Triantafyllos A Albanis

University of Ioannina, Yannina, Epirus, Greece

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Publications (146)384.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Photocatalytic decomposition and mineralization of the herbicide clopyralid in aqueous solutions has been studied, aiming at an extended kinetic analysis, the elucidation of potential degradation pathways and the determination of ecotoxicity. RESULTS: The pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics was studied under different operational conditions, such as type of photocatalyst, catalyst loading, initial pH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. The degradation rates proved to be strongly influenced by these parameters. Organic chlorine and nitrogen were easily converted into inorganic in the presence of TiO2 P25, resulting in 90% conversion in both cases within 180min of illumination, while conversion was enhanced in the presence of H2O2. Ten possible transformation products were identified by means of LC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Acute toxicity profiles using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri showed an increasing trend during the first 60min of illumination, which thereafter, progressively decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Intermediates were formed mainly through pyridine ring transformation, dechlorination and decarboxylation reactions. The increasing trend in ecotoxicity at the first stages of degradation could be attributed to the progressive formation of intermediates more toxic than the parent molecule, or due to synergistic effects among the transformation products.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    Christina I. Nannou · Christina I. Kosma · Triantafyllos A. Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: The present work illustrates the development of an analytical method, based on offline solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography–electron spray ionisation–single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for the simultaneous determination of pharmaceuticals belonging to various therapeutic classes (analgesics/anti-inflammatories, lipid regulators, antibiotics, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, psychomotor stimulants, glucocorticoid steroids, disinfectants, beta-blockers, H2 receptor antagonists and oestrogens) in surface waters. The method developed was applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in surface waters from different sampling points along the aquatic systems of Lake Pamvotis and the River Kalamas, close to the city of Ioannina (Epirus, Greece), while the monitoring programme was carried out during the four seasons of the year. According to the results obtained, the majority of the compounds were detected in discrepant concentrations. The concentrations for all the compounds ranged from levels below quantification limit to 3506 ng/L, with caffeine and salicylic acid being the ubiquitous compounds. The results of the monitoring contributed substantially to the knowledge on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in Greece and more specifically in surface waters of the region of Epirus. Regarding the environmental risk due to the presence of target compounds in surface waters, this was estimated calculating risk quotients (RQs) for different aquatic organisms (algae, daphnids and fish). The results denoted a possible threat for the aquatic environment, rendering in this way the RQ method as a helpful tool for a first approach. Extensive study is needed for triclosan, salicylic acid, sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin in order to better correlate their occurrence and potential toxic effects in aquatic life and humans.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
  • Christina I. Kosma · Dimitra A. Lambropoulou · Triantafyllos A. Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: Many pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are not efficiently removed from wastewater treatment plants and enter into surface waters. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and behavior of metformin, one of the most prescribed drugs worldwide, and its biological transformation product guanylurea, in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Greece. All WWTPs were equipped with conventional activated sludge treatment and the samples were taken from the influents and the effluents, over the four seasons of one year. The analytical method developed based on SPE followed by LC-UV/Vis-ESI/MS analysis, while positive findings were confirmed also by means of LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. High polarity of both compounds led to the extraction with Oasis HLB and the use of the anionic surfactant SDS. The results showed that metformin dominated in the influents (bql-1167 ng/L), while guanylurea in the effluents (bql-627 ng/L) of the wastewater treatment plants, with Metformin/Guanylurea ratio ranging between 0.88 and 81.3 in the influents and between 0.005 and 0.78 in the effluents. Lack of a clear seasonal tendency in the occurrence and removal or formation was observed. Finally, an ecotoxicological risk assessment of metformin in effluent wastewaters took place by calculating the ratio between the environmental concentrations (MEC) and the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). Despite the fact that metformin presented low risk in all cases, an environmental concern is suspected for guanylurea since it is continuously released into the aquatic environment.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Water Research
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    Ioanna E. Rempelaki · Vasilios A. Sakkas · Triantafyllos A. Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, a new, rapid and sensitive, dispersive suspended microextraction procedure, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, was employed for the determination of zearalenone in beer samples. The liquid-phase microextraction method is based on solvent dispersion and magnetic stirring. Validation was carried out according to the Commission Decision 2006/406/EC guidelines. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.44 μg kg−1 and the limit of quantification was calculated to be 1.45 μg kg−1. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) for inter-day precision was found to be 5.4% and for intra-day precision it was found to be 3.6%. The linearity was obtained using five points in the concentration range of 1.5-45 μg kg−1 and the recovery was >91%. The occurrence of the selected mycotoxin was studied in several beer samples collected from the local market from the region of Epirus.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Analytical methods
  • Ioanna P. Kaveli · Vasilios A. Sakkas · Triantafyllos A. Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, relatively rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) followed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of seven endocrine disruptor pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, dimethoate, fenitrothion, malathion, pendimethalin and procymidone) in apple juice. This approach is based on the emulsification of organic extraction solvent in a diluted apple juice sample by ultrasound radiation and further separation of both liquids phases by centrifugation. The influence of the different parameters affecting the procedure (extraction solvent, extraction solvent volume, ultrasound time, centrifugation time, ionic strength and pH) was evaluated in order to optimise the efficiency of the extraction process. Target analytes were extracted from a 0.5 g apple juice sample that was diluted by 10 times with aqueous buffer solution (pH 7). The optimised USAEME procedure used 100 μL of chloroform as extraction solvent, 8 min of ultrasound extraction, ionic strength (2.5% w/v) and 7.5 min of centrifugation at 3800 rpm. The optimised method presented recoveries between 70 and 113% for the target analytes. Acceptable linearity for all target analytes was recorded with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.992. The limits of quantification were found between 1.1 and 4.6 μg kg−1 ensuring compliance with the maximum residue limits established by the European Commission. The proposed method was applied for the determination of the endocrine disruptor pesticides in apple samples proving its suitability to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) no. 400/2014.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
  • Nikolaos P Petridis · Vasilios A Sakkas · Triantafyllos A Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: A dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. The optimization of the method was achieved with a 2(7-4) Plackett-Burman design, while the significant factors were optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The parameters that were studied included the sample volume, organic solvent volume, extraction time, restoration time and organic solvent. The optimum experimental conditions for the proposed method comprised 4.3mL of the water sample, 93μL of toluene as the extraction solvent, a 104-s extraction time and a 10-min restoration time. The recoveries varied from 70 to 111%. Chrysene was the least recovered compound, while anthracene displayed the highest extraction efficiency. The analytical method (DSME) was shown to be linear (R(2)>0.993) over the studied range of concentrations, exhibiting satisfactory precision (RSD%<10.6%) and reaching limits of detection between 8 and 46ngL(-1).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    ABSTRACT: Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are compounds characterized as persistent organic pollutants (POP) in the environment. These compounds are monitored globally since they enter the human body and accumulate in tissues, resulting in consequent adverse effects. In this study concentrations of selected OC compounds were determined in human autopsy lungs from Epirus, a relatively restricted region in northwestern Greece. This is the first epidemiologic study from Greece reporting on monitoring of environmental pollutants in human autopsy material. Thirty lungs collected from that number of autopsy cases were analyzed: 19 males and 11 females. The age range was 14-91 yr (mean ± SD = 61.8 ± 22.5 yr). Twenty-two cases (73%) were positive for at least one pollutant and eight cases were negative (27%). PCB were the most abundant class of contaminants, detected in 15 out of the 30 cases (50%). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) were second and third in abundance with 9 (30%) and 8 (27%) positive cases, respectively. The frequency of detection showed a tendency to increase with age of individuals. The patterns of OC found in human autopsy lungs were similar to those reported previously for other human specimens. Our results demonstrated a similar trend in contamination sources and distribution has occurred in western Greece as noted globally.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) is proposed based on C18-functionalized magnetic silica nanoparticles as sorbents, for the determination of endocrine disruptors - 20 organochlorine pesticides and 6 polychlorinated biphenyls - in milk samples. Magnetic nanoparticles are characterized by several techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and Fourier transform-infrared. The MSPE is performed by dispersion of the Fe3O4@SiO2@C18 nanoparticles in milk samples with sonication, after protein precipitation. Then, the sorbent is collected by applying an external magnetic field and the analytes are desorbed by n-hexane. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of target analytes by the magnetic nanoparticles are investigated, including washing and elution solvents, amount of sorbents, time of extraction and elution, sample and elution solvent volume. The proposed method is optimized by means of experimental design and response surface methodology. When coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection and under optimum extraction conditions, average recoveries of target analytes are found to be in the range of 79% to 116%. The proposed MSPE-GC-MS analytical method has a linear calibration curve for all target analytes with coefficients of determination to range from 0.9950 to 0.9999. The limits of quantification are found to be between 0.2 and 1μg/L ensuring compliance with the maximum residue limits established by European Commission and Codex Alimentarius, for OCPs and PCBs residues in milk. The proposed method is applied to the determination of target analytes in milk samples from local markets.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
  • Vasiliki Boti · Vasilios Sakkas · Triantafyllos Albanis

    No preview · Chapter · Feb 2014
  • Christina I Kosma · Dimitra A Lambropoulou · Triantafyllos A Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, an extensive study on the presence of eighteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Greece has been conducted. The study covered four sampling periods over 1-year, where samples (influents; effluents) from eight WWTPs of various cities in Greece were taken. All WWTPs investigated are equipped with conventional activated sludge treatment. A common pre-concentration step based on SPE was applied, followed by LC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS. Further confirmation of positive findings was accomplished by using LC coupled to a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The results showed the occurrence of all target compounds in the wastewater samples with concentrations up to 96.65μg/L. Paracetamol, caffeine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and salicylic acid were the dominant compounds, while tolfenamic acid, fenofibrate and simvastatin were the less frequently detected compounds with concentrations in effluents below the LOQ. The removal efficiencies showed that many WWTPs were unable to effectively remove most of the PPCPs investigated. Finally, the study provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in wastewaters by means of the risk quotient (RQ). RQs were more than unity for various compounds in the effluents expressing possible threat for the aquatic environment. Triclosan was found to be the most critical compound in terms of contribution and environmental risk, concluding that it should be seriously considered as a candidate for regulatory monitoring and prioritization on a European scale on the basis of realistic PNECs. The results of the extensive monitoring study contributed to a better insight on PPCPs in Greece and their presence in influent and effluent wastewaters. Furthermore, the unequivocal identification of two transformation products of trimethoprim in real wastewaters by using the advantages of the LTQ Orbitrap capabilities provides information that should be taken into consideration in future PPCP monitoring studies in wastewaters.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Science of The Total Environment
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    ABSTRACT: The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was exposed to methyltestosterone (MET, 1.6-126μgL(-1)), letrozole (LET, 10-1000μgL(-1)), triphenyltin chloride (TPT, 0.0014-0.0088μgL(-1) TPT-Sn) and fenarimol (FEN, 2.8-105μgL(-1)) for 21d covering a full life-cycle. All four compounds investigated are known to act as androgens in vertebrates. The digestive tract, musculature, nervous system, reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands were examined by light microscopy after routine staining and immune-labelling for detection of apoptosis and determination of proliferation activities. MET induced an inhibition of oogenesis, oocyte maturation and yolk formation, respectively, which was most pronounced at the lowest concentrations tested. In LET exposed males, spermatogenesis was enhanced with very prominent gamete stages; in some stages apoptosis occurred. The spermatophore was hypertrophied and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035μg TPT-SnL(-1), whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088μg TPT-SnL(-1). In FEN exposed females proliferation of gametes was reduced and yolk formation showed irregular features at 2.8-105μgL(-1). In FEN exposed males an elevated proliferation activity was observed. No pathological alterations in other organ systems, e.g. the digestive tract including the hindgut acting as respiratory organ, the nervous system, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Chemosphere
  • M. Azharul Islam · Vasilios Sakkas · Triantafyllos A. Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: Removal of two organophosphorus pesticides bromophos methyl [BM: O, O- dimethyl - O - (2, 5-dichloro -4 bromophenyl) phosphorothioate] and quinalphos [QP: O, O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] on used tea leaves were studied by batch equilibration method. Adsorption isotherms were conformed well to Langmuir for quinalphos and Freundlich equation for bromophos methyl. The kinetic data fitted well by the pseudo second order model for both pesticides. Box-Behnken design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of results. The interactions of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on two pesticides adsorption by used tea leaves were investigated by this model. The optimum pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose with their corresponding removal efficiency were found to be 7.88, 11.94 mg L-1, 0.37g and 100% for bromophos methyl respectively, for quinalphos 8.72, 6.44 mg L-1, 0.39g and 93.98% respectively. Keywords: Box-Behnken; quinalphos; bromophos methyl; Kinetics; used tea leaves
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013
  • P. Calza · V.A. Sakkas · C. Medana · A.D. Vlachou · F. Dal Bello · T. A. Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: Chemometric optimization tools were employed, such as experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) to assess the efficiency of two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): homogeneous Fenton (FeII/H2O2) and heterogeneous (TiO2) photocatalysis for the degradation of the artificial sweetener sucralose. The aqueous samples were irradiated under a variety of experimental conditions (pH, light intensity) and with different amounts of H2O2, Fe(II), TiO2. The use of RSM allowed fitting the optimal values of the parameters leading to the degradation of the contaminant. Also, a single polynomial expression modeling the reaction was obtained for both AOPs.The intermediates formed during the photocatalytic and photo-Fenton process were investigated and characterized by means of HPLC/HRMS. The photocatalysed transformation of sucralose proceeds through the formation of few (eight) products, involving four different pathways: hydroxylation of the molecule, oxidation of the alcohol function, dechlorination and the cleavage of glycoside bond. All the identified intermediates were easily degraded and within four hours of irradiation complete mineralization was achieved. A comparison with Photo-Fenton reaction was also reported.In addition Microtox bioassay (Vibrio fischeri) was employed in evaluating the ecotoxicity of solutions treated by heterogeneous photocatalysis. Results clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the photocatalytic process in the detoxification of the irradiated solutions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Applied Catalysis B Environmental
  • Ourania D Christopoulou · Vasilios A Sakkas · Triantafyllos A Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, fast, and inexpensive procedure for sample preparation based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed for the determination of Environmental Protection Agency 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust samples. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency such as type of dispersant, elution solvent, and solvent volume were evaluated and optimized with the aid of experimental design and response surface methodology. Analysis was performed by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis diode array detector (UV-DAD). For verification, a GC coupled with a mass spectrometer in SIM mode was also applied. Recoveries obtained were from 53 to 120% for all target analytes with detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 10 ng/g and 0.2 to 2 ng/g for LC-UV-DAD and GC-MS, respectively. The optimized method was used for the analysis of 11 household dust samples collected from private houses.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Separation Science
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    ABSTRACT: The Amvrakikos Gulf, located in the northwest Greece, is one of the largest semi-enclosed embayments being about 40 km long and 15 km wide. Water renewal is made via a narrow channel which connects the Gulf with the Ionian Sea having a 3.0 km length, width ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 km and depth from 2.0 to 13.0 m. The most common terms being used to indicate how fast the water of semi-enclosed coastal embayments is renewed are hydraulic retention time (HRT) and residence time (RT). A preliminary estimation of HRT and RT is performed via a 3-D integrated model consisting of the hydrodynamic sub-model FLOW-3DL and the water quality sub-model QUAL-3DL. The models involve the 3-D non-steady state continuity, momentum and convection-diffusion equations expressed in layer formulation. A space-staggered computational grid was used and the following conclusions were drawn: (1) The HRT ranges from 1.86 to 2.42 years. (2) The flow rates of Louros and Arachthos rivers, which gush into the Gulf, reduce the HRT by 0.56 years. (3) The effect of the wind on HRT is minor due to the small size of the entrance to the Gulf. (4) The theoretical RT is equal to 3.85 years.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Global Nest Journal
  • Theodora P Tsiallou · Vasilios A Sakkas · Triantafyllos A Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and green method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, mated to chemometrics and followed by mass spectrometric detection for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in water samples is developed and assessed in this work. Volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, ionic strength, extraction time, sample volume, as well as centrifugation time were initially optimized in a fractional factorial design. The obtained significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design and the quadratic model between the dependent and the independent variables was built. The obtained optimal conditions were: aqueous sample of 3.8 mL, 100 μL chloroform, 1.40 mL acetone, 4 min centrifugation time, natural pH containing 5% (w/v) NaCl, and centrifugation speed 4000 rpm. Method proved to be linear over a wide range of concentration for all analytes with R(2) between 0.9807 and 0.9959. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied between 3-13% and 4-16%, respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 0.007 to 1.0 μg L(-1) . The recommended method was applied to water samples including baby bath as well as swimming pool water samples and was compared with a previously reported method.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Separation Science
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    ABSTRACT: A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, α-BHC, β-BHC, γ-BHC, δ-BHC, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin ketone and methoxychlor) and six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in post-mortem human lung has been developed and validated. Response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function were employed to optimize the extraction conditions of MSPD. Extraction was carried out using Florisil (2.0 g) as the sorbent material as well as clean-up adsorbent (1.5401 g), n-hexane:dichloromethane (11:89, v/v) as the eluting solvent (15.45 mL) and Na₂SO₄ (2.0 g) as dehydrating agent. Determination and quantification of OCPs and PCBs residues were carried out using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). A mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was also used for confirmation purposes. Method detection limits by GC-MS ranged from 0.42 to 0.87 ng g⁻¹ and 0.51 to 1.35 ng g⁻¹, for OCPs and PCBs, respectively. Lower detection limits were calculated for GC-ECD ranging between 0.15-0.30 ng g⁻¹ and 0.18-0.48 ng g⁻¹, respectively. Relative standard deviations did not exceed 9%. Analytes provided recoveries ranging from 65% to 106%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of lung tissues from six autopsy cases.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    V. Evagelopoulos · T.A. Albanis · El. Kodona · S. Zoras

    Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to provide data on the Danube River Delta Biosphere (Romania) aquatic ecosystem quality and Vardar – Axios River Valley (FYR Macedonia – Greece) on comparison basis from on the long-term analytical investigation for specific indicators. In particular this paper is focused on the quality assessment of surface water, sediment and biota of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation. Information is presented on water and sediment quality variations in heavy metals over a seven-year period (2003 and 2009), from April to October. Samples have been collected monthly from two different locations (Murghiol and Uzlina) situated on St. Gheorghe branch. The presence of some toxic metals was noticed in surface waters and sediments. In both locations in different periods of time high concentrations of Fe, Mn, heptachlor, Lindane, PCBs, phenols, mineral oil in surface water represent an acute problem for the inhabitants of the Danube Delta which use water for household consumption directly from the Danube, without any treatment. This presents a series of disadvantages, such as a high risk of disease for the population, mostly for children and old people. The evolution of the pollution levels of Danube waters was compared with that of Axios/Vardar River, another major transboundary river in the Balkan area. KeywordsDanube Delta-Axios – Vardar River-ecosystem-metals-Pollution-drinking water-health-sediment-benthic macro invertebrates
    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2011
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    Ioannis Karaouzas · Nikolaos T Skoulikidis · Urania Giannakou · Triantafyllos A Albanis
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    ABSTRACT: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the spatial and temporal effects of OMW to stream macroinvertebrates and to ecological status of stream ecosystems. Biotic (macroinvertebrates) and abiotic (physicochemical, hydromorphological) data were monitored for two years thus following the biennial cycle of olive growth and production and hydrological variation (drought-wet years). The results of this study revealed the spatial and temporal structural deterioration of the aquatic community due to OMW pollution with consequent reduction of the river capacity for reducing the effects of polluting substances through internal mechanisms of self-purification. OMW, even highly diluted, had dramatic impacts on the aquatic fauna and to the ecological status of the receiving stream ecosystems. The organic load of the wastewater expressed as BOD(5), COD and TSS, substrate contamination (sewage bacteria) and distance from the mill outlet, were the most important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages while the typology (i.e. slope, altitude) and hydrology of the stream site (i.e. mountainous-lowland) and the intensity and volume of the wastewater were the most important determinants of self-purification processes. As OMW are usually being discharged in small size streams that are not considered in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, there is a need for including such systems into monitoring and assessment schemes as they may significantly contribute to the pollution load of the river basin. Furthermore, guidelines to manage these wastes through technologies that minimise their environmental impact and lead to a sustainable use of resources are critical.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Water Research