[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective In the emergency department, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate heart failure (HF) from other diseases (e.g., respiratory diseases) in patients who develop dyspnea. The plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels increase in patients with HF, and various levels are associated with specific New York Heart Association classes. Although the diagnosis of HF should not be made based only on the plasma BNP levels, the identification of a cut-off value for BNP to diagnose HF would be helpful. Methods Patients admitted to the emergency department of our hospital with dyspnea between January 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients whose estimated glomerular filtration rate was less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups: those with HF (n=131) and those without HF (n=138). The cut-off value for BNP was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results The area under the curve of this curve was 0.934. The optimal cut-off point for detection of HF was 234 pg/mL. The sensitivity and specificity were 87.0% and 85.5%, respectively. The fifth and 95th percentiles of the HF group were 132.2 and 2,420.8 pg/mL, respectively. Those of the non-HF group were 9.7 and 430.2 pg/mL, respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that a plasma BNP level cut-off value of 234 pg/mL can be used to detect HF in the emergency department.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated bronchioloalveolar disorder (HABA) is a specific state with chronic and progressive respiratory symptoms caused by bronchiolar or alveolar disorder characterized by smoldering adult T-cell leukemia or the HTLV-I carrier state. We herein report a rare case of HABA with an initial presentation of mosaic perfusion in the lung. The diagnosis was made according to the results of a flow cytometry analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pathological findings. Clinicians must be careful to recognize that mosaic perfusion may be a radiological finding of HABA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scimitar syndrome can present with a wide clinical spectrum of symptoms either early in the neonatal period or later in life.
We report a case of a 62-year-old woman with anomalous systemic arterial supply to the basal lung with scimitar syndrome presenting as recurrent hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed normal major bronchial branches without bronchial atresia, indicating that sequestration of the lung was not confirmed. The anomalous drainage of the scimitar vein was to the inferior vena cava, and an anomalous artery from the aorta supplied the right basal lung. There were no findings of pulmonary hypertension and arteriovenous malformation such as an anomalous artery to the scimitar vein. The distal portions of anomalous arteries were embolized using gelatin sponge particles and the proximal portion was embolized using fibered detachable coils. Although a small pulmonary infarction was observed as a complication, the patie nt has not experienced any subsequence recurrence of the hemoptysis during a follow-up period of 6 months.
Deformities of the blood vessels and the lungs are frequently complex in scimitar syndrome. Although patients treated with surgical repair of this disorder may be at higher risk than those treated less invasively, we believe that transcatheter embolization was a useful strategy for the treatment of the anomalous systemic arterial supply to the basal lung, particularly in this patient with scimitar syndrome.
Hemoptysis in a patient with scimitar syndrome associated with anomalous systemic arterial supply to the basal lung was successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. However, it might be better to avoid the use of gelatin sponge particles in patients with a similar anomaly without pulmonary artery distribution because of the possibility of causing severe pulmonary infarction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key Clinical Message
PTTM (Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy) is very difficult to diagnose before death. We report a case of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with PTTM in which an antemortem diagnosis by PMC (pulmonary microvascular cytology). PMC may represent the only chance for diagnosis and achievement of remission in PTTM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare extranodal lymphoma characterized by the presence of tumor cells within blood vessels, and it is considered to be a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of IVLBCL presenting as progressive hypoxemia. In this case, a definitive diagnosis could not be achieved by repeated transbronchial lung biopsy, a bone marrow biopsy, and a random skin biopsy, and the ultimate diagnosis was made on the basis of a pulmonary microvascular cytology (PMC) examination. Therefore, PMC is considered to be a useful strategy for the diagnosis of IVLBCL, particularly in this critically ill patient suffering from hypoxemia.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein report a case of pulmonary renal syndrome with nephritis in a 17-year-old boy with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). The patient exhibited hemoptysis two weeks after developing impetigo, and DAH was diagnosed on bronchoscopy. Respiratory failure progressed, and high-dose methylprednisolone therapy was administered; the respiratory failure regressed immediately after the onset of therapy. Streptococcus pyogenes was detected in an impetigo culture, and, together with the results of the renal biopsy, a diagnosis of APSGN was made. This case demonstrates the effects of high-dose methylprednisolone therapy in improving respiratory failure.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to review HIV-negative patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis to analyze the correlations between clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography (CT) findings.
We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 16 HIV-negative patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis diagnosed at our institution, and clinical characteristics of the patients with nodules or masses without ground-glass attenuation (GGA)/consolidation type were compared with those of patients with inclusive GGA or consolidation type.
Host status was immunocompromised (81.2%) in most of the patients, and 6 (37.5%) were asymptomatic. The most frequent radiologic abnormalities on chest CT scans were one or more nodules (87.5%), GGA (37.5%), and consolidations (18.8%). Most lesions were located in the lower lung. Levels of hemoglobin and platelets were significantly lower in patients with inclusive GGA or consolidation type. Although the differences were not significant, patients with inclusive GGA or consolidation type tended to have a C-reactive protein level of ≥1.0 mg/dL.
If a patient with anemia and thrombocytopenia shows GGA or consolidation in the lung, pulmonary cryptococcosis should be given careful consideration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 61-year-old woman being treated with methotrexate (MTX) 8-10 mg/week and prednisolone 2.5 mg/day for rheumatoid arthritis presented with a 1-week history of increasing fever and dry cough. The patient deteriorated with administration of antibiotics. Chest CT scan showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed marked neutrophilia (65.2% of total cells). The specimen from transbronchial lung biopsy showed a non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern. Following withdrawal of the MTX, her pulmonary infiltration, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings gradually improved. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having MTX-induced pneumonitis. Lymphocytosis in BALF has been identified as a characteristic of MTX-induced pneumonitis, particularly in late onset of this disease. However, the BALF in our patient was neutrophilic. Although neutrophilia in BALF of patients with drug-induced pneumonitis is usually associated with poor outcome, rare cases of good outcome do exist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of platypnea-orthodeoxia that developed in a 64-year-old Japanese woman during an episode of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia with polymyositis. Pulmonary infiltrates were predominant in the bilateral lower lobes. The patient was treated successfully with early administration of immunosuppressive therapies and polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column-direct hemoperfusion, and her platypnea-orthodeoxia improved with resolution of the underlying parenchymal lung disease. Reports of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome with interstitial pneumonia are extremely rare. The recognition that platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome may occur in multiple disease states, including interstitial pneumonia, is crucial to the understanding of this perplexing disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 39-year-old man was admitted for spontaneous pneumothorax. He underwent pulmonary resection to correct the lesion causing the air leakage, and a pathological diagnosis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma was made because we thought that the pneumothorax developed due to the direct rupture of necrotic neoplastic tissue into the pleural cavity. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy, during which multiple cystic metastases gradually developed in the lung that caused repeated occurrences of pneumothorax. Clinicians must be careful to recognize that pneumothorax can also be a complication of primary and various metastatic pulmonary malignancies.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Case Reports in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein report the case of a 68-year-old man with a history of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myelocytic leukemia in whom graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver five months after transplantation. In that same period, chest computed tomography showed infiltration in both upper lungs. We performed bronchoscopy to clarify the GVHD and pulmonary infection. Nocardia nova was identified in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and we diagnosed the patient as having pulmonary nocardiosis. Because the differential diagnosis is important for the medical management of GVHD and pulmonary infection, performing bronchoscopy is essential for making an appropriate and rapid diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An elderly woman diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM) in 2007 had improved with chemotherapy. She had severe kyphosis and a diaphragmatic hernia (DH), but no respiratory symptoms. In 2011, because of thoracic deformity and emaciation, we advised her to continue the previously prescribed domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) therapy for chronic type II respiratory failure. However, she refused to continue NPPV. She was later admitted for deterioration in respiratory status and carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis. We believed her low adherence to domiciliary NPPV caused CO2 narcosis; hence, we advised her to continue domiciliary NPPV and she complied. In May 2012, the now 79-year-old patient was admitted for acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure and CO2 narcosis. Chest imaging suggested that DH had caused a deterioration of her status. She underwent laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repair. Operative findings revealed a retrosternal hernia sac, and she was diagnosed as having a Morgagni hernia (MH). Her respiratory status subsequently improved. We hypothesize that NPPV increased intra-abdominal pressure, thereby worsening the MH and exacerbating respiratory failure. We believe that clinicians should be cautious when prescribing NPPV for MH patients.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Respiratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 78-year-old man had fatigue and appetite loss for 5 months. He had been receiving low-dose methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. Computed tomography revealed multiple pulmonary infiltrations and muddiness of the fatty tissue surrounding the right kidney, ureter wall thickening, and hydroureter/nephrosis, which were suspected retroperitoneal fibrosis. Lung biopsy revealed polymorphic/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoproliferative disorder. Methotrexate withdrawal resulted in spontaneous regression. Therefore, retroperitoneal lesion may account for the diagnosis as having retroperitoneal lymphoproliferative disorder, not retroperitoneal fibrosis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case with an atypical presentation of descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM). A 47-year-old woman with a medical history of untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus and influenza type A virus infection 2 weeks prior to admission was referred to our hospital complaining of right cervical pain and right upper limb swelling. A chest enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a ring-enhanced mass-like shadow extending from the right sternomastoid muscle down to the right upper mediastinum, compressing the right subclavicular vein. We diagnosed the patient as having DNM based on a physical examination and the CT findings. Because the abscess extended from deep in the neck to the upper mediastinum and right upper pleural space, emergent abscess debridement and drainage was required. After hospitalization, antibiotics (Ampicillin/Sulbactam 12 g/day) were also administered based on Gram-stain findings from the drainage fluid, which showed Gram-positive cocci resembling a string of beads. A culture of the drainage fluid identified Streptococcus agalactiae. Aggressive abscess drainage and early antibiotic therapy resulted in a favorable response. She was discharged without complications on the 33rd hospital day. DNM is well known as a rare but lethal disease. In this case, the presence of diabetes mellitus and post-influenza infection might have been risk factors for a serious S. agalactiae infection. Early aggressive therapy and adequate drainage are recommended for patients with DNM.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We encountered a case of limited-disease small cell lung cancer with episodic syncope. The frequency of the syncopal attacks increased with the increase in the tumor size, thus a relationship was suspected to exist between the SCLC and syncope. Syncope was evaluated by history taking, 24-hour ECG monitoring, and coronary angiography. As orthostatic hypotension and cardiac disease could be excluded, we finally diagnosed this case as neurally mediated syncope. Serum tests for anti-Hu and anti-Yo antibodies were negative. A temporary pacemaker was inserted for sick sinus syndrome. This patient showed good response to the chemotherapy. No further syncopal attacks were observed after the second course of chemotherapy. Here, in addition we review four cases of SCLC with episodic syncope. Interestingly, in all cases, the tumor was located in the left hilum in close vicinity of the afferent vagal nerve (C-fibers) and mechano-receptor. Therefore, we thought that the mechanism underlying the syncope was mechano-receptor hypersensitivity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A serious complication following primary lung cancer surgery on patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP) is the postoperative acute exacerbation of IP. Because few studies have examined the feasibility of using video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) on these patients, we reviewed our experience with this technique.
We examined 78 patients; 11 had IP (IP group) and 67 did not (non-IP group).
Patients in the IP group were older than those in the non-IP group (p = 0.097), and they had a significantly higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma than patients in the non-IP group (p = 0.002). Dominating the IP group, though not statistically significant, were males, the intention to undergo VATS, and limited surgery. VATS was performed on 10 lesions in the IP group and on 45 in the non-IP group. No surgery-related exacerbation of preoperative IP or development of postoperative IP was found in either group.
VATS is the preferred surgical choice for lung cancer patients with IP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old woman underwent resection of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the left pleura in April 1997 and of locally recurrent SFT in the left thoracic cavity in September 2003. A postoperative follow-up chest CT scan in March 2005 revealed pleural thickening at two sites of the left thoracic cavity. A further chest CT scan performed in September of the same year showed the enlarging tendency of the lesions, suggesting SFT recurrence, for which surgery was performed in January 2006. The two resected tumors were benign SFT, and were diagnosed as locally recurrent SFT in the left thoracic cavity. It has been reported that despite its benign histopathology, pleural SFT recurs more than once after surgery, and the interval between recurrences tends to shorten from the second recurrence. In this patient, the tumor recurred twice and showed a rapidly enlarging tendency at the time of the second recurrence, suggesting the need for careful follow-up at short intervals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed successful surgery for lung cancer after confirming the anatomical abnormality of a tracheal bronchus by three-dimensional multidetector-row computed tomography (3D-MDCT) bronchography and angiography. Tracheal bronchus is unusual, and right upper lobectomy for lung cancer would rarely be performed in a patient with a tracheal bronchus. Most clinicians are unfamiliar with the anatomy of a right upper lobe that includes a tracheal bronchus. Preoperative 3D imaging of the tracheal bronchus and its related vessels familiarized us with the anatomy of this patient before the operation. Thus, we recommend preoperative 3DMDCT bronchography and angiography, especially for patients with a possible bronchial anomaly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow found on a chest CT scan. The CT scan showed a cystic tumor with a central high density in the right upper mediastinal area. The preoperative diagnosis was teratoma in the right upper mediastinal area. Video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed. The tumor was about 3cm in size and originated from the right vagal nerve. Microscopic findings of the resected specimen showed loose growth of spindle cells, in which a myxomatous framework was observed in the peripheral area as well as extended vessels, with thrombis, Verocay bodies, and a nuclear palisading pattern confirmed in the central area. The histological diagnosis was schwannoma originating from the mediastinal vagal nerve. This case was thought to be rare and difficult to diagnose by preoperative imaging findings. Postoperative hoarseness due to dysfunction of the right recurrent nerve occurred. Careful consideration should be given to the indication of video-assisted thoracic surgery for neurogenic mediastinal tumors since postoperative dysfunction may occur.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 62-year-old woman, who had received immunosuppressive treatment for myasthenia gravis, was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a right pulmonary tumor. In October 2003, a chest computed tomography showed a nodule-like lesion in the right lung. Two years later, the lesion was shown to have increased in size, and a right upper lobectomy was performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. A tumor biopsy showed histological features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. It has been reported that malignant tumors occur more frequently in patients with myasthenia gravis with concurrent thymoma. Therefore, such patients need to be followed closely for a long period of time for any possible malignant tumor occurring in different organs. In addition, protection of the bronchial stump may be necessary to prevent a bronchial fistula, because wound healing can be delayed due to immunosuppressive treatment.