[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Damage-specific DNA-binding (DDB) protein heterodimer has been extensively studied in the context of nucleotide excision repair. However, the smaller subunit, DDB2, is also implicated in tumor suppressor p53-mediated processes, although the precise details of the DDB2 - p53 interactions are unknown. Here, we report that Ddb2(-/-) and Ddb2(+/-) mice have shortened lifespans and increased frequency and spectrum of spontaneous tumors. Notably, Ddb2 deficiency enhances lung and mammary adenocarcinomas. Ddb2(-/-) mice are smaller than normal. Whereas weights of kidneys and livers are reduced proportionately, spleens from Ddb2(-/-) mice gradually enlarge with age due to lymphoid proliferation. Ddb2(-/-) mice also have larger testes, and the testicular germ cells show significantly decreased spontaneous apoptosis. These changes parallel reduced levels of p53 and its serine 15 phosphorylation in testicular germ cells. Since tumors that appeared in heterozygous Ddb2(+/-) mice conserve the wild-type Ddb2 allele, Ddb2 RNA expression and Ddb2 exon sequence, Ddb2 heterozygosity can facilitate tumor development as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. These results demonstrate that in whole animals as in cultured cells Ddb2 can regulate apoptosis and tumor incidence.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p21(CDKN1A) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. There are conflicting conclusions as to whether p21(CDKN1A) levels increase or decrease after ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation and recently it was even reported to disappear entirely following 2.5-30 Jm(-2) of UV-irradiation in the presence of growth medium. The latter would suggest an alternative mechanism for cell cycle arrest after UV-irradiation, since p21(CDKN1A) induction has been considered to be the major mediator of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. Using physiological UV doses based on cell-killing, we previously observed and here verify that low doses (1.2-6 Jm(-2)) induce p21(CDKN1A) immediately after UV-irradiation, though higher doses cause a latency during which p21(CDKN1A) levels remain fairly constant before increasing. As expected, p53 induction preceded p21(CDKN1A) induction at all doses. Thus, p21(CDKN1A) levels after low doses of UV-irradiation may be controlled in a p53-dependent manner without severe reduction. We propose that physiological relevant UV doses should be determined for each target cell type prior to studying UV-induced responses and that p21(CDKN1A) is indeed critical for cell cycle arrest in cells that survive UV-irradiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain DNA sequences are known to be unusually sensitive to nicking via the Fe2+-mediated Fenton reaction. Most notable are a purine nucleotide followed by three or more G residues, RGGG, and purine nucleotides
flanking a TG combination, RTGR. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that nicking in the RGGG sequences occurs preferentially
5′ to a G residue with the nicking probability decreasing from the 5′ to 3′end of these sequences. Using 1H NMR to characterize Fe2+ binding within the duplex CGAGTTAGGGTAGC/GCTACCCTAACTCG and 7-deazaguanine-containing (Z) variants of it, we show that Fe2+ binds preferentially at the GGG sequence, most strongly towards its 5′ end. Substitutions of individual guanines with Z indicate
that the high affinity Fe2+ binding at AGGG involves two adjacent guanine N7 moieties. Binding is accompanied by large changes in specific imino, aromatic
and methyl proton chemical shifts, indicating that a locally distorted structure forms at the binding site that affects the
conformation of the two base pairs 3′ to the GGG sequence. The binding of Fe2+ to RGGG contrasts with that previously observed for the RTGR sequence, which binds Fe2+ with negligible structural rearrangements.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human DDB2 gene give rise to xeroderma pigmentosum group E, a disease characterized by increased skin tumorigenesis in response to UV-irradiation. Cell strains derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group E individuals also have enhanced resistance to UV-irradiation due to decreased p53-mediated apoptosis. To further address the precise function(s) of DDB2 and the consequence of non-naturally occurring DDB2 mutations, we generated mice with a disruption of the gene. The mice exhibited significantly enhanced skin carcinogenesis in response to UV-irradiation, and cells from the DDB2(-/-) mice were abnormally resistant to killing by the radiation and had diminished UV-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis. Notably, the cancer-prone phenotype and the resistance to cellular killing were not observed after exposure to the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), to which mice carrying defective nucleotide excision repair genes respond with enhanced tumors and cell killing. Although cells from heterozygous DDB2(+/-) mice appeared normal, these mice had enhanced skin carcinogenesis after UV-irradiation, so that XP-E heterozygotes might be at risk for carcinogenesis. In sum, these results demonstrate that DDB2 is well conserved between humans and mice and functions as a tumor suppressor, at least in part, by controlling p53-mediated apoptosis after UV-irradiation.
Preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage is a relatively common event in the life of a cell and may lead to mutation, cancer, and cellular or organismic death. Damage to DNA induces several cellular responses that enable the cell either to eliminate or cope with the damage or to activate a programmed cell death process, presumably to eliminate cells with potentially catastrophic mutations. These DNA damage response reactions include: (a) removal of DNA damage and restoration of the continuity of the DNA duplex; (b) activation of a DNA damage checkpoint, which arrests cell cycle progression so as to allow for repair and prevention of the transmission of damaged or incompletely replicated chromosomes; (c) transcriptional response, which causes changes in the transcription profile that may be beneficial to the cell; and (d) apoptosis, which eliminates heavily damaged or seriously deregulated cells. DNA repair mechanisms include direct repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair, and cross-link repair. The DNA damage checkpoints employ damage sensor proteins, such as ATM, ATR, the Rad17-RFC complex, and the 9-1-1 complex, to detect DNA damage and to initiate signal transduction cascades that employ Chk1 and Chk2 Ser/Thr kinases and Cdc25 phosphatases. The signal transducers activate p53 and inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases to inhibit cell cycle progression from G1 to S (the G1/S checkpoint), DNA replication (the intra-S checkpoint), or G2 to mitosis (the G2/M checkpoint). In this review the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints in mammalian cells are analyzed.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Annual Review of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor p53 controls cell cycle progression and apoptosis following DNA damage, thus minimizing carcinogenesis. Mutations
in the human DDB2 gene generate the E subgroup of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-E). We report here that XP-E strains are defective in UV irradiation-induced
apoptosis due to severely reduced basal and UV-induced p53 levels. These defects are restored by infection with a p53 cDNA
expression construct or with a DDB2 expression construct if and only if it contains intron 4, which includes a nonmutated p53 consensus-binding site. We propose
that both before and after UV irradiation, DDB2 directly regulates p53 levels, while DDB2 expression is itself regulated by p53.
Preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA is damaged in vivo by the Fenton reaction mediated by Fe2+ and cellular reductants such as NADH, which reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and allow the recycling of iron. To study the response of Escherichia coli to such cycling, the activities of several enzymes involved in nicotinamide nucleotide metabolism were measured following an H2O2 challenge. NADPH-dependent peroxidase, NADH/NADP+ transhydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were most strongly induced, increasing 2.5-3-fold. In addition, the cellular ratios of NADPH to NADH increased 6- or 92-fold 15 min after exposure to 0.5 or 5 mm H2O2, respectively. In vitro, NADH was oxidized by Fe3+ up to 16-fold faster than NADPH, despite their identical reduction potentials. To understand this rate difference, the interactions of Fe3+ and Ga3+ with NAD(P)H were examined by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Association with NADH occurred primarily with adenine at N7 and the amino group, but for NADPH, strong metal interactions also occurred at the 2'-phosphate group. Interaction of M3+ (Fe3+ or Ga3+) with the adenine ring would bring it into close proximity to the redox-active nicotinamide ring in the folded form of NAD(P)H, but interaction of M3+ with the 2'-phosphate group would avoid this close contact. In addition, as determined by absorbance spectroscopy, the energy of the charge-transfer species was significantly higher for the Fe3+.NADPH complex than for the Fe3+.NADH complex. We therefore suggest that upon exposure to H2O2 the NADH pool is depleted, and NADPH, which is less reactive with Fe3+, functions as the major nicotinamide nucleotide reductant.
Preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit consists of a 140-kDa N-terminal domain that contains the catalytic activity and a 120-kDa C-terminal domain that binds to the other subunits and to exogenous peptides, including PCNA and MDM2. We report here that recombinant human MDM2 purified from insect cells or Escherichia coli stimulated the activity of DNA polymerase epsilon up to 10- and 40-fold, respectively, but not those of DNA polymerase beta or Klenow fragment of E.coli DNA polymerase I. Kinetic studies indicated that MDM2 increased the maximum velocity of the reaction, but did not change substrate affinities. The stimulation depended upon the interaction of the N-terminal 166 amino acid residues of MDM2 with the C-terminal domain of the full-length catalytic subunit, since the deletion of 166 amino acids from N-terminal of MDM2 or the removal of the C-terminal domain of DNA polymerase epsilon by trypsin digestion or competition for binding to it by the addition of excess C-terminal fragment eliminated the stimulation. Since DNA polymerase epsilon appears to be involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair synthesis, we suggest that MDM2 binding to DNA polymerase epsilon might be part of a reconfiguration process that allows DNA polymerase epsilon to associate with repair/recombination proteins in response to DNA damage.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of adenine, has been widely used as a probe for local DNA conformation, since excitation and emission characteristics and fluorescence lifetimes of 2-AP vary in a sequence-dependent manner within DNA. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques, we report that 2-AP appears to be unusually stacked in the internal positions of ATAT and TATA in duplex DNA. The excitation wavelength maxima for 2-AP within these contexts were red shifted, indicating reduced solvent exposure for the fluorophore. Furthermore, in these contexts, 2-AP fluorescence was resistant to acrylamide-dependent collisional quenching, suggesting that the fluorophore is protected by its stacked position within the duplex. This conclusion was further reinforced by the presence of a secondary peak at 275 nm in the fluorescence excitation spectra that is indicative of efficient excitation energy transfer from nearby non-fluorescent DNA bases. Fluorescence anisotropy decay and internal angular 'wobbling' motion measurements of 2-AP within these alternating AT contexts were also consistent with the fluorophore being highly constrained and immobile within the base stack. When these fluorescence characteristics are compared with those of 2-AP within other duplex DNA sequence contexts, they are unique.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pyrrolidine alkaloids mimicking the structures of pentose with nitrogen in the ring are known to be inhibitors of glycosidases. We report here that a compound belonging to this category is an inhibitor of eukaryotic DNA polymerases. Among the eight naturally occurring pyrrolidine alkaloids we tested, only one compound, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (DRB), which was purified from the mulberry tree (Morus alba), strongly inhibited the activities of eukaryotic DNA polymerases with IC50 values of 21-35 microM, and had almost no effect on the activities of prokaryotic DNA polymerases, nor DNA metabolic enzymes such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, T7 RNA polymerase, and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. Kinetic studies showed that inhibition of both DNA polymerases alpha and beta by DRB was competitive with respect to dNTP substrate. Whereas DNA polymerase alpha inhibition was noncompetitive with the template-primer, the inhibition of DNA polymerase beta was found to be competitive with the template-primer. The K(i) values of DNA polymerases alpha and beta for the template-primer were smaller than those for dNTP substrate. Therefore, the affinity of DRB was suggested to be higher at the template-primer binding site than at the dNTP substrate-binding site, although DRB is an analogue of deoxyribose consisting of dNTP. Computational analyses of the eight pyrrolidine alkaloids revealed a remarkable difference in the distribution of positive and negative electrostatic charges on the surface of molecules. The relationship between the structure of DRB and the inhibition of eukaryotic DNA polymerases is discussed.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG) was reported as a selective inhibitor of eukaryotic DNA polymerases alpha and beta [Hanashima, Mizushina, Ohta, Yamazaki, Sugawara and Sakaguchi (2000) Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 91, 1073-1083] and an immunosuppressive agent [Matsumoto, Sahara, Fujita, Shimozawa, Takenouchi, Torigoe, Hanashima, Yamazaki, Takahashi, Sugawara et al. (2002) Transplantation 74, 261-267]. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the biochemical properties of the inhibition more precisely. As expected, SQDG could inhibit the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases such as alpha, delta, eta and kappa in vitro in the range of 2-5 micro M, and beta and lambda in vitro in the range of 20-45 micro M. However, SQDG could inhibit only mammalian DNA polymerases epsilon (pol epsilon) activity at less than 0.04 micro M. SQDG bound more tightly to mammalian pol epsilon than the other mammalian polymerases tested. Moreover, SQDG could inhibit the activities of all the polymerases from animals such as fish and insect, but not of the polymerases from plant and prokaryotes. SQDG should, therefore, be called a mammalian pol epsilon-specific inhibitor or animal polymerase-specific inhibitor. To our knowledge, this represents the first report about an inhibitor specific to mammalian pol epsilon.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2003 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human DDB1 and DDB2 genes encode the 127 and 48 kDa subunits, respectively, of the damage-specific DNA-binding protein (DDB). Mutations in the DDB2 gene have been correlated with the hereditary disease xeroderma pigmentosum group E. We have investigated the proximal promoters of the DDB genes, both of which are G/C-rich and do not contain a TATA box. Transient expression analysis in HeLa cells using a luciferase reporter system indicated the presence of core promoters located within 292 bp (DDB1) and 220 bp (DDB2) upstream of the putative transcription initiation sites. Both core promoters contain multiple active Sp1 sites, with those of DDB1 at -123 to -115 and of DDB2 at -29 to -22 being critical determinants of promoter activity. In addition, an N-myc site at -56 to -51 for DDB1 is an essential transcription element, and mutations in a DDB1 NF-1 site at -104 to -92, a DDB2 NF-1 site at -68 to -56 and a DDB2 E2F site at +36 to +43 also reduce promoter activity. Taken together, these results suggest a regulation of basal transcription typical of cell cycle-regulated genes, and therefore support conjectures that the DDB heterodimer and/or its subunits have functions other than direct involvement in DNA repair.
Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Petasiphenol, a bio-antimutagen isolated from a Japanese vegetable, Petasites japonicus, selectively inhibits the activities of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) in vitro. The compound did not influence the activities of replicative DNA polymerases such as alpha, delta, and epsilon but also showed no effect even on the pol beta activity, the three-dimensional structure of which is thought to be highly similar to pol lambda. The inhibitory effect of petasiphenol on intact pol lambda including the BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain was dose-dependent, and 50% inhibition was observed at a concentration of 7.8 microM. The petasiphenol-induced inhibition of the pol lambda activity was noncompetitive with respect to both the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate. Petasiphenol did not only inhibit the activity of the truncated pol lambda including the pol beta-like core, in which the BRCT motif was deleted in its N-terminal region. BIAcore analysis demonstrated that petasiphenol bound selectively to the N-terminal domain of pol lambda but did not bind to the C-terminal region. On the basis of these results, the pol lambda inhibitory mechanism of petasiphenol is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Petasiphenol, a bio-antimutagen isolated from a Japanese vegetable, Petasites japonicus, selectively inhibits the activities of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) in vitro. The compound did not influence the activities of replicative DNA polymerases such as alpha, delta, and epsilon but also showed no effect even on the pol P activity, the three-dimensional structure of which is thought to be highly similar to pol lambda. The inhibitory effect of petasiphenol on intact pol lambda including the BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain was dose-dependent, and 50% inhibition was observed at a concentration of 7.8 muM. The petasiphenol-induced inhibition of the pol lambda activity was noncompetitive with respect to both the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate. Petasiphenol did not only inhibit the activity of the truncated pol lambda including the pol beta-like core, in which the BRCT motif was deleted in its N-terminal region. BIAcore analysis demonstrated that petasiphenol bound selectively to the N-terminal domain of pol lambda but did not bind to the C-terminal region. On the basis of these results, the pol lambda inhibitory mechanism of petasiphenol is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB) is a heterodimer of p48/DDB2 and p127/DDB1 subunits. Mutations in DDB2 are responsible for Xeroderma Pigmentosum group E, but no mutants of mammalian DDB1 have been described. To study DDB1, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe DDB1 sequence homologue (ddb1(+)) was cloned, and a ddb1 deletion strain was constructed. The gene is not essential; however, mutant cells showed a 37% impairment in colony-forming ability, an elongated phenotype, and abnormal nuclei. The ddb1Delta strain was sensitive to UV irradiation, X-rays, methylmethane sulfonate, and thiabendazole, and these sensitivities were compared with those of the well characterized rad13Delta, rhp51Delta, and cds1Delta mutant strains. Ddb1p showed nuclear and nucleolar localization, and the aberrant nuclear structures observed in the ddb1Delta strain suggest a role for Ddb1p in chromosome segregation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase epsilon (pol epsilon) has been implicated in DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle control, but its precise roles are unclear. When the subcellular localization of human pol epsilon was examined by indirect immunofluorescence, pol epsilon appeared in discrete nuclear foci that colocalized with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) foci and sites of DNA synthesis only late in S phase. Early in S phase, pol epsilon foci were adjacent to PCNA foci. In contrast to PCNA foci that were only present in S phase, pol epsilon foci were present throughout mitosis and the G(1) phase of cycling cells. It is hypothesized from these observations that pol epsilon and PCNA have separate but associated functions early in S phase and that pol epsilon participates with PCNA in DNA replication late in S phase.