[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men.
Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40-79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participants underwent assessment of lifestyle, health factors, physical characteristics and gave a fasting blood sample. The occurrence of pain was assessed at baseline and follow up (a mean of 4.3 years later) by shading painful sites on a body manikin. The presence of CWP was determined using the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between baseline vitamin D levels and the new occurrence of CWP.
Two thousand three hundred thirteen men, mean age 58.8 years (SD = 10.6), had complete pain and vitamin data available and contributed to this analysis. 151 (6.5 %) developed new CWP at follow up and 577 (24.9 %) were pain free at both time points, the comparator group. After adjustment for age and centre, physical performance and number of comorbidities, compared to those in upper quintile of 25-(OH) D ( ≥36.3 ng/mL), those in the lowest quintile (<15.6 ng/mL) were more likely to develop CWP (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.93; 95 % CI = 1.0-3.6). Further adjustment for BMI (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI = 0.93-3.02) or depression (OR = 1.77; 95 % CI = 0.98-3.21), however rendered the association non-significant.
Low vitamin D is linked with the new occurrence of CWP, although this may be explained by underlying adverse health factors, particularly obesity and depression.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system can promote food intake by increasing odor detection in mice. The eCB system is over-active in human obesity. Our aim is to measure circulating eCB concentrations and olfactory capacity in a human sample that includes people with obesity and explore the possible interaction between olfaction, obesity and the eCB system. The study sample was made up of 161 females with five groups of body mass index sub-categories ranging from under-weight to morbidly obese. We assessed olfactory capacity with the "Sniffin´Sticks" test, which measures olfactory threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) capacity. We measured plasma concentrations of the eCBs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine or anandamide (AEA), and several eCB-related compounds, 2-acylglycerols and N-acylethanolamines. 2-AG and other 2-acylglycerols fasting plasma circulating plasma concentrations were higher in obese and morbidly obese subjects. AEA and other N-acylethanolamine circulating concentrations were lower in under-weight subjects. Olfactory TDI scores were lower in obese and morbidly obese subjects. Lower TDI scores were independently associated with higher 2-AG fasting plasma circulating concentrations, higher %body fat, and higher body mass index, after controlling for age, smoking, menstruation, and use of contraceptives. Our results show that obese subjects have a lower olfactory capacity than non-obese ones and that elevated fasting plasma circulating 2-AG concentrations in obesity are linked to a lower olfactory capacity. In agreement with previous studies we show that eCBs AEA and 2-AG, and their respective congeners have a distinct profile in relation to body mass index. The present report is the first study in humans in which olfactory capacity and circulating eCB concentrations have been measured in the same subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction and to find a model to predict food addiction in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: 278 patients having an eating disorder self-reported on food addiction, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the food addiction screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of food addiction. Results: Patients with food addiction had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of food addiction can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Conclusions: Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Frontiers in Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
we hypothesised that chronic widespread pain (CWP), by acting as a potential stressor, may predispose to the development of, or worsening, frailty.
longitudinal analysis within the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS).
a total of 2,736 community-dwelling men aged 40-79.
subjects completed a pain questionnaire and shaded a manikin, with the presence of CWP defined using the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and depression were measured. Repeat assessments took place a median of 4.3 years later. A frailty index (FI) was used, with frail defined as an FI >0.35. The association between CWP at baseline and the new occurrence of frailty was examined using logistic regression; the association between CWP at baseline and change in FI was examined using negative binomial regression.
at baseline, 218 (8.3%) men reported CWP. Of the 2,631 men who were defined as non-frail at baseline, 112 (4.3%) were frail at follow-up; their mean FI was 0.12 (SD 0.1) at baseline and 0.15 (SD 0.1) at follow-up, with a mean change of 0.03 (SD 0.08) P ≤ 0.001. Among men who were non-frail at baseline, those with CWP were significantly more likely to develop frailty. After adjustment for age and centre, compared with those with no pain, those with CWP at baseline had a 70% higher FI at follow-up; these associations remained significant after further adjustment for smoking, body mass index, depression, physical activity and FI at baseline.
the presence of CWP is associated with an increased risk of frailty in older European men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
Orexins/hypocretins are orexigenic peptides implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and the sleep/wake cycle. Little is known about the functioning of these peptides in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aims of the current study were to evaluate the extent to which orexin-A might be linked to sleep and treatment outcome in AN.
Fasting plasma orexin-A concentrations were measured in 48 females with AN at the start of a day hospital treatment and in 98 normal-eater/healthy-weight controls. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was administered at the beginning of the treatment as a measure of sleep quality. Other psychopathological variables were evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL90R) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI). Patients were assessed at the start and end of treatment by means of commonly used diagnostic criteria and clinical questionnaires.
The AN patients presented more sleep disturbances and poorer overall sleep quality than did the healthy controls (p=.026) but there were no global differences between groups in plasma orexin-A concentrations (p=.071). In the AN sample, orexin-A concentrations were associated with greater sleep disturbances (|r|=.30), sleep inefficiency (|r|=.22) and poorer overall sleep (|r|=.22). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that both elevated orexin-A concentrations and inadequate sleep predicted poorer treatment outcome.
Plasma orexin-A concentrations contribute to poor sleep quality in AN, and both of these variables are associated with therapy response.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predictors of BC changes during treatment, as well as predictors of treatment outcome. The whole sample comprised 261 participants [118 adult females with AN (70 AN-R vs. 48 AN-BP), and 143 healthy controls]. BC was measured weekly during 15 weeks of day-hospital treatment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Assessment measures also included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, as well as a number of other clinical indices. Overall, the results showed that AN-R and AN-BP patients statistically differed in all BC measures at admission. However, no significant time×group interaction was found for almost all BC parameters. Significant time×group interactions were only found for basal metabolic rate (p = .041) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .035). Multiple regression models showed that the best predictors of pre-post changes in BC parameters (namely fat-free mass, muscular mass, total body water and BMI) were the baseline values of BC parameters. Stepwise predictive logistic regressions showed that only BMI and age were significantly associated with outcome, but not with the percentage of body fat. In conclusion, these data suggest that although AN patients tended to restore all BC parameters during nutritional treatment, only AN-BP patients obtained the same fat mass values as healthy controls. Put succinctly, the best predictors of changes in BC were baseline BC values, which did not, however, seem to influence treatment outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gut-brain axis is of great importance in the control of energy homeostasis. The identification of uroguanylin (UGN), an intestinal released peptide regulated by nutritional status and with anorectic actions, as the endogenous ligand for guanylyl cyclase 2C (GUCY2C) receptor, has revealed a new system in the regulation of energy balance. We show that chronic central infusion of uroguanylin (UGN) reduces weight gain and adiposity in diet-induced obese mice. These effects were independent of food intake and involved specific efferent autonomic pathways. On one hand, brain UGN induces brown adipose tissue thermogenesis as well as browning and lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. On the other hand, brain UGN augments fecal output through the vagus nerve. These findings are of relevance as they suggest that the beneficial metabolic actions of UGN through the sympathetic nervous system do not involve non-desirable gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea. The present work provides mechanistic insights on how UGN influences energy homeostasis and suggests that UGN action in the brain represents a feasible pharmacological target in the treatment of obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Elevated physical activity has been observed in some patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) despite their emaciated condition. However, its effects on treatment outcome remain unclear. This study aimed to examine objectively measured physical activity in this clinical population and how it might be related to a partial hospitalization therapy response, after considering potential confounders. Method: The sample comprised 88 AN patients consecutively enrolled in a day hospital treatment program, and 116 healthy-weight controls. All participants were female and a baseline assessment took place using an accelerometer (Actiwatch AW7) to measure physical activity, the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and the Depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-Revised. Outcome was evaluated upon the termination of the treatment program by expert clinicians. Results: Although AN patients and controls did not differ in the average time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (P = .21), nor daytime physical activity (P = .34), fewer AN patients presented a high physical activity profile compared to the controls (37% vs. 61%, respectively; P = .014). Both lower levels of MVPA and greater eating disorder severity had a direct effect on a poor treatment outcome. Depression symptoms in the patients were associated with lower MVPA, as well as with an older age, a shorter duration of the disorder and greater eating disorder psychopathology. Conclusions: There is a notable variation in the physical activity profile of AN patients, characterized by either low or very high patterns. Physical activity is a highly relevant issue in AN that must be taken into account during the treatment process.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Obese adipose tissue, especially the visceral depot, exhibits altered production of several molecules that could play a role on the initiation/promotion of breast cancer development. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of excess adipose tissue and its secreted factors on the expression of genes involved in the early steps of tumor promotion on the mammary gland.SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Carcinogenesis-related gene expression was evaluated in mammary gland tissue from female diet-induced obese (DIO) Sprague Dawley rats and circulating leukocytes isolated from a group of breast cancer diagnosed and non-diagnosed obese women and compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Additionally, the human non-tumoral mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A was treated in vitro with the visceral (RPAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue secretome and with rising concentrations of the lipid peroxidation by-product 4-HNE.RESULTSDIO rats were classified as susceptible to DIO (DIO-S) or partially resistant to DIO (DIO-R) according to the maximum fat mass gain of the lean group as a cut-off. As compared with lean and DIO-R, the DIO-S group showed a higher fat mass and lower lean mass. The anatomical characteristic of DIO-S was correlated with differential expression of cellular proliferation (ALDH3A1 and MYC) and antioxidant and DNA protection (GSTM2, SIRT1), and tumor suppression (TP53, PTEN, TGFB1) genes. Remarkably, this carcinogenesis-related gene expression pattern was reproduced in MCF10A treated with the RPAT secretome from DIO-S rats and with the lipid peroxidation by-product 4-HNE. Moreover, this pattern was also detected in leukocytes from obese women compared with normal weight women without evidence of breast cancer.CONCLUSION
Lipid peroxides secreted by the obese visceral adipose tissue could be among the relevant factors that promote changes involved in the early steps of tumor development in mammary gland. These changes can be detected even before histological alterations and in circulating leukocytes.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 07 October 2015. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.208.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXTThe understanding of the potential role of betatrophin in human metabolic disorders is a current challenge.OBJECTIVE
The present research evaluated circulating betatrophin levels in obese patients with metabolic syndrome features under energy-restricted weight-loss programs and in normal weight in order to stablish the putative interplay between the levels of this hormone, diet and metabolic risk factors linked to obesity and associated comorbidities.SUBJECTS AND METHODS
One-hundred and forty three participants were enrolled in the study (95 obese-metabolic syndrome; age 49.5±9.4 y.o; BMI 35.7±4.5 kg/m(2)/48 normal-weight; age 35.71±8.8 y.o; BMI 22.9±2.2 kg/m(2)). A nutritional therapy consisting in two hypocaloric strategies (Control diet based on the AHA recommendations and the RESMENA diet, a novel dietary program with changes in the macronutrient distribution) was only prescribed to obese-metabolic syndrome participants who were randomly allocated to the dietary strategies. Dietary records, anthropometrical and biochemical variables as well as betatrophin levels were analysed before (pre-intervention, wk 0), at 8 weeks (post-intervention, wk 8) and after 4 additional months of self-control period (follow-up, wk 24).RESULTSBetatrophin levels were higher in obese-metabolic syndrome patients than normal-weight subjects (1.24±0.43 ng/ml vs. 0.97±0.69 ng/ml, respectively, P=0.012), and levels were positively associated with body composition, metabolic parameters, leptin and irisin in all participants at baseline. Notably, low pre-intervention (wk0) betatrophin levels in obese patients were significantly associated with higher dietary-induced changes in atherogenic risk factors after 8 weeks. Moreover, protein intake, especially proteins from animal sources, was an independent determinant of betatrophin levels after dietary treatment (B=-0.27; P=0.012).CONCLUSIONS
Betatrophin is elevated in obese patients with metabolic syndrome features and is associated with poorer nutritional outcomes of adiposity and dyslipidemia traits after a weight-loss program. Dietary protein intake could be a relevant modulator of betatrophin secretion and activity.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 07 October 2015. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.206.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obestatin/GPR39 signaling stimulates skeletal muscle repair by inducing the expansion of satellite stem cells as well as myofiber hypertrophy. Here, we describe that the obestatin/GPR39 system acts as autocrine/paracrine factor on human myogenesis. Obestatin regulated multiple steps of myogenesis: myoblast proliferation, cell cycle exit, differentiation and recruitment to fuse and form multinucleated hypertrophic myotubes. Obestatin-induced mitogenic action was mediated by ERK1/2 and JunD activity, being orchestrated by a G-dependent mechanism. At a later stage of myogenesis, scaffolding proteins β-arrestin 1 and 2 were essential for the activation of cell cycle exit and differentiation through the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon obestatin stimulus, β-arrestins are recruited to the membrane, where they functionally interact with GPR39 leading to Src activation and signalplex formation to EGFR transactivation by matrix metalloproteinases. This signalplex regulated the mitotic arrest by p21 and p57 expression and the mid- to late stages of differentiation through JNK/c-Jun, CAMKII, Akt and p38 pathways. This finding not only provides the first functional activity for β-arrestins in myogenesis but also identify potential targets for therapeutic approaches by triggering specific signaling arms of the GPR39 signaling involved in myogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively. The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups. Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment. EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Betatrophin is produced primarily by liver and adipose tissue, and has been recently reported as a novel hormone promoting β cell proliferation and β cell mass and improving glucose tolerance.
Since it is markedly regulated by nutritional status, we hypothesized that circulating betatrophin levels might be affected by pathophysiological conditions altering body weight.
We analyzed circulating betatrophin levels in 149 female patients, including 99 with extremeBMI(30 anorexia nervosa,24obese,45morbidobeseand50healthy eating/weight controls).
Measurements. Serum betatrophin levels and its correlations with different anthropometric and biochemical parameters.
Plasma betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in anorexic patients, whereas its levels were reduced in morbid obese women when compared to normal weight women. Plasma betatrophin correlated negatively with weight, BMI, fat percentage, glucose, insulin, HOMA and positively correlated with HDL.
These results suggest that metabolic status is an important regulator of circulating betatrophin levels.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism