[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is often up-regulated in a variety of malignancies, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its overexpression seems to be associated with tumor progressiveness and poor prognosis. GIST is well known to have a mutation to c-KIT; thus, a specific c-KIT inhibitor (imatinib) is recognized as the first-line chemotherapy for GIST, although a certain type of c-KIT mutation reveals a resistance to imatinib due to as yet uncertain molecular mechanisms. To assess the c-KIT mutation-related variation of cellular responses to imatinib, murine lymphocyte-derived Ba/F3 cells, which are stably transduced with different types of c-KIT mutation, were treated with either imatinib or a FAK inhibitor (TAE226), and their antitumor effects were determined in vitro and in vivo. A mutation at exon 11 (KITdel559-560) displayed a high sensitivity to imatinib, whereas that at exon 17 (KIT820Tyr) showed a significant resistance to imatinib in vitro and in vivo. KIT820Tyr cells appeared to maintain the activities of FAK and AKT under the imatinib treatment, suggesting that FAK might play a role in cell survival in imatinib-resistant cells. When FAK activity in those cells was inhibited by TAE226, cell growth was equally suppressed and the cells underwent apoptosis regardless of the c-KIT mutation types. Oral administration of TAE226 significantly diminished tumor growth in nude mice bearing KIT(820Tyr) xenografts. In summary, c-KIT mutation at exon 17 displayed a resistance to imatinib with maintained activations of FAK and subsequent survival signals. Targeting FAK could be a potential therapeutic strategy for imatinib-resistant GISTs.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates integrin and growth factor-mediated signaling pathways to enhance cell migration, proliferation, and survival, and its up-regulation correlates malignant grade and poor outcome in several types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to raise a potential therapeutic strategy using a FAK inhibitor for Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma.
The expression status of FAK in clinical Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Cultured esophageal adenocarcinoma cells were treated with TAE226, a specific FAK inhibitor with an additional effect of inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), to assess its anticancer effect in vitro. Western blot was carried out to explore a participating signaling pathway for TAE226-induced cell death. Furthermore, TAE226 was orally administered to s.c. xenograft animals to investigate its anticancer effect in vivo.
Strong expression of FAK was found in 94.0% of Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma compared with 17.9% of Barrett's epithelia, suggesting that FAK might play a critical role in the progression of Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma. When esophageal adenocarcinoma cells were treated with TAE226, cell proliferation and migration were greatly inhibited with an apparent structural change of actin fiber and a loss of cell adhesion. The activities of FAK, IGF-IR, and AKT were suppressed by TAE226 and subsequent dephosphorylation of BAD at Ser(136) occurred, resulting in caspase-mediated apoptosis. In vivo tumor volume was significantly reduced by oral administration of TAE226.
These results suggest that TAE226, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR, could become a new remedy for Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrrolopyrimidine, a novel scaffold, allows to adjust interactions within the S3 subsite of cathepsin K. The core intermediate 10 facilitated the P3 optimization and identified highly potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitors 11-20.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas are highly lethal cancers that resist current therapies. Novel therapies under development target molecular mechanisms that promote glioblastoma growth. In glioblastoma patient specimens, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed. Upon growth factor receptor stimulation or integrin engagement, FAK is activated by phosphorylation on critical tyrosine residues. Activated FAK initiates a signal transduction cascade which promotes glioma growth and invasion by increasing cellular adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation. We find that human glioma cell lines express different levels of total FAK protein and activating phosphorylation of tyrosine residues Tyr397, Tyr861, and Tyr925. As all glioma cell lines examined expressed phosphorylated FAK, we examined the efficacy of a novel low-molecular weight inhibitor of FAK, TAE226, against human glioma cell lines. TAE226 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK as well as the downstream effectors AKT, extracellular signal-related kinase, and S6 ribosomal protein in multiple glioma cell lines. TAE226 induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cellular proliferation with an associated G(2) cell cycle arrest in every cell line and an increase in apoptosis in a cell-line-specific manner. TAE226 also decreased glioma cell adhesion, migration, and invasion through an artificial extracellular matrix. Together, these data demonstrate the potential benefit of TAE226 for glioma therapy.
Preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple genetic aberrations in human gliomas contribute to their highly infiltrative and rapid growth characteristics. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates tumor migration and invasion. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), whose expression correlates with tumor grade, is involved in proliferation and survival. We hypothesized that inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK and IGF-IR by NVP-TAE226 (hereafter called TAE226), a novel dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FAK and IGF-IR, would suppress the growth and invasion of glioma cells. In culture, TAE226 inhibited extracellular matrix-induced autophosphorylation of FAK (Tyr(397)). TAE226 also inhibited IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR and activity of its downstream target genes such as MAPK and Akt. TAE226 retarded tumor cell growth as assessed by a cell viability assay and attenuated G(2)-M cell cycle progression associated with a decrease in cyclin B1 and phosphorylated cdc2 (Tyr(15)) protein expression. TAE226 treatment inhibited tumor cell invasion by at least 50% compared with the control in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. Interestingly, TAE226 treatment of tumor cells containing wild-type p53 mainly exhibited G(2)-M arrest, whereas tumor cells bearing mutant p53 underwent apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by TAE226 was substantiated by detection of caspase-3/7 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and by an Annexin V apoptosis assay. More importantly, TAE226 treatment significantly increased the survival rate of animals in an intracranial glioma xenograft model. Collectively, these data show that blocking the signaling pathways of FAK and IGF-IR with TAE226 has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for human gliomas.
Preview · Article · May 2007 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 2-amino-9-aryl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines were designed and synthesized as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors using molecular modeling in conjunction with a co-crystal structure. Chemistry was developed to introduce functionality onto the 9-aryl ring, which resulted in the identification of potent FAK inhibitors. In particular, compound 32 possessed single-digit nanomolar IC(50) and represents one of the most potent FAK inhibitors discovered to date.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 2-amino-9-aryl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines were designed and synthesized to target focal adhesion kinase (FAK). A number of these pyrrolopyrimides exhibited low micromolar inhibitory activities against focal adhesion kinase, and their preliminary SAR was established via systematic chemical modifications. The 2-amino-9-aryl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines represent a new class of kinase inhibitors.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters