenia, liver pathology, complement activation and altered hemostasis accompanying a febrile disease are the hallmarks of the dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), a major arthropod-borne viral disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout tropical countries. We studied tissues from 13 children who died of acute DHF/DSS at the Childrens’ Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar. Dengue viral RNA from each of the four dengue viruses (DENV) was detected by RT-PCR in 11 cases and dengue viral proteins (envelope, NS1 or NS3) were detected in one or more tissues from all 13 cases. Formalin-fixed and frozen tissues were studied for evidence of virus infection using monoclonal antibodies against DENV structural and non-structural antigens (E, NS1 and non-secreting NS3). In the liver, DENV infection occurred in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not in endothelial cells. Liver damage was associated with deposition on hepatocytes of complement components of both classical and alternative pathways. Evidence of dengue viral replication was observed in macrophage-like cells in spleens and lymph nodes. No dengue antigens were detected in endothelial cells in any organ. Germinal centers (GC) of spleen and lymph nodes showed marked reduction in the number of lymphocytes that were replaced by eosinophilic deposits which contained dengue antigens as well as immunoglobulins, and complement components (C3, C1q and C9). The latter findings had previously been reported but overlooked as a diagnostic feature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue virus infection is an important mosquito-borne disease and a public health problem worldwide. A better understanding of interactions between human cellular host and dengue virus proteins will provide insight into dengue virus replication and cellular pathogenesis. The glycosylated envelope protein of dengue virus, DENV E, is processed in the endoplasmic reticulum of host cells and therefore reliant on host processing functions. The complement of host ER functions involved and nature of the interactions with DENV E has not been thoroughly investigated. By employing a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that domain III of DENV E interacts with human immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP). The relevance of this interaction was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization of BiP and DENV E in dengue virus-infected cells. Using the same approach, association of DENV E with two other chaperones, calnexin and calreticulin was also observed. Knocking-down expression of BiP, calnexin, or calreticulin by siRNA significantly decreased the production of infectious dengue virions. These results indicate that the interaction of these three chaperones with DENV E plays an important role in virion production, likely facilitating proper folding and assembly of dengue proteins.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are important public health problems in tropical regions. Abnormal hemostasis and plasma leakage are the main patho-physiological changes in DHF. However, hepatomegaly, hepatocellular necrosis and fulminant hepatic failure are occasionally observed in patients with DHF. Dengue virus-infected liver cells undergo apoptosis but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx, a Fas-associated protein. The interaction between DENV C and Daxx in dengue virus-infected liver cells was also demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescence staining. The two proteins were predominantly co-localized in the cellular nuclei. Fas-mediated apoptotic activity in liver cells constitutively expressing DENV C was induced by anti-Fas antibody, indicating that the interaction of DENV C and Daxx involves in apoptosis of dengue virus-infected liver cells.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular leakage and shock are the major causes of death in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Thirty years ago, complement activation was proposed to be a key underlying event, but the cause of complement activation has remained unknown.
The major nonstructural dengue virus (DV) protein NS1 was tested for its capacity to activate human complement in its membrane-associated and soluble forms. Plasma samples from 163 patients with DV infection and from 19 patients with other febrile illnesses were prospectively analyzed for viral load and for levels of NS1 and complement-activation products. Blood and pleural fluids from 9 patients with DSS were also analyzed.
Soluble NS1 activated complement to completion, and activation was enhanced by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against NS1. Complement was also activated by cell-associated NS1 in the presence of specific antibodies. Plasma levels of NS1 and terminal SC5b-9 complexes correlated with disease severity. Large amounts of NS1, complement anaphylatoxin C5a, and the terminal complement complex SC5b-9 were present in pleural fluids from patients with DSS.
Complement activation mediated by NS1 leads to local and systemic generation of anaphylatoxins and SC5b-9, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the vascular leakage that occurs in patients with DHF/DSS.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases