[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background The Japan Guidelines of Lung Cancer Therapy recommend epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a first-line
therapy for advanced/recurrent non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. Although survival periods in recent reports of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment
have been getting longer, the reasons why are unclear. We investigated the survival, prognostic factors and real-world treatment
of non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in clinical practice.
Preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The MET protooncogene encodes the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET (MET). Aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced malignancies, including gastric cancer, and promotes tumor cell growth, survival, migration, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis, suggesting its potential importance as a therapeutic target. MET can be activated by two distinct pathways that are dependent on or independent of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), with the latter pathway having been attributed mostly to MET amplification in gastric cancer. Preclinical evidence has suggested that interruption of the HGF–MET axis either with antibodies to HGF or with MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has antitumor effects in gastric cancer cells. Overexpression of MET occurs frequently in gastric cancer and has been proposed as a potential predictive biomarker for anti-MET therapy. However, several factors can trigger such MET upregulation in a manner independent of HGF, suggesting that gastric tumors with MET overexpression are not necessarily MET driven. On the other hand, gastric cancer cells with MET amplification are dependent on MET signaling for their survival and are thus vulnerable to MET TKI treatment. Given the low prevalence of MET amplification in gastric cancer (approximately 8 %), testing for this genetic change would substantially narrow the target population but it might constitute a better biomarker than MET overexpression for MET TKI therapy. We compare aberrant MET signaling dependent on the HGF–MET axis or on MET amplification as well as address clinical issues and challenges associated with the identification of appropriate biomarkers for MET-driven tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type KRAS benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. However, patients who are treated with anti-EGFR antibodies will eventually develop the resistance to those agents. HER2 amplification is one of the mechanisms conferring resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy and could therefore be a potential therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to detect HER2 amplification in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from patients with CRC and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy.
Our data showed that 22% (4/18) of patients in the cohort exhibited HER2 amplification. One of these patients was found to be positive for HER2 amplification in matched tumor specimens collected after cetuximab therapy, at which point the patient had acquired cetuximab resistance, despite being negative for HER2 amplification prior to therapy.
We analyzed plasma ctDNA using digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from 18 patients with CRC, who had been treated with anti-EGFR antibody-based therapy (cetuximab) and subsequently acquired resistant cetuximab. HER2 gene copy number was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples before and after acquisition of resistance to cetuximab-based therapy.
Analysis of plasma ctDNA by digital PCR could be useful for detecting HER2 amplification in patients with CRC who were resistant to anti-EGFR antibody therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Amphiregulin, a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is associated with the efficacy of cetuximab, an antibody against EGFR, as treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). In contrast, the HER3 ligand heregulin correlates with cetuximab resistance. In this study, we evaluated how the combined levels of circulating amphiregulin and heregulin affect clinical outcomes in patients who receive cetuximab as therapy against advanced CRC.
Plasma levels of amphiregulin and heregulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 50 patients with CRC in a training cohort, and in 10 patients in a validation cohort. The combined expression was then assessed with clinical outcome after receiver operating characteristics analysis.
Overall response rate was 26%, and median progression-free survival was 110 days in the training cohort. Patients with high amphiregulin and low heregulin had significantly higher objective response rate at 58% and significantly longer progression-free survival of 216 days. This result was confirmed in the validation cohort.
A subgroup of CRC patients with high amphiregulin and low heregulin respond to cetuximab therapy better than other patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This open-label, phase I, dose-escalation part of a phase I/II study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of nintedanib, a triple angiokinase inhibitor, combined with pemetrexed in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first-line chemotherapy.
A fixed dose of pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2) iv) was administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle followed by oral nintedanib twice daily (bid) on days 2-21, starting at 100 mg bid and escalating to 200 mg bid in 50-mg intervals, using a standard 3 + 3 design. After ≥4 cycles of combination therapy, patients could continue nintedanib monotherapy until disease progression or undue adverse events (AEs). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose (MTD), defined as the highest dose at which the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) was <33.3 % during the first treatment course, and AEs (CTCAE v3.0). DLTs were primarily defined as grade ≥3 non-hematologic or grade 4 hematologic AEs.
Eighteen patients were included in the analysis. DLTs were experienced by 2/9 patients receiving 200 mg bid, 1/6 receiving 150 mg bid, and 0/3 receiving the lowest dose. The MTD of nintedanib plus pemetrexed was 200 mg bid. The most common drug-related AEs were elevated liver enzymes and gastrointestinal AEs. Two patients achieved partial response, and 10 had stable disease.
Nintedanib plus pemetrexed had a manageable safety profile and showed promising signs of efficacy in previously treated Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. As in Caucasian patients, the MTD of nintedanib was 200 mg bid. Clinical trial information NCT00979576.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an essential process in the development, growth, and metastasis of malignant tumors including lung cancer. Several angiogenesis inhibitors have been developed as potential therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nintedanib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor as well as RET (rearranged during transfection) and Flt3. When administered as monotherapy, nintedanib was well tolerated at doses up to 250 mg or 200 mg twice daily in European and Japanese patients, respectively, with liver toxicity featuring prominently among dose-limiting toxicities in both populations. A recent Phase III trial demonstrated that treatment with the combination of nintedanib and docetaxel resulted in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in both progression-free survival and overall survival compared with docetaxel alone in predefined NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma tumor histology. Although the incidence of elevated alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase as well as of diarrhea was higher in patients treated with nintedanib plus docetaxel, most of these adverse events were manageable with supportive treatment or dose reduction. The results of completed and ongoing clinical trials of nintedanib monotherapy and combination therapy for the treatment of NSCLC are summarized in this study.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Afatinib is a second generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) characterized as an irreversible pan-human EGFR (HER) family inhibitor. Afatinib remains effective for a subpopulation of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired resistance to first generation EGFF-TKIs such as erlotinib. Heregulin activates HER3 in an autocrine fashion and causes erlotinib resistance in NSCLC. Here we examine whether afatinib is effective against heregulin-overexpressing NSCLCs harboring EGFR activating mutations. Afatinib but not erlotinib decreased EGFR mutant NSCLC PC9HRG cell proliferation in vitro and in mouse xenografts. Afatinib inhibited phosphorylation of the cell signaling pathway proteins HER3, EGFR, HER2, and HER4, likely by prevention of trans-phosphorylation as HER3 kinase activity is inadequate for auto-phosphorylation. Afatinib, unlike erlotinib, inhibited AKT activation, resulting in elevated apoptosis in PC9HRG cells. Clinically, a subpopulation of 33 patients with EGFR mutations and NSCLC who had received first generation EGFR-TKIs exhibited elevated plasma heregulin levels compared to healthy volunteers; one of these achieved a response with afatinib therapy despite having previously developed erlotinib resistance. Afatinib can overcome heregulin-mediated resistance to erlotinib in EGFR mutant NSCLC. Further studies are necessary to determine whether heregulin can predict afatinib efficacy after development offirst generation EGFR-TKI resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Alectinib, the second generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, has significant potency in patients with ALK rearrangement positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its toxicity is generally well tolerable. We report a patient who developed severe acute interstitial lung disease after alectinib treatment. An 86-year-old woman with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma positive for rearrangement of ALK gene was treated with alectinib. On the 215th day after initiation of alectinib administration, she was admitted to our hospital with the symptom of progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse ground glass opacities and consolidations in both lungs, and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed pronounced lymphocytosis. There was no evidence of infection or other specific causes of her condition, and she was therefore diagnosed with interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib. Her CT findings and respiratory condition improved after steroid pulse therapy. As far as we are aware, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced severe interstitial lung disease (ILD). We should be aware of the possibility of such a severe adverse event and should therefore carefully monitor patients treated with this drug.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: As the development of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has become an issue of concern, identification of the mechanisms responsible has become an urgent priority. However, for research purposes, it is not easy to obtain tumor samples from patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has relapsed after treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Here, using digital PCR assay as an alternative and noninvasive method, we examined plasma and tumor samples from patients with relapsed NSCLC to establish the inter-relationships existing among T790M mutation, activating EGFR mutations, HER2 amplification, and MET amplification. Paired samples of tumor and blood were obtained from a total of 18 patients with NSCLC after they had developed resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment, and the mechanisms of resistance were analyzed by digital PCR. Digital PCR analysis of T790M mutation in plasma had a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 85.7%, the overall concordance between plasma and tissue samples being 83.3%. MET gene copy number gain in tumor DNA was observed by digital PCR in three patients, of whom one exhibited positivity for MET amplification by FISH, whereas no patient demonstrated MET and HER2 copy number gain in plasma DNA. Digital PCR analysis of plasma is feasible and accurate for detection of T790M mutation in NSCLC that becomes resistant to treatment with EGFR-TKIs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Table S2. Overall summary of AEs among Japanese patients receiving afatinib or cisplatin + pemetrexed (data cut-off November 2013) AEs, adverse events; CTC, common terminology criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Table S1. Summary of subsequent anticancer therapy after discontinuing study treatment (data cut-off: November 2013) *Patients received erlotinib or gefitinib in a combination regimen. EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; disc, discontinuation; TKI, tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Table S3. Frequency of diarrhea and rash/acne (data cut-off: November 2013) *Number of patients with initial onset within the interval (cumulative Kaplan-Meier estimate % of AE onset by interval end). AE, adverse event; CI, confidence interval; CTC, common terminology criteria; HR, hazard ratio.