[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although differences between black and white persons in hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) values are well established, recent studies suggest that this might not reflect differences in glycemia.
To investigate racial disparities in glycemic markers, including those that reflect biological processes independent of hemoglobin glycation and erythrocyte turnover.
1376 nondiabetic and 343 diabetic adults in a substudy of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Hemoglobin A(1c), fasting glucose, glycated albumin, fructosamine, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels.
Among persons with and without diabetes, black persons had significantly higher HbA(1c), glycated albumin, and fructosamine levels than white persons before and after adjustment for covariates and fasting glucose concentration. Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels, which are reduced in the setting of hyperglycemia-induced glycosuria, were lower in black persons than in white persons, although this difference was statistically significant only in nondiabetic adults.
The design was cross-sectional, a limited number of participants with a history of diabetes was included, and the study did not include integrated measures of circulating nonfasting glycemia.
Differences between black and white persons in glycated albumin, fructosamine, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels parallel differences between these groups in HbA(1c) values. Racial differences in hemoglobin glycation and erythrocyte turnover cannot explain racial disparities in these serum markers. The possibility that black persons have systematically higher levels of nonfasting glycemia warrants further study.
National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower socioeconomic status is associated with excess disease burden from diabetes. Diabetes self-management support interventions are needed that are effective in engaging lower income patients, addressing competing life priorities and barriers to self-care, and facilitating behavior change.
To pilot test feasibility, acceptability, and effect on disease control of a problem-based diabetes self-management training adapted for low literacy and accessibility.
Two-arm randomized controlled trial powered to detect a 0.50% change in A1C at follow-up with a 2-sided alpha of 0.05 in a pooled analysis.
Fifty-six urban African-American patients with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal blood sugar, blood pressure, or cholesterol control recruited from a diabetes registry within a university-affiliated managed care organization.
A group, problem-based diabetes self-management training designed for delivery in an intensive and a condensed program format. Three intensive and three condensed program groups were conducted during the trial.
Clinical (A1C, systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], LDL and HDL cholesterol) and behavioral (knowledge, problem solving, self-management behavior) data were measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention (corresponding with 6-9 months following baseline).
Adoption of both programs was high (>85% attendance rates, 95% retention). At 3 months post-intervention, the between-group difference in A1C change was -0.72% (p = 0.02), in favor of the intensive program. A1C reduction was partially mediated by problem-solving skill at follow-up (ß = -0.13, p = 0.04). Intensive program patients demonstrated within-group improvements in knowledge (p < 0.001), problem-solving (p = 0.01), and self-management behaviors (p = 0.04). Among the subsets of patients with suboptimal blood pressure or lipids at baseline, the intensive program yielded clinically significant individual improvements in SBP, DBP, and LDL cholesterol. Patient satisfaction and usability ratings were high for both programs.
A literacy-adapted, intensive, problem-solving-based diabetes self-management training was effective for key clinical and behavioral outcomes in a lower income patient sample.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of General Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low serum potassium appears to be independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes, and low dietary potassium is more common in African Americans than in whites.
We hypothesized that low serum potassium contributes to the excess risk of diabetes in African Americans.
We analyzed data collected from 1987 to 1996 from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. At baseline, we identified 2716 African American and 9493 white participants without diabetes. We used multivariate Cox models to estimate the relative hazards (RHs) of incident diabetes related to baseline serum potassium during 9 y of follow-up.
Mean serum potassium concentrations were lower in African Americans than in whites at baseline (4.2 compared with 4.5 mEq/L; P < 0.01), and African Americans had a greater incidence of diabetes than did whites (26 compared with 13 cases/1000 person-years). The adjusted RHs (95% CI) of incident diabetes for those with serum potassium concentrations of <4.0, 4.0-4.4, and 4.5-4.9 mEq/L, compared with those with serum potassium concentrations of 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (referent), were 2.28 (1.21, 4.28), 1.97 (1.06, 3.65), and 1.85 (0.99, 3.47) for African Americans and 1.53 (1.14, 2.05), 1.49 (1.19, 1.87), and 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) for whites, respectively. Racial differences in serum potassium appeared to explain 18% of the excess risk of diabetes in African Americans, which is comparable with the percentage of risk explained by racial differences in body mass index (22%).
Low serum potassium concentrations in African Americans may contribute to their excess risk of type 2 diabetes relative to whites. Whether interventions to increase serum potassium concentrations in African Americans might reduce their excess risk deserves further study. The ARIC Study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes [GDM] predicts childhood growth independent of the effect on infant birthweight. We conducted a prospective analysis of 28,358 mother-infant pairs who enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1965. The offspring were followed until age 7. Four hundred and eighty-four mothers (1.7%) had GDM. The mean birthweight was 3.2 kg (range 1.1-5.6 kg). Maternal characteristics (age, education, race, family income, pre-pregnancy body mass index and pregnancy weight gain) and measures of childhood growth (birthweight, weight at ages 4, and 7) differed significantly by GDM status (all P < 0.05). As expected, compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, mothers with GDM gave birth to offspring that had higher weights at birth. The offspring of mothers with GDM were larger at age 7 as indicated by greater weight, BMI and BMI z-score compared to the offspring of mothers without GDM at that age (all P < 0.05). These differences at age 7 persisted even after adjustment for infant birthweight. Furthermore, the offspring of mothers with GDM had a 61% higher odds of being overweight at age 7 compared to the offspring of mothers without GDM after adjustment for maternal BMI, pregnancy weight gain, family income, race and birthweight [OR = 1.61 (95%CI:1.07, 1.28)]. Our results indicate that maternal GDM status is associated with offspring overweight status during childhood. This relationship is only partially mediated by effects on birthweight.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Maternal and Child Health Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies examining the relationship between the C282Y and H63D HFE mutations and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have yielded conflicting results. The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate and summarize data on the association between these two variants and the presence of NAFLD.
The authors searched EMBASE and PUBMED from August 1, 1996 to August 12, 2010. Two investigators independently conducted data abstraction. Ethnic specific weighted prevalence was calculated and pooled odds ratios were estimated using the random effects model.
From 2542 references, the authors included 16 case-control studies and 14 case-only studies, or 2610 cases and 7298 controls. The majority of the studies came from Caucasian populations (2287 cases and 4275 controls). The weighted prevalence of HFE mutations in cases was comparable to controls. The meta-analysis was restricted to Caucasians only because of the small sample size of non Caucasian participants. The pooled odds ratio for the presence of any HFE genetic variant in cases was 1.03 (95%CI: 0.90, 1.17; I(2): 65.8%, 95%CI: 38.5, 81.0). The presence of other genotypes and secondary analyses yielded similar non significant findings.
Our systematic review does not support an association between the HFE genetic variants and the presence of NAFLD.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the association between high blood pressure and incident type 2 diabetes in African Americans and whites aged 35-54 years at baseline.
We combined data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, and the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. Overall, 10,893 participants (57% women; 23% African American) were categorized by baseline blood pressure (normal, prehypertension, hypertension) and examined for incident diabetes (median follow-up 8.9 years).
Overall, 14.6% of African Americans and 7.9% of whites developed diabetes. Age-adjusted incidence was increasingly higher across increasing blood pressure groups (P values for trend: <0.05 for African American men; <0.001 for other race-sex groups). After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, prehypertension or hypertension (compared with normal blood pressure) was associated with greater risks of diabetes in whites (hazard ratio [HR] for prehypertension: 1.32 [95% CI 1.09-1.61]; for hypertension: 1.25 [1.03-1.53]), but not African Americans (HR for prehypertension: 0.86 [0.63-1.17]; for hypertension: 0.92 [0.70-1.21]). HRs for developing diabetes among normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive African Americans versus normotensive whites were: 2.75, 2.28, and 2.36, respectively (P values <0.001).
In African Americans, higher diabetes incidence among hypertensive individuals may be explained by BMI, fasting glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol. In whites, prehypertension and hypertension are associated with greater risk of diabetes, beyond that explained by other risk factors. African Americans, regardless of blood pressure, have greater risks of developing diabetes than whites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the associations of nontraditional (fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-anhydroglucitol [1,5-AG]) and standard (fasting glucose, HbA(1c)) glycemic markers with common microvascular conditions associated with diabetes mellitus.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,600 participants (227 with a history of diabetes and 1,323 without) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a community-based population. We conducted logistic regression analyses of the associations of diabetes-specific tertiles of fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1/(1,5-AG), fasting glucose, and HbA(1c) with prevalence of chronic kidney disease, albuminuria, and retinopathy after adjustment for demographic, clinical, and lifestyle variables.
We observed significant positive trends in the associations of each marker with albuminuria and retinopathy, even after accounting for demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors (all P trends <0.05). The associations with chronic kidney disease were similar in direction but were only significant for higher glycated albumin (P trend = 0.005), fructosamine (P trend = 0.003), and HbA(1c) (P trend = 0.005) values. After further adjustment for HbA(1c), glycated albumin and fructosamine remained significantly or borderline significantly associated with the microvascular outcomes.
In cross-sectional analyses, two serum markers of glycemia-glycated albumin and fructosamine-are as, or more strongly, associated with microvascular conditions as HbA(1c). These markers may be useful in settings where whole blood is not available. Whether they might complement or outperform HbA(1c) in terms of long-term predictive value requires further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and related conditions in Asian Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites.
We analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 1997 to 2008 to construct a nationally representative sample of 230,503 U.S. adults aged ≥ 18 years. Of these adults, 11,056 identified themselves as Asian Americans and 219,447 as non-Hispanic whites.
The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher in Asian Americans than in whites throughout the study period (4.3-8.2% vs. 3.8-6.0%), and there was a significant upward trend in both ethnic groups (P < 0.01). BMI also was increased in both groups, but age- and sex-adjusted BMI was consistently lower in Asian Americans. In fully adjusted logistic regression models, Asian Americans remained 30-50% more likely to have diabetes than their white counterparts. In addition, Asian Indians had the highest odds of prevalent type 2 diabetes, followed by Filipinos, other Asians, and Chinese.
Compared with their white counterparts, Asian Americans have a significantly higher risk for type 2 diabetes, despite having substantially lower BMI. Additional investigation of this disparity is warranted, with the aim of tailoring optimal diabetes prevention strategies to Asian Americans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) genetic variation affects diabetic nephropathy and albuminuria. Our aim was to evaluate associations with albuminuria of six GLUT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs), particularly XbaI and the previously associated Enhancer-2 (Enh2) SNP.
A two-stage case-control study was nested in a prospective cohort study of 2156 African Americans and 8122 European Americans with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Cases comprised albuminuria (N = 825; ≥ 30 μg/mg) and macroalbuminuria (N = 173; ≥ 300 μg/mg). ACR < 30 μg/mg classified controls (n = 9453). Logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) assessed associations. The evaluation phase (stage 1, n = 2938) tested associations of albuminuria (n = 305) with six GLUT1 SNPs: rs841839, rs3768043, rs2297977, Enh2(rs841847) XbaI (rs841853), and rs841858. Enh2 was examined separately in the replication phase (stage 2, n = 7340) and the total combined sample (n = 10,278), with all analyses stratified by race and type 2 diabetes.
In European Americans, after adjusting for diabetes and other GLUT1 SNPs in stage 1, Enh2 risk genotype (TT) was more common in albuminuric cases (OR = 3.37, P = 0.090) whereas XbaI (OR = 0.94, p = 0.931) and remaining SNPs were not. In stage 1, the Enh2 association with albuminuria was significant among diabetic European Americans (OR = 2.36, P = 0.025). In African Americans, Enh2 homozygosity was rare (0.3%); XbaI was common (18.0% AA) and not associated with albuminuria. In stage 2 (n = 7,340), Enh2 risk genotype had increased but non-significant OR among diabetic European Americans (OR = 1.66, P = 0.192) and not non-diabetics (OR = 0.99, p = 0.953), not replicating stage 1. Combining stages 1 and 2, Enh2 was associated with albuminuria (OR 2.14 [1.20-3.80], P = 0.009) and macroalbuminuria (OR 2.69, [1.02-7.09], P = 0.045) in diabetic European Americans. The Enh2 association with macroalbuminuria among non-diabetic European Americans with fasting insulin (OR = 1.84, P = 0.210) was stronger at the highest insulin quartile (OR = 4.08, P = 0.040).
As demonstrated with type 1 diabetic nephropathy, the GLUT1 Enh2 risk genotype, instead of XbaI, may be associated with type 2 diabetic albuminuria among European Americans, though an association is not conclusive. The association among diabetic European Americans found in stage 1 was not replicated in stage 2; however, this risk association was evident after combining all diabetic European Americans from both stages. Additionally, our results suggest this association may extend to non-diabetics with high insulin concentrations. Rarity of the Enh2 risk genotype among African Americans precludes any definitive conclusions, although data suggest a risk-enhancing role.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of pre-existing diabetes on breast cancer-related outcomes.
We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from inception through July 1, 2009, using search terms related to diabetes mellitus, cancer, and prognostic outcome. Studies were included if they reported a prognostic outcome by diabetes status, evaluated a cancer population, and contained original data published in the English language. We performed a meta-analysis of pre-existing diabetes and its effect on all-cause mortality in patients with breast cancer and qualitatively summarized other prognostic outcomes. Results: Of 8,828 titles identified, eight articles met inclusion/exclusion criteria and described outcomes in patients with breast cancer and diabetes. Pre-existing diabetes was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in six of seven studies. In a meta-analysis, patients with breast cancer and diabetes had a significantly higher all-cause mortality risk (pooled hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.65) compared with their nondiabetic counterparts. Three of four studies found pre-existing diabetes to be associated with more advanced stage at presentation. Diabetes was also associated with altered regimens for breast cancer treatment and increased toxicity from chemotherapy.
Compared with their nondiabetic counterparts, patients with breast cancer and pre-existing diabetes have a greater risk of death and tend to present at later stages and receive altered treatment regimens. Studies are needed to investigate pathophysiologic interactions between diabetes and breast cancer and determine whether improvements in diabetes care can reduce mortality in patients with breast cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although A1C is now recommended to diagnose diabetes, its test performance for diagnosis and prognosis is uncertain. Our objective was to assess the test performance of A1C against single and repeat glucose measurements for diagnosis of prevalent diabetes and for prediction of incident diabetes.
We conducted population-based analyses of 12,485 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and a subpopulation of 691 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) with repeat test results.
Against a single fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, the sensitivity and specificity of A1C ≥6.5% for detection of prevalent diabetes were 47 and 98%, respectively (area under the curve 0.892). Against repeated fasting glucose (3 years apart) ≥126 mg/dl, sensitivity improved to 67% and specificity remained high (97%) (AUC 0.936). Similar results were obtained in NHANES III against repeated fasting glucose 2 weeks apart. The accuracy of A1C was consistent across age, BMI, and race groups. For individuals with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl and A1C ≥6.5% at baseline, the 10-year risk of diagnosed diabetes was 88% compared with 55% among those individuals with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl and A1C 5.7-<6.5%.
A1C performs well as a diagnostic tool when diabetes definitions that most closely resemble those used in clinical practice are used as the "gold standard." The high risk of diabetes among individuals with both elevated fasting glucose and A1C suggests a dual role for fasting glucose and A1C for prediction of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence implicates insufficient oxidative capacity in the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has not been well tested in large, population-based studies.
To test this hypothesis, we assessed the cross-sectional association of plasma lactate, an indicator of the gap between oxidative capacity and energy expenditure, with type 2 diabetes in 1709 older adults not taking metformin, who were participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes rose across lactate quartiles (11, 14, 20 and 30%; P for trend <0.0001). Following adjustment for demographic factors, physical activity, body mass index and waist circumference, the relative odds of type 2 diabetes across lactate quartiles were 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-1.64], 1.64 (95% CI 1.03-2.64) and 2.23 (95% CI 1.38-3.59), respectively. Furthermore, lactate was associated with higher fasting glucose among non-diabetic adults.
Plasma lactate was strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in older adults. Plasma lactate deserves greater attention in studies of oxidative capacity and diabetes risk.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and retinopathy) and formally tested for the presence of risk thresholds in the relationships of glycated hemoglobin with these outcomes.
Prospective cohort and cross-sectional analyses of 11,357 participants (773 with a history of diagnosed diabetes) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
During a median of 14 years of follow-up of individuals without diagnosed diabetes at baseline, clinical categories of glycated hemoglobin were associated with risk of chronic kidney disease, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.12 (0.94-1.34) and 1.39 (1.04-1.85) for glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4% and ≥6.5%, respectively, as compared with <5.7% (P trend = 0.002). The corresponding HRs for ESRD were 1.51 (0.82-2.76) and 1.98 (0.83-4.73), respectively (P trend = 0.047). In the absence of diagnosed diabetes, glycated hemoglobin was cross sectionally associated with the presence of moderate/severe retinopathy, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.42 (0.69-2.92) and 2.91 (1.19-7.11) for glycated hemoglobin 5.7-<6.5% and ≥6.5%, respectively, compared with <5.7% (P trend = 0.011). Risk associations were stronger among individuals with a history of diabetes. We did not observe significant thresholds in the associations of glycated hemoglobin with kidney disease risk or retinopathy.
These data from a community-based, biracial population support the use of new 2010 American Diabetes Association glycated hemoglobin cut points for the diagnosis of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum potassium levels affect insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells, and hypokalemia associated with diuretic use has been associated with dysglycemia. We hypothesized that adults with lower serum potassium levels and lower dietary potassium intake are at higher risk for incident diabetes mellitus (DM), independent of diuretic use.
We analyzed data from 12 209 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, beginning in 1986, with 9 years of in-person follow-up and 17 years of telephone follow-up. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) of incident DM associated with baseline serum potassium levels.
During 9 years of in-person follow-up, 1475 participants developed incident DM. In multivariate analyses, we found an inverse association between serum potassium and risk of incident DM. Compared with those with a high-normal serum potassium level (5.0-5.5 mEq/L), adults with serum potassium levels lower than 4.0 mEq/L, 4.0 to lower than 4.5 mEq/L, and 4.5 to lower than 5.0 mEq/L had an adjusted HR (95% confidence interval [CI]) of incident DM of 1.64 (95% CI, 1.29-2.08), 1.64 (95% CI, 1.34-2.01), and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.14-1.71), respectively. An increased risk persisted during an additional 8 years of telephone follow-up based on self-report with HRs of 1.2 to 1.3 for those with a serum potassium level lower than 5.0 mEq/L. Dietary potassium intake was significantly associated with risk of incident DM in unadjusted models but not in multivariate models.
Serum potassium level is an independent predictor of incident DM in this cohort. Further study is needed to determine if modification of serum potassium could reduce the subsequent risk of DM.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Archives of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weight loss through lifestyle changes is recommended for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes is unproven.
Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a 16-center clinical trial with 5,145 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, who were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) to induce a minimum weight loss of 7% or a control group who received diabetes support and education (DSE). In the Fatty Liver Ancillary Study, 96 participants completed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify hepatic steatosis and tests to exclude other causes of liver disease at baseline and 12 months. We defined steatosis >5.5% as NAFLD.
Participants were 49% women and 68% white. The mean age was 61 years, mean BMI was 35 kg/m(2), mean steatosis was 8.0%, and mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 20.5 and 24.2 units/l, respectively. After 12 months, participants assigned to ILI (n = 46) lost more weight (-8.5 vs. -0.05%; P < 0.01) than those assigned to DSE and had a greater decline in steatosis (-50.8 vs. -22.8%; P = 0.04) and in A1C (-0.7 vs. -0.2%; P = 0.04). There were no significant 12-month changes in AST or ALT levels. At 12 months, 26% of DSE participants and 3% (1 of 31) of ILI participants without NAFLD at baseline developed NAFLD (P < 0.05).
A 12-month intensive lifestyle intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes reduces steatosis and incident NAFLD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations between obesity and lacunar, nonlacunar thrombotic, and cardioembolic stroke are not firmly established.
Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were recorded at baseline between 1987 and 1989 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study for 13 549 black and white adults who were aged from 45 to 64 years and had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer. The incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes was ascertained from surveillance of hospital records over a median follow-up of 16.9 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, education, smoking status and cigarette years, usual ethanol intake, and leisure time sports index were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs).
The ARIC sample at baseline was 43.8% men and 27.3% blacks; mean age was 53.9 years. Mean BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were 27.7 kg/m(2), 96.8 cm, and 0.92, respectively. The associations of lacunar (n = 138), nonlacunar (n = 338), and cardioembolic (n = 122) ischemic stroke incidence with obesity measures were all generally positive and linear. The HRs for the highest versus lowest quintile of the 3 obesity measures ranged from 1.43-2.21 for lacunar stroke, 1.90-2.16 for nonlacunar stroke, and 2.37-2.91 for cardioembolic stroke.
Although different pathophysiological mechanisms may exist, the incidences of lacunar, nonlacunar, and cardioembolic stroke were all significantly positively associated with the degree of obesity, regardless of the measure used.
Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial portion of the public health burden of heart failure is due to hospitalizations, many of which are for causes other than cardiovascular disease. We assessed whether left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was associated with increased risk of both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular hospitalizations in a community sample of African Americans.
African American participants from the Jackson, MS, site of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who underwent echocardiography were followed for 12 years. Hospitalization rates among individuals with and without LV systolic dysfunction were compared using negative binomial regression.
Among 2,416 participants with echocardiograms, LV systolic dysfunction was found in 61 (2.5%). Participants with LV dysfunction experienced 366 hospitalizations, a rate of 1.27 per person-year, compared with 0.25 per person-year among individuals without LV dysfunction. The incidence rate ratio adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and other risk factors was 3.11 (95% CI 2.22-4.35). The adjusted rate ratios were 4.76 (95% CI 2.90-7.20) for cardiovascular and 2.67 (95% CI 1.82-3.90) for noncardiovascular diagnoses, with similar findings in the subset of individuals with asymptomatic LV dysfunction. The percentage attributable risks for hospitalizations were 87% and 74% for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes (79% and 63% after adjustment).
African American individuals with LV dysfunction are at an increased risk of hospitalization due to a wide range of causes, with noncardiovascular hospitalizations accounting for nearly half the increased risk. To the extent that estimates of risk focus on cardiovascular morbidity, they may underestimate the true health burden of LV dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Caucasians, data from large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on IFG in the context of metabolic risk factors for diabetes.
We investigated the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and incident IFG defined as fasting serum glucose levels of 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) in 1377 African American and 5152 Caucasian participants without diabetes and IFG at intake who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study from 1987 to 1989 and were followed for 9 years.
Incident IFG was identified in 810 (58.8%) African American and 2652 (51.5%) Caucasian participants. Compared to homozygous CC Caucasian individuals, heterozygous CT [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09 (95% CI = 1.03-1.15)] and homozygous TT [1.18 (1.05-1.33)] individuals had significantly higher risk of developing IFG over 9-year follow-up. The association between rs7903146 and IFG risk was stronger in Caucasians with obesity [HR(CTvs.CC) = 1.28 (1.12, 1.47); HR(TTvs.CC) = 1.65 (1.25, 2.17)] or high triglycerides [HR(CTvs.CC) = 1.31(1.10, 1.56); HR(TTvs.CC) = 1.72 (1.21, 2.43)]. No association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and incident IFG was noted in African Americans.
Our study replicates the association between rs7903146 and IFG risk in a population-based, longitudinal cohort of Caucasians but not in African Americans. For the first time, our study provides evidence for interactions between TCF7L2 and metabolic risk factors on the occurrence of IFG in Caucasians.
Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors.
In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders.
The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors.
In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social environment with weight control practices.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · BMC Public Health