[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to report the distribution of pelvic support among a population-based sample of middle-aged community-dwelling women, as defined by pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) and study factors that might influence POP-Q measurements.
We conducted a secondary analysis of a population-based study of community-dwelling, African American and white women aged 35-64 years from southeastern Michigan. Three hundred ninety-four women consented to physical examination using the POP-Q. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Estimates were weighted to reflect probability and nonresponse characteristics of the sample to increase generalizability of the findings.
The following values were the mean values for POP-Q points: Aa and Ba = -1.2 cm, C = -6.5 cm (intact uterus), C = -6.9 cm (hysterectomy), and Ap and Bp = -1.8 cm. The POP-Q stages were organized in the following manner: stage 0, 8.8%; stage I, 21.4%; stage II, 67.7%; stage III, 2.1%. Increasing vaginal parity was associated with increasing descent of the anterior, apical, and posterior vaginal wall (P < .001).
In this population-based study of women from southeastern Michigan, 90% of the women had anterior and posterior vaginal wall support that was above or extended to the hymen. Increasing vaginal parity was associated with increasing descent of the anterior, posterior, and vaginal apex.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and older adults' hours of participation in 31 activities.
Descriptive statistics are presented for the relationships between BMI and sociodemographics, health behaviors, and health characteristics. Linear regression was used to model the number of hours of participation in each activity.
The hypothesis that being overweight or obese is associated with older adults' activities was supported. For example, compared to those of normal weight, obese older adults spend fewer hours walking, exercising, praying and meditating, house cleaning, and engaging in personal grooming. And, compared to normal weight older adults, obese older adults spend a greater number of hours watching television.
These results substantiate prior findings of a negative relationship between physical activity and excess weight, and the lack of a relationship between social activity and BMI.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Aging and Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examine racial differences in urinary incontinence prevalence, frequency, quantity, type, and risk factors in a population based sample of community dwelling black and white women.
Women 35 to 64 years old were sampled from telephone records from 3 southeast Michigan counties. Women self-identifying as black or white race completed a telephone interview that assessed demographics, health history, lifestyle factors and urinary incontinence experience. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multivariable logistic regression to determine adjusted odds of urinary incontinence. Estimates were weighted to reflect probability and nonresponse characteristics of the sample, and to increase generalizability of the findings.
Interviews were completed by 1,922 black and 892 white women (response rate = 69%). The overall prevalence of urinary incontinence was 26.5%. By race, urinary incontinence prevalence was 14.6% for black women and 33.1% for white women (p <0.001). Among incontinent women there was no difference by race in the frequency of urinary incontinence. However, black women reported more urine loss per episode (p <0.05). A larger proportion of white women with incontinence (39.2%) reported symptoms of pure stress incontinence compared to black women (25.0%), whereas a larger proportion of black women (23.8%) reported symptoms of pure urge incontinence compared to white women (11.0%). Risk factors for urinary incontinence were generally similar for white and black women.
In this population based study we observed racial differences in prevalence, quantity and type of urinary incontinence. Frequency of and risk factors for urinary incontinence were generally similar for white and black women.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors sought to obtain nationally representative estimates of the time of informal caregiving provided to older adults classified into the four standard Body Mass Index (BMI) classifications. They estimated multivariate regression models using data from the 2000 Health and Retirement Study to determine the weekly hours of informal caregiving for older adults classified into the four standard BMI classifications. In the fully adjusted models, being underweight was associated with receiving significantly more informal care, however, obesity was not associated with more informal care. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of nursing practice and research to prevent weight loss and frailty.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Gerontological Nursing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The few prior studies of urinary symptoms in the workplace have been small investigations of women in specific occupations (e.g. nursing) or industries (e.g. pottery manufacture). In this study, the aims were to describe the prevalence, management and impact of urinary incontinence for a large cross-section of employed women in the USA.
Five-page questionnaires were mailed to 5130 American households selected from the National Family Opinion survey panel during the spring of 2004. Usable questionnaires were returned by 3364 women in the target age range of 18-60 years.
About 37% of the 2326 employed respondents reported urine loss during the last 30 days. The most common strategies for managing incontinence at work included frequent bathroom breaks and wearing pads. The use of urine control methods increased with the severity of urine loss. The effect of incontinence on workplace activities also increased with the severity of urine loss: 88% of employed women with the most severe symptoms reported at least some negative impact on concentration, performance of physical activities, self-confidence or the ability to complete tasks without interruption.
Urinary incontinence is prevalent among employed women. Those who experience severe symptoms report that it has a negative effect on aspects of work. Programs on the prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence would help educate both employers and employees, and may lead to the development of better management techniques in the workplace.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Occupational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence of urinary incontinence during exercise in women, estimate whether exercise intensity is related to leakage severity, and report women's assessments of incontinence as a barrier to exercise.
Questionnaires were mailed to 5,130 women aged 18-60 years drawn from National Family Opinion research panels. Physical activity levels were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Urinary incontinence, defined as involuntary leakage in the last 30 days, was assessed with the Sandvik Severity Index and a global measure of bother. Prevalence estimates were adjusted via post-stratification weighting.
A total of 3,364 eligible women responded (68%), of whom 34.6% were insufficiently active (95% confidence interval [CI] 32.7-36.5%), 29.7% were sufficiently active (95% CI 27.9-31.5%), and 35.7% were highly active (95% CI 33.8-37.6%). Urinary incontinence prevalence was 34.3% (95% CI 32.5-36.1%). One in seven women experienced urinary leakage during physical activity; this was more common among highly active (15.9%) than less active women (11.8%) (P = .01). After adjusting for age, comorbidities, education, and race, women with very severe incontinence were 2.64 times (95% CI 1.25-5.55) more likely to be insufficiently active than continent women. Incontinence was a moderate or substantial barrier to exercise for 9.8% (95% CI 8.8-10.9%) of women. Of incontinent women, the proportion for whom incontinence was a moderate or substantial barrier to exercise increased with each severity category: 9.2%, slight; 37.8%, moderate; 64.6%, severe; and 85.3%, very severe (P < .01).
Urinary incontinence is perceived as a barrier to exercise, particularly by women with more severe leakage.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine associations between nocturia and potentially modifiable risk factors in older adults.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data.
Respondents were selected using population-based sampling, drawing from a single Michigan county in 1983. They were followed through 1990.
Community-living adults aged 60 and older.
Episodes of nocturia, development of nocturia at 2 years after baseline survey, age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, drinking fluids before bedtime, amount of fluid intake before bedtime, diuretic use, and 24-hour coffee intake. All measures were self-reported.
Bivariate cross-sectional analysis revealed significant associations with two or more episodes of nocturia for hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.37-2.1), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.1-2.0), diuretic use (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.1), age (OR=1.05 per additional year over 60, 95% 1.03-1.06), and number of cups of coffee (OR=0.93 for each cup of coffee, 95% CI=0.89-0.97). In multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR=1.52, 95% CI=1.2-1.9), diuretic use (OR=1.3, 95% 95% CI=1.0-1.7), and age (OR=1.04 per additional year over 60, 95% 1.03-1.06) were independently associated with two or more nocturia episodes per night. No baseline factors predicted future development of nocturia (save for age, in one model).
Hypertension, older age, and diuretic use were independently associated with two or more episodes of nocturia in cross-sectional analysis. No baseline factor was related to the development of nocturia over a 2-year interval in this sample. Nighttime fluid intake and coffee intake, practices providers commonly target in patients with nocturia, were not associated with nocturia in this population-based sample of community-living older adults.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the impact of own and spouse's urinary incontinence on depressive symptoms. Attention was paid to the possibility that gender and caregiving might be important factors in understanding significant effects. We used negative binomial regression to analyze survey data for 9974 middle-aged and older respondents to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA. Results supported the hypothesis that the respondents' own urinary incontinence was associated with depressive symptoms (unadj. IRR = 1.73, 95% CIs = 1.53, 1.95 for men; unadj. IRR = 1.50, 95% CIs = 1.38, 1.63 for women). Controlling sociodemographic and health variables reduced this relationship, but it remained statistically significant for both men and women. Having an incontinent wife put men at greater risk for depressive symptoms (unadj. IRR = 1.13, 95% CIs = 1.02, 1.25), although this relation became nonsignificant with the addition of control variables. No relation between women's depressive symptoms and husbands' (in)continence status was found. Caregiving was not a significant variable in the adjusted analyses, but spouses' depressive symptoms emerged as a significant predictor of the respondents' own depressive symptoms. Health care providers must be sensitive to the emotional impact of urinary incontinence. Our findings also suggest the importance of considering the patient's mental health within a wider context, particularly including the physical and mental health of the patient's spouse.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Social Science & Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the design and methods of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS), a new national study that will provide data on the antecedents, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of dementia and "cognitive impairment, not demented" (CIND) using a unique study design based on the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We also illustrate potential uses of the ADAMS data and provide information to interested researchers on obtaining ADAMS and HRS data.
The ADAMS is the first population-based study of dementia in the United States to include subjects from all regions of the country, while at the same time using a single standardized diagnostic protocol in a community-based sample. A sample of 856 individuals age 70 or older who were participants in the ongoing HRS received an extensive in-home clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine a diagnosis of normal, CIND, or dementia. Within the CIND and dementia categories, subcategories (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia) were assigned to denote the etiology of cognitive impairment.
Linking the ADAMS dementia clinical assessment data to the wealth of available longitudinal HRS data on health, health care utilization, informal care, and economic resources and behavior, will provide a unique opportunity to study the onset of CIND and dementia in a nationally representative population-based sample, as well as the risk factors, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of CIND and dementia.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Neuroepidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a large nationally representative sample of older Americans we investigate four domains of functional impairment as possible risk factors for the subsequent development of urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms.
Data from three waves (1993, 1995, 1998) of the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey were used to model the effects of functional impairment on the onset of UI symptoms.
A greater number of serious chronic conditions and functional impairment in the lower body mobility domain increased the odds of the onset of mild UI (vs. remaining continent). Factors that contributed to greater odds of the onset of severe UI (vs. remaining continent) were older age, being represented by a proxy respondent, and functional impairment in the strength domain.
Understanding the possible relationship between functional impairment and UI is an important step toward developing appropriate interventions for the prevention, treatment, or management of urine loss.
Preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Neurourology and Urodynamics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between urinary incontinence and women's levels and hours of participation in 31 activities.
A subset of panel members from the Health and Retirement Study completed the self-administered Consumption and Activities Mail Survey questionnaire in 2001. These data were linked with Health and Retirement Study 2000 data. Analyses were limited to 2,190 female Consumption and Activities Mail Survey self-respondents born in 1947 or earlier. Logistic regression was used to predict activity participation. Linear regression was used to predict the number of hours of participation.
The hypothesis that urinary incontinence affects women's time use and activity patterns was supported. Compared with the continent women, the incontinent women were less likely to have house cleaned, shopped, physically shown affection, or attended religious services in the recent past; and were more likely to have watched television or made music by singing or playing an instrument. Compared with continent activity participants, incontinent participants reported significantly fewer hours spent walking, communicating with friends and family by telephone or e-mail, working for pay, using a computer, and engaging in personal grooming and hygiene.
These findings substantiate prior work on the relationship between urinary incontinence and quality of life, and suggest a useful route for educating patients about the impact of urinary incontinence. Clinicians must be alert to opportunities for encouraging incontinent women to be active. It is also important to consider the implications for time use and activity patterns when advising patients about treatment and management options.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which women with incontinence have been identified by physicians, the coping and treatment strategies that incontinent women use, and the factors associated with treatment strategy utilization.
A 2-stage, nationwide, cross-sectional survey.
Survey participants were adult women from representative US households in NFO WorldGroup survey panels. Of 2310 incontinent women who received the second-stage detailed questionnaire, 1970 (85%) responded. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the impact of incontinence, the proportion of respondents who had talked to a physician about incontinence, the responses of physicians to these incontinent women, and coping strategies used. We conducted logistic regressions to determine factors associated with treatment strategy utilization.
Almost half of incontinent women considered their incontinence moderately to extremely bothersome, yet only 56% of the moderately to extremely bothered women had ever talked to a physician about incontinence. In 85% of all cases, the incontinent woman, rather than the physician, raised the issue of incontinence. Coping strategies women reported ever trying included limiting fluid intake (38%) and physical activity (21%). Kegel exercises and prescription medications were used currently by 20% and 6% of this population, respectively.
Among women of all ages, only about half of women bothered by incontinence have ever talked to a physician about it, and many incontinent women rely on strategies to avoid or conceal incontinence. A better understanding of the current use of coping and treatment strategies as well as the interaction between women and physicians regarding incontinence may help to inform efforts to optimize management of incontinence for women bothered by incontinence symptoms.
Preview · Article · Mar 2004 · The American journal of managed care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article examines linkages between body weight and socioeconomic status (SES) among Americans at or near retirement age. The authors hypothesize that (a) body weight relates negatively to SES, (b) this relationship is greater for women than men, and (c) the relationship attenuates when health, employment, and marital status are controlled. We use the 1992 Health and Retirement Study for this examination. SES is measured as net worth. Body weight is measured as body mass index and categorized as normal weight, overweight, and obese. Results indicate that, for women, overweight and obesity relate to lower logged net worth. This relationship attenuates once covariates are considered. For men, overweight and obesity relate to higher logged net worth, even when covariates are considered. The findings suggest that greater weight has different meanings for men and women in this cohort; it might be related to success for men but a sociocultural detriment for women.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Research on Aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to better understand the subjective bothersomeness of stress urinary incontinence symptoms and their impact on the quality of life of community-dwelling women.
We conducted a mail survey of 605 women in the United States who reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence.
More than three fourths of the respondents reported their symptoms to be bothersome, with approximately 29% reporting their symptoms to be moderately to extremely bothersome. The odds of moderate-to-extreme bother decreased with age and increased with symptom severity. Concerns about social embarrassment were evident.
Stress urinary incontinence symptoms can impose a significant burden on the women who have them. The results reinforce the need for health care professionals to be proactive in questioning and educating patients about this common lower urinary tract symptom.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Published outcomes of continence surgery are based largely on cohort studies and a smaller number of randomized trials. There is no consensus on the outcomes that should be considered and patient reported outcomes have not always been included. We determined the prevalence of continence surgery as well as patient reported outcomes in community dwelling women.
We performed a 2-stage national cross-sectional mailed survey. A short questionnaire used to identify women with a history of continence surgery was sent to 45,000 representative American households. Eligible women with a history of continence surgery received a followup questionnaire to assess patient reported outcomes, including current symptom frequency, bother and overall satisfaction.
Of the 24,581 women 967 (4%) had a history of continence surgery, including 73% who currently reported incontinence in the preceding month, 58% who reported incontinence in the preceding week and 53% who reported current use of pads or other absorbent material. Of those who reported incontinence 83% reported current stress incontinence symptoms, including 62% with stress and urge symptoms. A third of the women had been treated with surgery in the last 5 years. The proportion of women satisfied with the results of surgery decreased from 67% who recalled initial satisfaction to 45% who reported current satisfaction.
Almost 4% of women had undergone continence surgery and continence rates were lower than most published figures. However, some women reported satisfaction with surgery even when they did not achieve continence. Patient satisfaction and other patient reported outcomes might be considered with continence rates when determining surgical success rates.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the role of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms on functional outcomes of stroke and diabetes. Evaluation approaches to functional outcomes have rarely focused on the presence of specific comorbidities, particularly those involving mental health disorders.
Data are from the AHEAD cohort of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative panel of persons 70+ years of age in 1993. Analyses are limited to 5,646 self-respondents for whom functional outcome data are available in 1995. Additive and interactive multiple regression models are compared for each outcome and focal condition combination.
The additive model is sufficient for the majority of outcome and focal condition combinations. The interaction term is significant in 4 of 12 comparisons.
Stroke, diabetes, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms exhibit strong independent effects on physical functioning. Support for the hypothesis that cognitive impairment and depression exacerbate the impact of stroke and diabetes is more limited.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Aging and Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent and burdensome condition among women. However, fewer than half of women with symptoms talk to a physician about incontinence, and the determinants of treatment seeking are not well understood.
A two-stage cross-sectional survey of adult U.S. women; 45,000 households participating in NFO Worldgroup survey research received a questionnaire to identify adults with incontinence. Based on stratified random sampling of identified incontinent women, 2310 women received a detailed questionnaire.
Among 1970 women with urinary incontinence symptoms, 38% had initiated a conversation with a physician about incontinence. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, some of the factors associated significantly with treatment seeking were symptom duration >3 years (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.57-3.45), having a history of a noticeable accident (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.87), worse disease-specific quality of life scores (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.32-2.70), not being embarrassed to talk with a physician about urinary symptoms (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.28-2.14), talking with others about urinary incontinence (OR 3.34, 95% CI 2.49-4.49), and keeping regular appointments for routine/preventive care (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.54-3.29).
Less than half of community-dwelling adult U.S. women with symptoms of urinary incontinence have talked with a physician about urinary incontinence. In addition to duration of symptoms, factors associated with treatment seeking included the impact of incontinence on quality of life, lack of embarrassment about talking to a physician about urinary symptoms, and attitudes toward healthcare use. Concerns about the meaning of incontinence for overall and future health were important reasons for women choosing to seek treatment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Women's Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence: Current Databases and Future Collaborations Symposium included an international group of 29 investigators from 10 countries. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the current understanding and knowledge gaps of prevalence, incidence, associated risk factors, and treatment outcomes for incontinence in women. During the symposium, investigators identified existing large databases and ongoing studies that provide substantive information on specific incontinence research questions. The investigators were able to form an international collaborative research working group and identify potential collaborative projects to further research on the epidemiology of urinary incontinence and bladder dysfunction.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology