François Bellavance

HEC Montréal - École des Hautes Études commerciales, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (84)235.03 Total impact

  • Étienne Charbonneau · François Bellavance
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    ABSTRACT: We study the occurrence of performance management in a provincially mandated, yet flexible, municipal performance regime in Quebec. Statistical analyses of the determinants of general, management, budgeting and reporting uses of performance information are performed for 321 municipalities. We combined perception data of uses and internal characteristics with archival data on socioeconomic and political characteristics and performance of municipal services. Our results reveal that the propensity of using performance information is not affected by operating in a small municipality or evolving in a hotly disputed political environment. The strongest predictors of performance management are performance and managerial attitudes facing performance measurement. French Nous étudions la fréquence de l'utilisation des indicateurs de performance dans un régime de performance municipal au Québec, prescrit par la province, mais souple. Des analyses statistiques des déterminants de l'usage de l'information sur la performance á des fins générales, de gestion, de budgétisation et de présentation de rapports ont été réalisées pour 321 municipalités. Nous avons combiné des données de perception des usages et des caractéristiques internes à des données d'archives sur les caractéristiques socioéconomiques et politiques et sur la performance des services municipaux. Nos résultats révélent que la propension à utiliser les renseignements sur la performance n'est pas affectée par le fait que l'on fonctionne dans une petite municipalité ou que l'on évolue dans un milieu politique trés litigieux. Les plus forts indicateurs prévisionnels de gestion de la performance sont les attitudes à l'égard de la performance et des gestionnaires auxquelles fait face la mesure de la performance.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Canadian Public Administration
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    Marie-Ève Rancourt · François Bellavance · Jarrod Goentzel
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    ABSTRACT: Empirical research characterizing transportation markets in developing countries is scarce. By analyzing contracts between the World Food Programme and private carriers, we identify the determinants of transportation tariffs in Ethiopia and quantify their relative importance. The econometric models devised from our unique dataset provide insights for shippers to improve procurement processes, for carriers to develop competitive business models and for government authorities to define effective investments and policies. Results indicate that the number of carriers on a given lane significantly reduces transportation tariffs and that policies stimulating competition may be as important as road infrastructure investments in Ethiopia’s development strategy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: This project aims to assess the influence of using smart phones on pedestrians’ visual attention and safety. To do so, the developed methodology employs electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures. Participants will be using the text messaging functionality of a smart phone while walking on a treadmill. The experiment will take place in an immersive 3D environment at the Optometry School of the University of Montréal. The experiment will take place during the month of May 2014. Twenty participants will be recruited (between 20 and 34 years old). They will have owned a smart phone for at least 6 months and use it occasionally while walking. The poster will present the complete methodology and acquisition setup along with preliminary results.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    Ahlem Hajjem · François Bellavance · Denis Larocque
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an extension of the random forest (RF) method to the case of clustered data. The proposed ‘mixed-effects random forest’ (MERF) is implemented using a standard RF algorithm within the framework of the expectation–maximization algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed MERF method provides substantial improvements over standard RF when the random effects are non-negligible. The use of the method is illustrated to predict the first-week box office revenues of movies.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation
  • François Bellavance · Suzanne Landry · Eduardo Schiehll
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect of subjectivity in performance evaluation on managerial perceptions of procedural justice. Using survey data from a sample of 317 managers, we examine two forms of subjectivity: use and weight of subjective performance measures and ex post flexibility in the weighting of multiple performance measures. We also examine the interaction effects of two contextual factors, superior–manager relationship quality and voice opportunity, on the association between subjectivity and perceived procedural justice. The results suggest that only the superior's use of ex post flexibility in weighting multiple performance measures adversely affects managers' perceptions of procedural justice. Moreover, superior–manager relationship quality reduces the negative effects of ex post flexibility in weighting multiple performance measures on procedural justice, whereas voice opportunity amplifies this negative effect. These findings have practical and theoretical implications, as they shed new light on the trade-off between the informative benefits and perceived unfairness of incorporating subjectivity into performance evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The British Accounting Review
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    ABSTRACT: Cette étude s’intéresse aux risques liés à l’utilisation de téléphones intelligents par les travailleurs lors de déplacements piétonniers. Il est suggéré que le flow influence l’inattention visuelle (i.e., cécité attentionnelle) et qu’il est déterminé en partie par la position corporelle de l’utilisateur et du niveau d’interactivité de la tâche effectuée.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2013
  • ETIENNE CHARBONNEAU · FRANÇOIS BELLAVANCE
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    ABSTRACT: Public managers operate in an environment characterized by a negativity bias fostering blame avoidance. In public reporting, blame avoidance can take the shape of omission, discretion, and arguments for limiting blame. Unique data on reporting from Quebec's Municipal Management Indicators regime are used to study the occurrence of a reporting strategy of blame avoidance whereby public managers provide justifications with their indicators so as to report their performance in a favorable light. The study tests two hypotheses that the use of justifications in reporting is more frequent with lower-performing public agencies. Municipalities with lower performance (internally benchmarked) tend to provide stakeholders with justifications in their reporting on indicators significantly more often than do other municipalities. Blame avoidance behaviors on the part of public managers are witnessed even in a regime with few incentives, no consequences linked to performance, and limited transparency to citizens.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Public Performance & Management Review
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    Ahlem Hajjem · François Bellavance · Denis Larocque
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an extension of the standard regression tree method to clustered data. Previous works extending tree methods to accommodate correlated data are mainly based on the multivariate repeated-measures approach. We propose a "mixed effects regression tree" method where the correlated observations are viewed as nested within clusters rather than as vectors of multivariate repeated responses. The proposed method can handle unbalanced clusters, allows observations within clusters to be split, and can incorporate random effects and observation-level covariates. We implemented the proposed method using a standard tree algorithm within the framework of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed regression tree method provides substantial improvements over standard trees when the random effects are non negligible. A real data example is used to illustrate the method.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Statistics [?] Probability Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Functional foods (FF)--foods containing nutritional supplements in addition to natural nutrients--have an increasing presence in the marketplace. Expanding on previous research, the authors investigated college students' acceptance of FF. In September--March 2004, 811 undergraduates in Canada, the United States, and France participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire measured students' general food attitudes and beliefs as well as FF-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and purchase intention. Overall, participants slightly favored FF over traditional foods. However, although most respondents associated FF with positive health benefits, many remained dubious of currently available FF information. In terms of culture and sex, the authors found small but significant divergences in FF knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Stronger labeling and education efforts may increase cross-cultural acceptance of FF by college students.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of American College Health
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    Ahlem Hajjem · François Bellavance · Denis Larocque
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the generalized mixed effects regression tree (GMERT) method, an extension of the mixed effects regression tree (MERT) methodology designed for continuous outcomes to other types of outcomes (e.g., binary outcomes, counts data, ordered categorical outcomes, and multicategory nominal scale outcomes). This extension uses the penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) method for the estimation and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for the computation. The simulation results in the binary response case show that, when random effects are present, the proposed generalized mixed effects regression tree method provides substantial improvements over standard classification trees. Index Terms—Tree based methods, clustered data, mixed effects, penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) algorithm, expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • José Bélanger · Alain Gosselin · François Bellavance
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, an increasing number of authors in the human resource management field have developed an interest in the roles played by HR departments and HR executives in the formulation of the business strategy. However, it is relevant to examine in which context the use of these roles becomes legitimate. According to a number of authors, this is particularly the case when businesses are facing demanding human resource challenges. Therefore, taking into account the current context characterized by an economy under pressure, HR executives should be in a good position to benefit from such a context to become influential partners within their respective top management committee. However, very little is known about the extent to which members of the top management committee perceive HR executives as having a high capability to influence them. Also, so far, no one has addressed the gap that may exist between the perception of the top management committee members and the perception HR executives hold for themselves with regards to their capability to influence the latter.In this study, we chose to investigate HR executives who come mainly from the greater Montreal area. In total, we met 41 HR executives for whom we investigated their influence capability. Following the interview, we invited each HR executive to hand out a short questionnaire to each member of the top management committee that they had tried to influence over the last three years. Results show that, overall, HR executives tend to overestimate their influence capability when compared to the perception of their executive colleagues and chief officer. Finally, this study also confirmed that a good reputation, a solid credibility and high referent power can facilitate the capability of HR executives to influence others.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Relations Industrielles / Industrial Relations
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    ABSTRACT: Side impacts are a serious automotive injury problem; they represent about 30% of all fatalities for passenger vehicle occupants. This literature review focuses on occupant injuries resulting from real lateral collisions. It emphasizes the interaction between injury patterns and crash factors, taking into account type of injuries and their severity. It highlights what is known on the subject and suggests further studies. We reviewed papers identified by searches in two electronic databases for the 1996-2009 publication period, and in specific journals and conference proceedings. Studies on the Primary Direction of Force (PDOF) have revealed that fatal crashes occur most frequently when the PDOF is at 3 or 9 o'clock. The risk of serious injury is two to three times higher for the near-side occupant than for the far-side occupant. Head injuries predominate in oblique impacts and thoracic injuries in perpendicular ones. A few results are also reported on side airbag protection. This literature review presents an overall picture of the injuries caused by lateral collisions, though each of the papers or articles examined focuses mostly on some particular aspect of the problem. The incidence of specific injuries depends on the data source used. Very few population-based analyses of lateral collision injuries were found. New studies are needed to evaluate new protective devices (e.g., lateral airbags, inflatable curtains). Without interfering with their care duties, Emergency Medical Technicians could be systematically trained to observe the collision's specific characteristics and to report all their relevant observations to the emergency physicians to increase the likelihood of prompt diagnosis and proper care.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of safety research
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    Rim Makni · Claude Francoeur · François Bellavance
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of measuring and comparing sustainability performance is generally taken for granted in management studies and practices based on the evaluation, selection and ranking of the supposedly best companies in the field. The purpose of this article is to question this basic assumption by analyzing the comparability of sustainability performance through a systematic review of 12 mining company reports using Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The analysis of information based on 92 GRI indicators raises serious questions concerning the hypothesis of measurability and comparability of sustainability performance, drawing attention to the main reasons that make it very difficult if not impossible to establish a credible and justifiable classification among organizations. La possibilité de mesurer et de comparer les performances de développement durable est généralement prise pour acquise tant dans les recherches en gestion que dans les pratiques de classement ou de sélection des meilleures entreprises dans ce domaine. L’objectif de cet article est d’examiner cette hypothèse de mesurabilité et de comparabilité des performances de développement durable à partir de l’étude systématique de 12 rapports d’entreprises minières utilisant le même guideline du Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). L’analyse des informations relatives aux 92 indicateurs du GRI utilisés remet en cause l’hypothèse de comparabilité des performances de développement durable en mettant en lumière les principales raisons qui rendent pratiquement impossible l’établissement d’un classement crédible et justifiable entre les entreprises.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Business Ethics
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    ABSTRACT: Panic disorder has been associated with both an increased risk of coronary events as well as an increased risk of stroke. Hemoconcentration, with both a decrease in plasma volume and an increase in plasma viscosity, is a possible contributor to the risk of acute ischemic events. Our objectives were to demonstrate the process of hemoconcentration in response to induced panic symptoms and to assess the effect of pretreatment with ethinyl estradiol on panic-induced hemoconcentration. Fifteen male patients with panic disorder and 10 male healthy volunteers were included in a double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled design consisting of two injections of pentagastrin following randomized pretreatment with placebo and ethinyl estradiol. Plasma levels of hematocrit and hemoglobin were assessed at baseline and post-injections, and used to calculate an indirect estimation of the change in plasma volume. Pentagastrin-induced panic symptoms were associated with a mean decrease in plasma volume of 4.8% in the placebo pretreatment condition. Pretreatment with ethinyl estradiol attenuated this effect. The acute hemoconcentration observed in relation to pentagastrin-induced panic symptoms may be relevant to the increased risk of stroke and acute coronary events found in patients with panic disorder.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Psychopharmacology
  • Abdessamad Dine · Denis Larocque · François Bellavance
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a tree-based method for multivariate outcomes consisting in a mixture of categorical and continuous responses. The split function for tree-growing is derived from a likelihood-based approach for a general location model (GLOM). One situation where the new approach should be appealing is when mixed types of multiple outcomes are used as surrogates for an unobserved latent outcome. Two illustrations of the application of the new method are given with health care data.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
  • Lalla Ilhame Sabbane · François Bellavance · Jean-Charles Chebat
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    ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the interactive effects of antismoking warnings and cigarette-brand familiarity on teenagers' smoking intent, attitudes toward the website, and sponsoring brand when exposed to entertainment websites sponsored by cigarette brands. Findings from a 3 (Warning Type) × 2 (Level of Cigarette-Brand Familiarity) factorial design experiment with nonsmoking teenagers demonstrated that text and picture warnings significantly reduced attitudes toward cigarette brands, compared to text-only or no warning. Warnings had assimilation effects on attitudes (toward brand and website) and on smoking intent in the case of familiar brands; and marginally significant contrast effects in the case of unfamiliar brands, which better reflects the repetition priming paradigm than the recency priming paradigm, and calls for attention to cigarette brands' familiarity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Applied Social Psychology
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    Eduardo Schiehll · François Bellavance
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    ABSTRACT: Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study examines the associations between the board of director's choice to integrate non-financial performance measures into the CEO bonus plan and two other governance mechanisms – board independence and CEO ownership – in a sample of publicly traded Canadian firms. Research Findings/Results: The results provide evidence that the use of non-financial performance measures in the CEO bonus plan varies predictably. Growth opportunities are positively associated with the firm's choice to integrate non-financial information into the CEO bonus plan. The results are also sensitive to our proxy for board independence and CEO ownership in firms with high growth opportunities. Theoretical Implications: Agency theory states that any costless performance measure providing incremental information about the agent's effort will improve the efficiency of the contract with the agent. In contrast with most of the literature in this area, which investigates pay-performance sensitivity and governance structure, we examine an important component of pay-for-performance plans used to align and compensate executive actions that might not be reflected in traditional financial performance measures. Practical Implications: This study documents that boards choose performance measures that best reflect the CEO's contribution to firm value, taking into account the firm's monitoring environment. This study therefore has policy implications regarding the need for enhanced disclosure of CEO compensation to improve investor understanding of the alignment between executive pay and firm performance.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Corporate Governance An International Review
  • José Bélanger · Alain Gosselin · François Bellavance

    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Relations Industrielles / Industrial Relations
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    François Bellavance · Georges Dionne · Martin Lebeau
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    ABSTRACT: The value of a statistical life (VSL) is a very controversial topic, but one which is essential to the optimization of governmental decisions. We see a great variability in the values obtained from different studies. The source of this variability needs to be understood, in order to offer public decision-makers better guidance in choosing a value and to set clearer guidelines for future research on the topic. This article presents a meta-analysis based on 39 observations obtained from 37 studies (from nine different countries) which all use a hedonic wage method to calculate the VSL. Our meta-analysis is innovative in that it is the first to use the mixed effects regression model [Raudenbush, S.W., 1994. Random effects models. In: Cooper, H., Hedges, L.V. (Eds.), The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Russel Sage Foundation, New York] to analyze studies on the value of a statistical life. We conclude that the variability found in the values studied stems in large part from differences in methodologies.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Health Economics
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    Marc Fredette · Lema Sikoti Mambu · Aline Chouinard · François Bellavance
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    ABSTRACT: This research sets out to estimate the effects of vehicle incompatibility on the risk of death or major injury to drivers involved in two-vehicle collisions. Based on data for 2,999,395 drivers, logistic regression was used to model the risk of driver death or major injury (defined has being hospitalized). Our analyses show that pickup trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are more aggressive than cars for the driver of the other vehicle and more protective for their own drivers. The effect of the pickups is more pronounced in terms of aggressivity. The point estimates are comparable to those in the Toy and Hammitt study [Toy, E.L., Hammitt, J.K., 2003. Safety impacts of SUVs, minivans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle crashes. Risk Analysis 23, 641-650], but, in contrast to that study, we are now able to establish that a greater number of these effects are statistically significant with a larger sample size. Like vehicle mass and type, other characteristics of drivers and the circumstances of the collision influence the driver's condition after impact. Male drivers, older drivers, drivers who are not wearing safety belts, collisions occurring in a higher speed zone and head-on collisions significantly increase the risk of death. Except for the driver's sex, all of these categories are also associated with an increased risk of death or of being hospitalized after being involved in a two-vehicle collision. For this risk, a significant increase is associated with female drivers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Accident; analysis and prevention

Publication Stats

3k Citations
235.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • HEC Montréal - École des Hautes Études commerciales
      • Department of Marketing
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003-2009
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1997-2008
    • Saint Mary's Hospital Center
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2002
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1997-2002
    • McGill University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2000
    • HEC Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • SickKids
      • Department of Psychology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada