Midori Kayahara

The University of Manchester, Manchester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (7)28.42 Total impact

  • I. Perogamvros · M. Kayahara · P. J. Trainer · D. W. Ray
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    ABSTRACT: Context Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the principal carrier of natural glucocorticoids in the circulation, and we hypothesized that it modulates glucocorticoid bioactivity (GBA). Alterations in CBG, the presence of noncortisol, naturally occurring glucocorticoids and the use of potent, synthetic glucocorticoids, all make it difficult to assess adrenal activity in-vivo; these problems can be addressed by a glucocorticoid bioassay. Design and subjects A bioassay was developed for serum GBA and a physicochemical ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for free serum cortisol (FreeF). We studied individuals homozygous and heterozygous for a nonfunctioning CBG variant (CBG G237V) and healthy controls. Results FreeF concentrations were similar in healthy controls, and those with absent functional CBG, but surprisingly we found low GBA in CBG null individuals. This may suggest that CBG delivers cortisol to target cells. However, further experiments revealed that dilution of serum in the bioassay caused release of cortisol from CBG, resulting in elevated GBA measurements in all but the CBG G237V homozygotes. Furthermore, we identified a specific and potent inhibitory effect of high concentration serum on glucocorticoid sensitivity of the recipient cells used in the bioassay. Analysis of inflammatory synovial fluid, a filtrate of serum with lower CBG concentration, revealed elevated free cortisol compared to noninflammatory synovial fluid, a change not attributable to interconversion between cortisol and cortisone. Conclusions Our findings reveal that dilution of CBG enhances cortisol release, and so bioactivity, and also that serum potently induces glucocorticoid resistance in target cells.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Clinical Endocrinology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents, acting through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to regulate target gene transcription. However, GR may also exert acute effects, including activation of signaling kinases such as c-Src and protein kinase B, possibly via the scaffold protein, modulator of nongenomic action of the estrogen receptor (MNAR). MNAR inhibited GR transactivation in A549 cells, but in HEK293 cells there was a ligand concentration-dependent biphasic effect. Transactivation driven by low ligand concentrations was inhibited by MNAR expression, whereas higher ligand concentrations were potentiating. Further analysis revealed that MNAR inhibited transactivation by the ligand-independent activation function (AF)1 but potentiated the COOH-terminal AF2 domain. The effect of MNAR was independent of c-Src activity, demonstrated by inhibitors and c-Src knockdown studies. In support of the role of MNAR in modulating GR transactivation, coimmunoprecipitation studies showed interaction between MNAR and GR in the nucleus but not the cytoplasm. Furthermore, MNAR and c-Src were also found to physically interact in the nucleus. Immunofluorescence studies showed MNAR to be predominantly a nuclear protein, with significant colocalization with GR. Deletion studies revealed that MNAR 884-1130 was coimmunoprecipitated with GR, and furthermore this fragment inhibited GR transactivation function when overexpressed. In addition, MNAR 1-400, which contains multiple LxxLL motifs, also inhibited GR transactivation. Taken together, MNAR interacts with GR in the nucleus but not cytoplasm and regulates GR transactivation in a complex manner depending on cell type. MNAR is capable of regulating both AF1 and AF2 functions of the GR independently. MNAR expression is likely to mediate important cell variation in glucocorticoid responsiveness, in a c-Src-independent mechanism.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    P Sommer · P Le Rouzic · H Gillingham · A Berry · M Kayahara · T Huynh · A White · D W Ray
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    ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumour with an abysmal prognosis. These cancers are characteristically resistant to glucocorticoid (Gc) action, owing to impaired expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We identified reduced GR expression in human SCLC cell lines, compared to a non-SCLC cell line. The SCLC cells also showed no Gc inhibition of proliferation, in contrast to non-SCLC cells. Retroviral overexpression of GR resulted in significantly increased cell death, which was partially blocked by the GR antagonist, RU486. Indeed, in cells sorted for GR expression, there was rapid, near complete loss of live cells by 72 h, in contrast to control cells that proliferated as expected. Flow cytometry using Annexin V revealed that cell death was by apoptosis. In addition, confocal analysis of fixed cells showed that cells overexpressing GR displayed a significant increase in fragmenting apoptotic nuclei. Microarray studies showed that transgenic GR expression upregulated the proapoptotic genes, BAD and BAX. We have, therefore, identified a profound apoptotic effect of GR in SCLC cells, which may explain the low levels of endogenous GR in SCLC cells. Understanding how GR overexpression leads to apoptotic cell death in SCLC cells may uncover new therapeutic strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Oncogene
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    ABSTRACT: The signaling mechanism by which JNK affects mitochondria is critical to initiate apoptosis. Here we show that the absence of JNK provides a partial resistance to the toxic effect of the heavy metal cadmium. Both wild type and jnk-/- fibroblasts undergoing death exhibit cytosolic cytochrome c but, unlike wild type cells, the JNK-deficient fibroblasts do not display increased caspase activity and DNA fragmentation. The absence of apoptotic death correlates with a specific defect in activation of Bax. We conclude that JNK-dependent regulation of Bax is essential to mediate the apoptotic release of cytochrome c regardless of Bid and Bim activation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · FEBS Letters
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    Midori Kayahara · Xin Wang · Cathy Tournier
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    ABSTRACT: To further understand how the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways regulate AP-1 activity, we have elucidated the physiological role of these cascades in the regulation of c-jun gene expression. c-Jun is a crucial component of AP-1 complexes and has been shown in vitro to be a point of integration of numerous signals that can differentially affect its expression as well as its transcriptional activity. Our strategy was based on the use of (i) genetically modified fibroblasts deficient in components of the MAPK cascades and (ii) pharmacological reagents. The results demonstrate that c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is essential for a basal level of c-Jun expression and for c-Jun phosphorylation in response to stress. In addition to JNK, p38 MAPK or ERK1/2 and ERK5 are required for mediating UV radiation- or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced c-Jun expression, respectively. Further studies indicate that p38 MAPK inhibits the activation of JNK in response to EGF, causing a down-regulation of c-Jun. Overall, these data provide important insights into the mechanisms that ultimately determine the function of c-Jun as a regulator of cell fate.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the physiological significance of MEK5 in vivo, we have examined the effect of mek5 gene elimination in mice. Heterozygous mice appear to be healthy and were fertile. However, mek5−/− embryos die at approximately embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). The phenotype of the mek5−/− embryos includes abnormal cardiac development as well as a marked decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis in the heart, head, and dorsal regions of the mutant embryos. The absence of MEK5 does not affect cell cycle progression but sensitizes mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to the ability of sorbitol to enhance caspase 3 activity. Further studies with mek5−/− MEFs indicate that MEK5 is required for mediating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) activation and for the regulation of the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2. Overall, this is the first study to rigorously establish the role of MEK5 in vivo as an activator of ERK5 and as an essential regulator of cell survival that is required for normal embryonic development.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Molecular and Cellular Biology