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Publications (10)9.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain x Large White and Duroc x Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as “negative or low” (<104.3 PCV2 genome copies/ml of serum), “medium” (≥104.3 to ≤105.3) and “high” (>105.3). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean ± typical error) for “negative or low”, “medium” and “high” AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672 ± 9, 650 ± 12 and 603 ± 16 g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Veterinary Microbiology
  • I Díaz · M Gimeno · A Callén · J Pujols · S López · C Charreyre · F Joisel · E Mateu
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    ABSTRACT: In order to better understand how immunization against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be improved using commercial vaccines, different strategies of immunization were applied in the field using an inactivated vaccine (INV), a modified live vaccine (MLV) or a combination of the two and the responses compared. In experiment 1 (E1), 21 piglets were distributed in three groups. Group A was vaccinated with a commercial INV at 2.5, 3.5 and 6.5months old; group B pigs received the INV at 1.5, 2.5, 5.5 and 6.5months old, while pigs in group C were kept as unvaccinated controls. At 7.5months of age all pigs were challenged with PRRSV and followed for 21days. In experiment 2 (E2), 32 piglets were distributed evenly in four groups. Groups A, B and C were vaccinated with a commercial MLV at 1.5months old, while group D pigs were kept as controls. At 4.5months old, groups A and C received the INV while B received a second MLV, 1month later group C pigs received a third INV. At 6.5months old all pigs were challenged as in E1. In both experiments, total antibodies, neutralizing antibodies (NA) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) were evaluated, and viraemia was determined after challenge. In E1, immunization with an INV induced high interferon-γ responses after the second and subsequent vaccinations. Development of NA after challenge was faster in INV vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated controls. In E2, re-vaccination with INV induced NA responses similar to re-vaccination with MLV; however, a significant increase in NA titres after challenge was only detected in group C pigs. The use of combined protocols (MLV+INV) was superior to the use of MLV alone in inducing cell mediated immunity. In conclusion, the highest immune responses against PRRSV after a single shot were achieved with MLV; after that, INV re-vaccination should be considered as the best strategy to induce significant boosters.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Veterinary Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To characterize the kinetics of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretion in peripheral blood and lymph node mononuclear cells isolated from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-vaccinated pigs after cells were challenged with PCV2 open reading frame 2 antigen. Animals-10 pigs. Procedures-5 pigs were vaccinated with a PCV2 vaccine and received a booster dose 3 weeks later. They were kept together with a similar group of 5 nonvaccinated pigs that served as controls. One week after the second vaccination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and excised retropharyngeal lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs) were isolated and cultured. Cells were then challenged by exposure to PCV2 open reading frame 2 and evaluated at 2, 12, 24, and 48 hours to determine the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 via quantitative PCR assay. Changes in gene expression were analyzed relative to the results from analysis of the sample at 0 hours (calibrator). Results-All ILs were upregulated differently in LNMCs and PBMCs from vaccinated pigs. Lymph node mononuclear cells from vaccinated animals produced significantly more IL-4 mRNA than did PBMCs at 2, 12, and 48 hours (relative change: 2.8 vs -3.6, 13.0 vs 3.6, and 9.8 vs 1.8, respectively) and more IL-5 mRNA at 2, 12, 24, and 48 hours (relative change: 1. 2 vs -4.8, 2.2 vs 0.2, 3.2 vs -1.9, and 4.0 vs -3.6, respectively). Interleukin-13 mRNA reached its highest concentration at 24 hours but was 11.9-fold higher in PBMCs than in LNMCs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results supported the importance of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in pigs, suggesting that PBMCs and LNMCs express cytokines in a tissue-specific manner.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
  • J.J. Pravieux · H Poulet · C Charreyre · V Juillard
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    ABSTRACT: Providing protective immunity to neonatal animals in early life is associated with numerous challenges regarding vaccine safety and efficacy. A much simpler approach is maternal vaccination, either before or during pregnancy, to provide the neonate with passively transferred immunity. In humans, the medical, societal and legal risks of immunizing pregnant women are important considerations in undertaking this approach. By contrast, maternal vaccination has been successfully employed in the animal health industry for decades. These veterinary vaccines have proven to be safe and efficient. Although only passively transferred antibodies have been extensively studied, other immunological mechanisms may be equally important in providing maternally derived immunity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Comparative Pathology
  • F Piras · S Bollard · F Laval · F Joisel · G Reynaud · C Charreyre · C Andreoni · V Juillard
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    ABSTRACT: Although field studies have found porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV) inactivated vaccines to be beneficial in reducing losses linked to PRRSV infection, immune mechanisms induced by these vaccines need better understanding. In the study reported here, we examined the interferon-gamma(+) (IFNgamma(+)) PRRS-specific T cell responses induced after infection and vaccination with an inactivated PRRS vaccine. Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with the PRRSV P120 strain were used to re-stimulate ex vivo T cells that had been primed in vivo by either the virus or the vaccine, or both. Virus-specific IFNgamma(+) T cells were quantified by using a porcine IFNgamma- ELISpot assay. A specific but low live virus-induced response was observed between days 35 and 70 for most of the pigs tested, while a significant inactivated vaccine-induced PRRSV-specific IFNgamma(+) T-cell response was measured soon after vaccination. Moreover, we observed that vaccination of pre-challenged pigs clearly favoured the PRRSV-specific cell-mediated immunity primed by the live virus. To characterize further the nature of the PRRSV-specific T cells, the different T-cell subsets involved in PRRSV immunity were analyzed by flow cytometry. We showed that the inactivated vaccine was able to prime both CD4(+)CD8(int+) and CD8(high) virus-specific T cells and that CD4(+)CD8(int+) were preferentially recalled by the live virus.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Viral Immunology
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    F. Joisel · C. Charreyre · L. Coulombe · J. C. Noël · S Longo

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  • K. Wilson · T. Vila · C. Charreyre · F. Joisel

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Esophagogastric ulcer is a widespread disease affecting pigs of different ages, especially to finishers. The ethiology of the disease is multifactorial, influencing nutritional, genetic, pathologic and management factors on its development and severity. The pathogeny has not been completely understood yet (1). The aim of this study was to assess the hematological and blood biochemical values in animals showing different esophagogastric lesional stages. Material and Methods Eighty commercial pigs 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21-week old (n=5 each group), were randomly selected. The animals were humanely euthanized and a macroscopical evaluation of non glandularis mucosa lesional stage was carefully done. Blood samples were taken on EDTA and dry tubes to recover whole blood and serum from each pig. A complete blood biochemical study was performed including glucose, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinin, Gamma-glutamil transferase (GGT), phosphorus, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate amiontranferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), albumin, bilirrubin, and iron by means of a COBAS MIRA PLUS analyzer (ABX Diagnostics, France). The macroscopical lesional stage results were included in two categories for statistical analysis: apparently normal (AN), and abnormal (ABN). The abnormal category included all the stomachs showing some kind of alteration, including pre-ulcerous changes as parakeratosis and erosions. Data were analyzed by means of Student t-test comparation using SPSS v. 15.
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  • G. Allan · C. Andréoni · F. Joisel · V. Beattie · C. Charreyre

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