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoic acids, vitamin A-related compounds, are known to be inhibitors of telomerase. We found that fucoxanthin from the sea alga Petalonia bingamiae is a potent inhibitor of mammalian replicative DNA polymerases (i.e., pol alpha, delta and epsilon). Since fucoxanthin is a carotenoid (provitamin A-related) compound, we characterized the biochemical modes of vitamin A-related compounds including vitamin A and provitamin A in this report. Subsequently, we found that fucoxanthin, all-trans retinal (RAL, vitamin A aldehyde) and all-trans retinoic acid (RA, vitamin A acid) inhibited the activities of replicative DNA polymerases with IC(50) values of 18-190, 14-17 and 8-30 microM, respectively. On the other hand, all-trans retinol (vitamin A) did not influence any of the DNA polymerase activities. RA inhibited not only the activities of pol alpha, delta and epsilon with IC(50) values of 30, 28 and 8 microM, respectively, but of pol beta with an IC(50) value of 27 microM. The tested vitamin A-related compounds did not influence the activities of DNA polymerases from a higher plant, cauliflower, prokaryotic DNA polymerases, or DNA metabolic enzymes such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, T7 RNA polymerase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. RAL and RA should be called selective inhibitors of mammalian DNA polymerases including telomerase, and RAL was a specific inhibitor of mammalian replicative DNA polymerases. As expected from these results in vitro, some of them could prevent the growth of NUGC-3 human gastric cancer cells, and especially RAL was a potent antineoplastic agent with an LD(50) value of 19 microM. The cells were halted at G1 phase in the cell cycle by RAL.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Damaged DNA-binding protein, DDB, is a heterodimer of p127 and p48 with a high specificity for binding to several types of DNA damage. Mutations in the p48 gene that cause the loss of DDB activity were found in a subset of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) patients and have linked to the deficiency in global genomic repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in these cells. Here we show that with a highly defined system of purified repair factors, DDB can greatly stimulate the excision reaction reconstituted with XPA, RPA, XPC.HR23B, TFIIH, XPF.ERCC1 and XPG, up to 17-fold for CPDs and approximately 2-fold for (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PPs), indicating that no additional factor is required for the stimulation by DDB. Transfection of the p48 cDNA into an SV40-transformed human cell line, WI38VA13, was found to enhance DDB activity and the in vivo removal of CPDs and 6-4PPs. Furthermore, the combined technique of recently developed micropore UV irradiation and immunostaining revealed that p48 (probably in the form of DDB heterodimer) accumulates at locally damaged DNA sites immediately after UV irradiation, and this accumulation is also observed in XP-A and XP-C cells expressing exogenous p48. These results suggest that DDB can rapidly translocate to the damaged DNA sites independent of functional XPA and XPC proteins and directly enhance the excision reaction by core repair factors.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solanapyrone A, a phytotoxin and enzyme inhibitor isolated from a fungus (SUT 01B1-2) selectively inhibits the activities of mammalian DNA polymerase beta and lambda (pol beta and lambda) in vitro. The IC50 values of the compound were 30 microm for pol beta and 37 microm for pol lambda. Because pol beta and lambda are in a family and their three-dimensional structures are thought to be highly similar to each other, we used pol beta to analyze the biochemical relationship with solanapyrone A. On pol beta, solanapyrone A antagonistically competed with both the DNA template and the nucleotide substrate. BIAcore analysis demonstrated that solanapyrone A bound selectively to the N-terminal 8-kDa domain of pol beta. This domain is known to bind single-stranded DNA, provide 5'-phosphate recognition of gapped DNA, and cleave the sugar-phosphate bond 3' to an intact apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site (i.e. AP lyase activity) including 5'-deoxyribose phosphate lyase activity. Solanapyrone A inhibited the single-stranded DNA-binding activity but did not influence the activities of the 5'-phosphate recognition in gapped DNA structures and the AP lyase. Based on these results, the inhibitory mechanism of solanapyrone A is discussed.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry