Loukia Tsaprouni

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (12)57.07 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by oxidative stress and increased risk of lung carcinoma. Oxidative stress causes DNA damage which can be repaired by DNA-dependent protein kinase complex. To investigate DNA damage/repair balance and DNA-dependent protein kinase complex in COPD lung and in an animal model of smoking-induced lung damage and to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on Ku expression and function in human bronchial epithelial cells. Protein expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry and/or western blotting. DNA damage/repair was measured using colorimetric assays. 8-OH-dG, a marker of oxidant-induced DNA damage, was statistically significantly increased in the peripheral lung of smokers (with and without COPD) compared with non-smokers, while the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (DNA damage and repair) was increased in smokers compared with non-smokers (p = 0.0012) and patients with COPD (p < 0.0148). Nuclear expression of Ku86, but not of DNA-PKcs, phospho-DNA-PKcs, Ku70 or γ-H2AFX, was reduced in bronchiolar epithelial cells from patients with COPD compared with normal smokers and non-smokers (p < 0.039). Loss of Ku86 expression was also observed in a smoking mouse model (p < 0.012) and prevented by antioxidants. Oxidants reduced (p < 0.0112) Ku86 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and Ku86 knock down modified AP sites in response to oxidative stress. Ineffective DNA repair rather than strand breakage per se accounts for the reduced AP sites observed in COPD and this is correlated with a selective decrease of the expression of Ku86 in the bronchiolar epithelium. DNA damage/repair imbalance may contribute to increased risk of lung carcinoma in COPD.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Thorax
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications of histones, particularly acetylation, are associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. We used two animal models of inflammation of the bowel and biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) to study the expression of acetylated histones (H) 3 and 4 in inflamed mucosa. Acetylation of histone H4 was significantly elevated in the inflamed mucosa in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis particularly on lysine residues (K) 8 and 12 in contrast to non-inflamed tissue. In addition, acetylated H4 was localised to inflamed tissue and to Peyer's patches (PP) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated rat models. Within the PP, H3 acetylation was detected in the mantle zone whereas H4 acetylation was seen in both the periphery and the germinal centre. Finally, acetylation of H4 was significantly upregulated in inflamed biopsies and PP from patients with CD. Enhanced acetylation of H4K5 and K16 was seen in the PP. These results demonstrate that histone acetylation is associated with inflammation and may provide a novel therapeutic target for mucosal inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Inflammation
  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2010
  • Ian M. Adcock · Loukia Tsaprouni · Pank Bhavsar
    No preview · Chapter · Jun 2008
  • Ian M Adcock · Loukia Tsaprouni · Pankaj Bhavsar · Kazuhiro Ito
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diverse cellular functions including the regulation of inflammatory gene expression, DNA repair and cell proliferation are regulated by epigenetic changes. Transcriptional co-activators possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and histone acetylation plays a major role in inflammatory gene expression. Other marks such as histone methylation are also associated with gene induction and gene repression. Recent evidence implicates histone acetylation and methylation as being crucial for the development of tolerance in macrophages and CpG methylation for T regulatory cell development and function. The expression of the enzymes that lay down or remove these epigenetic marks have not been well studied in human airways disease, but reduced HDAC2 expression and activity is reported in lung macrophages, biopsies and blood cells from patients with COPD, severe asthma and smoking asthma. In vitro, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) often lead to a further induction of inflammatory gene expression. This is not always the case, however, as HATs and HDACs also target non-histone proteins particularly transcription factors to alter their activity. Furthermore, trichostatin A, an HDAC inhibitor, can reduce inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. This effect of HDAC inhibitors may be due to their effects on cell death acting through acetylation of non-histone proteins. The role of epigenetic modifications in inflammatory gene expression and in the control of cell function in the airways is becoming clearer. Targeting specific enzymes involved in this process may lead to new therapeutic agents, in particular, in situations where current anti-inflammatory therapies are currently suboptimal.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Current Opinion in Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary calcium (Ca) positively modulates the susceptibility to colon cancer, but its effects on related or earlier colonic pathologies, such as inflammation and mucosal dysregulation, are poorly understood. We tested the effects of differing dietary Ca levels on acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. BALB/c mice received a normal Ca (NCa) diet (0.5% Ca), a high Ca (HCa) diet (1.5% Ca), a low Ca (LCa) diet (0.05% Ca), or a very low Ca (VLCa) diet (0.009% Ca) for 3 wk. Mucosal caspases 1, 3, and 9 were assessed by Western blotting, and the histological crypt score was assessed by microscopy. Half of the mice in each group received DSS (1.5%) for 20 d in their drinking water, and disease activity was assessed. Increasing or lowering dietary Ca increased mucosal caspases (P < 0.0001 vs. NCa). Crypt scores increased with decreasing dietary Ca levels (P < 0.0001, r = -0.675), indicating that elevated caspases in LCa groups reflected early subclinical inflammation. DSS-induced disease activity was higher in mice fed low dietary Ca levels [P < 0.0001, VLCa and DSS vs. NCa and DSS (NCaDSS) and P < 0.005, LCa and DSS vs. NCaDSS], and mice from the VLCa group were moribund within 11 d of DSS administration. Those in the HCa group did not differ greatly from controls. Together, these data indicate that Ca protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice. The mechanisms are unclear, but the calcium-sensing receptor and/or luminal precipitates of calcium phosphate microparticles may be involved. Whether these observations can be extended to patients with colitis or infectious diarrhea deserves consideration.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Nutrition
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    L G Tsaprouni · K Ito · I M Adcock · N Punchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is accumulating evidence that the transrepressional effect of glucocorticoids in down-regulating proinflammatory gene expression might be regulated by an action on histone acetylation. To investigate this, we studied the effect of two glucocorticoids (dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide) on reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced interleukin (IL)-8 release in a monocytic cell line and two lymphocytic cell lines (HUT-78 and Jurkat). The effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 release and its repression by glucocorticoids was also examined. LPS and TNF-alpha induced IL-8 release in all three cell lines and this induction was inhibited by both dexamethasone and triamcinolone. Pretreatment of cells with TSA enhanced basal and LPS- and TNFalpha-stimulated IL-8 release in all three cell lines. TSA also attenuated the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on stimulated IL-8 release. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that LPS and TNF-alpha enhanced histone acetylation at the IL-8 promoter and that this was inhibited by triamcinolone in all three cell types. Changes in histone acetylation at the IL-8 are important in its regulation by proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents, and modulation of this activity may have therapeutic potential in inflammatory conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
  • Ian M Adcock · Borja Cosio · Loukia Tsaprouni · Peter J Barnes · Kazuhiro Ito
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression, at least in part, is regulated by changes in histone acetylation status induced by activation of the proinflammatory redox-sensitive transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Hyperacetylated histone is associated with open actively transcribed DNA and enhanced inflammatory gene expression. In contrast, hypoacetylated histone is linked to a closed repressed DNA state and a lack of gene expression. The degree of inflammatory gene expression is a result of a balance between histone acetylation and histone deacetylation. One of the major mechanisms of glucocorticoid function is to recruit histone deacetylase enzymes to the site of active gene expression, thus reducing inflammation. Oxidative stress can enhance inflammatory gene expression by further stimulating AP-1- and NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression and elevating histone acetylation. In addition, oxidants can reduce glucocorticoid function by attenuating histone deacetylase activity and expression. Thus, oxidant stress, acting through changes in chromatin structure, can enhance inflammation and induce a state of relative glucocorticoid insensitivity. This may account for the lack of glucocorticoid sensitivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Antioxidants should reduce the inflammation and restore glucocorticoid sensitivity in these subjects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs with little or no response to glucocorticoids and a high level of oxidative stress. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is reduced in cells of cigarette smokers, and low concentrations of theophylline can increase HDAC activity. We measured the effect of theophylline on HDAC activity and inflammatory gene expression in alveolar macrophages (AM) from patients with COPD. AM from normal smokers showed a decrease in HDAC activity compared with normal control subjects, and this was further reduced in COPD patients (51% decrease, P < 0.01). COPD AMs also showed increased basal release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, which was poorly suppressed by dexamethasone. Theophylline induced a sixfold increase in HDAC activity in COPD AM lysates and significantly enhanced dexamethasone suppression of induced IL-8 release, an effect that was blocked by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. Therefore, theophylline might restore steroid responsiveness in COPD patients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
  • Loukia Tsaprouni · Ian M Adcock
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
  • Loukia G Tsaprouni · Kazuhiro Ito · Neville Punchard · Ian M Adcock
    No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are highly effective in controlling chronic inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Glucocorticoids act through binding of their receptor resulting to inhibition of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). This may occur via the transcription integrator protein, CREB binding protein (CBP), which has intrinsic histone acetylase (HAT) activity. Interleukin (IL)-1 beta caused a significant increase in NF-kappa B-mediated granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release, which was inhibited by the glucocorticoid mometasone furoate (MF) (EC(50)=2 x 10(-11) M). This effect was inhibited by CBP over-expression. The role of histone acetylation and DNA methylation in the transcription of GM-CSF was indicated by trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, and 5-azacytidine (5-aza), a DNA methylase inhibitor, to increase GM-CSF expression partially blocking glucocorticoid inhibition of IL-1 beta-stimulated GM-CSF release. These data suggest that the mechanism of glucocorticoid action in suppressing interleukin-1 beta-stimulated GM-CSF release in A549 cells may involve modulation of CBP-mediated histone-acetylase activity and DNA methylation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · European Journal of Pharmacology