[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells in immune responses to tumor cells and the activation of NK cells is mediated through specific interactions between activating receptors and their cognate ligands. Recently, it has been demonstrated that induction of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells by various stresses render them more sensitive to NK cell-mediated killing. Therefore, in this study, it was investigated whether arsenic trioxide (ATO) could up-regulate NKG2D ligands on tumor cells and increase the susceptibility of cancer cells against NK cells. ATO increased transcription of NKG2D ligands, predominantly ULBP1, in various cancer cell lines, such as K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells, NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemic cells, and MCF7 breast cancer cells, and subsequently the surface expression of NKG2D ligands. These results were followed by increased susceptibility of cancer cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity after treatment with ATO. This increase in cytotoxicity was abolished by addition of a blocking NKG2D monoclonal antibody, indicating that the increased susceptibility of ATO-treated cancer cells to cytotoxicity of NK cells was mediated through up-regulation of NKG2D ligands. In addition, abrogation of heat shock proteins induction with KNK437 would sensitize the ATO-treated MCF-7 cells to NK cell-mediated killing. This study suggests that the immunomodulatory property of ATO would be an attractive strategy to improve the effectiveness of NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journla of Immunotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite long-term use of mistletoe extracts for cancer treatment, their mode of action remains elusive. In this study, it was studied in vitro if mistletoe extract is able to modulate the expression of natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) and NKG2D receptor, which stimulate natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, a mistletoe extract, ABNOBA viscum Fraxini, inhibited the expression level of NKp46 and NKG2D receptors in dose- and time-dependent manners. The levels of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors were remarkably induced and NKp44 was slightly induced after 48 h treatment with IL-2 and IL-15 in both mRNA and surface expression. The activatory NK receptors were not induced significantly after treatment with IL-12, IL-18, and IL-21 for 48 h. Induction of activatory NK receptors by IL-2 and IL-15 was suppressed almost to the untreated levels by treatment with mistletoe extract, which appeared to induce apoptosis of NK cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the treatment with IL-2 and IL-15 did not prevent the mistletoe-induced NK-cell death. Mistletoe extract inhibited significantly the cytotoxic activity of resting and IL-2- or IL-15-stimulated NK cells. These results suggest that inhibition of survival and function of NK cells by mistletoe extract may curtail in part the therapeutic effects of mistletoe.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The abilities of NKG2D ligands to specifically mark stressed or transformed cells and activate NK cells suggest the possibility that the expression levels of NKG2D ligands in cancers may be helpful to predict the efficacy of NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, a multiplex RT-PCR was developed and used for rapid and simultaneous analysis of the expression level of NKG2D ligands in cancer cells and tissues. With total RNAs isolated from various cancer cell lines, the multiplex RT-PCR revealed various expression patterns of NKG2D ligands. With total tissue RNAs, the gastrointestinal tumors showed consistently increased NKG2D ligands, compared with adjacent normal tissues. However, NKG2D ligands were not always consistently increased in tumor tissues and expression patterns of NKG2D ligands were heterogeneous between patients, especially in breast and lung cancers. In addition, expression patterns of NKG2D ligands were very similar between various paired primary and their multidrug-resistant/metastatic cells, except MCF-7 sublines. These results demonstrated that the multiplex RT-PCR might be a useful diagnostics to detect the expression levels of NKG2D ligands in tissues as well as cells, and suggested that the gastrointestinal tumors might be good candidates for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy, since it showed significantly higher levels of NKG2D ligands than adjacent normal tissues.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Cancer Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have tried to find new targets and effective drugs for imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells displaying loss of Bcr-Abl kinase target dependence. The imatinib-resistant K562/R1, -R2 and -R3 cells showed profound declines of Bcr-Abl level and concurrently exhibited up-regulation of Bcl-2 and Ku70/80, and down-regulation of Bax, DNA-PKcs and BRCA1, suggesting that loss of Bcr-Abl after exposure to imatinib might be accompanied by other cell survival mechanism. K562/R3 cells were more sensitive to camptothecin (CPT)- and radiation-induced apoptosis than K562 cells, indicating hypersensitivity of imatinib-resistant cells to DNA damaging agents. Moreover, when K562 cells were treated with the combination of imatinib with CPT, the level of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1 and DNA-PK were significantly increased in comparison with the effects of each drug. Therefore, our study suggests that CPT can be used to treat CML with loss of Bcr-Abl expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of ST1571, an inhibitor of the Abl group of protein-tyrosine kinases, alone or in combination with camptothecin (CPT), a specific topoisomerase I inhibitor, was evaluated against human cancer cells with different metastatic capacity and drug resistance potency. These cell lines showed different sensitivity to ST157 on growth inhibition, and the expression of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which interacts constitutively with c-Abl, was significantly decreased in drug sensitive CEM and MCF-7 cells and poorly metastatic PC3 and KMl2 cells as compared with that of multidrug resistant CEM/MDR and MCF-7/MDR cells and highly metastatic PC3-MM2 and KM/L4a cells, respectively. These results suggest differential modulation of DNA-PK by ST1571 treatment in drug resistance and metastatic degree dependent manner. We showed that CPT as well as ST1571 significantly inhibits the expression of DNA-PK. The combined treatment with ST15fl and CPT revealed synergistic effect, and the effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation due to significant reduced expression of DNA-PK components, which resulted in CPT sensitizes human cancer cells resistant to ST1571. Therefore, the results of our study suggested that the suppression of DNA-PK using combination of ST1571 and CPT could be a novel molecular target for against drugresistant and metastatic cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have investigated if current cancer therapeutic modalities including hyperthermia and ionizing radiation can increase the expression of NKG2D ligands in human cancer cell lines. The expressions of NKG2D ligands were induced by both heat shock and ionizing radiation in various cell lines including KM12, NCI-H23, HeLa and A375 cells with peaks at 2 h and 9 h after treatment, respectively, although inducibility of each NKG2D ligand was various depending on cell lines. During the induction of NKG2D ligands, heat shock protein 70 was induced by heat shock but not by ionizing radiation. These results were followed by increased susceptibilities to NK cell-mediated cytolysis after treatment with heat shock and ionizing radiation. These results suggest that heat shock and ionizing radiation induce NKG2D ligands and consequently might lead to increased NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in various cancer cells.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress to dopaminergic neurons is believed to be one of the causes of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). It was investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) have a preventive effect in an oxidative stress-induced model of PD. We found that NAC and OTC prevent degradation of PARP during auto-oxidized dopamine- or auto-oxidized L-DOPA-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. In an animal model study, NAC and OTC showed a preventive effect against MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, and suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suggesting that NAC and OTC can prevent MPTP-induced apoptosis by suppressing JNK activation. Therefore, these results suggest that NAC and OTC can be used as potential agents to prevent the progression of PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there are several ways to load tumor antigens to DCs, in vitro preparation of tumor antigens and manipulation of DCs are usually required. Therefore, to develop a simple antitumor immunization method, we examined if direct injection of DCs into tumor apoptosed by ionizing IR could induce efficient antitumor immunity. Ionizing IR with 15 Gy induced apoptosis in tumor maximally after 6 hr. Injection of DCs i.t. into IR tumor induced strong cytotoxicity of splenocytes against tumor cells compared to i.t. injection of DCs or ionizing IR of tumor, both of which induced weak cytotoxicity. In an animal study, i.t. injection of DCs into IR tumor induced therapeutic antitumor immunity against a tumor established at a distant site. Moreover, when TNF-alpha or LPS was added as a danger/maturation signal to DC suspension before i.t. injection, antitumor immunity was significantly potentiated compared to a group treated with i.t. injection of DCs into IR tumor. Our results suggest that injection of DCs into tumor apoptosed by ionizing IR might be a simple and efficient method of immunization against tumor.
Full-text · Article · May 2004 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop an efficient antitumor immunotherapy, we have examined if dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with soluble antigens by electroporation present more antigens via the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I pathway, which mediate a cytotoxic T-cell response. DCs loaded with ovalbumin (OVA) by electroporation presented more MHC class I-restricted determinants compared with DCs pulsed with OVA. When electroporated DCs were pulsed with OVA for additional times, both MHC class I- and II-restricted presentation of OVA were increased compared with each single procedure, including electroporation or simple pulse. Immunization with DCs loaded with OVA by electroporation induced higher cytotoxicity of splenocytes to E.G7 cells, a clone of EL4 cells transfected with an OVA cDNA, than immunization with DCs pulsed with OVA. In the animal study, immunization with DCs loaded with OVA or tumor cell lysates by electroporation induced an effective antitumor immunity against tumor of E.G7 cells or Lewis lung carcinoma cells, respectively. In addition, immunization with DCs loaded with antigen by combination of electroporation and pulse, completely protected mice from tumor formation, and prolonged survival, in both tumor models. These results demonstrated that electroporation would be a useful way to enhance MHC class I-mediated antitumor immunity without functional deterioration, and that the combination of electroporation and pulse could be a simple and efficient antigen-loading method and consequently lead to induction of strong antitumor immunity.
Full-text · Article · May 2004 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current concepts of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) center on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and dopamine has been considered to be a major source of ROS. Recently, it has been shown in a postmortem study that nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was observed in dopaminergic neurons of patient with PD. However, its role is not known. The present study examined the possible role of NF-κB in ODA (auto-oxidized dopamine)-induced apoptosis to understand the process of PD. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, it was found that ODA activated the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Suppression of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in PC12 cells by overexpression of a wild-type and a dominant negative mutant form (S32A/S36A) of inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α led to increase of apoptotic cell death induced by treatment of ODA. In addition, overexpression of NF-κB in PC12 cells blocked ODA-induced cell death. However, JNK/SAPK activities, which mediate various stress signals, were similar among the parental, NF-κB- or dominant negative mutant IκBα-transfected cells. Therefore, these results suggest that activation of NF-κB during ODA-induced apoptosis may have a counteracting activity against the signals mediating apoptotic cell death and thereby delay the process of Parkinson's disease.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2001 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, cross-drug resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells, which overexpress P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a mdr1 gene product, against Pgp-unrelated drugs, and its relevance to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activity were examined. The multidrug-resistant FM3A/M cells overexpressing Pgp were resistant to apoptotic cell death induced either by Pgp-related drugs including vincristine and vinblastine, which are pumped out by Pgp, or by the Pgp-unrelated drugs including 5′-fluorouracil (5-FU) and bleomycin, which are not targets for Pgp, compared with the parental FM3A cells. Verapamil reversed the resistance of FM3A/M cells to apoptosis induced by the Pgp-related drugs but not that induced by the Pgp-unrelated drugs. Interestingly, FM3A/M cells have shown significantly lower basal and drug-stimulated JNK/SAPK activities than FM3A cells. After transfection with pEBG-SEK or pEBG-SAPK constructs, FM3A/M cells recovered the basal and Pgp-unrelated drug-stimulated activities of JNK/SAPK and the susceptibility to Pgp-unrelated drug-induced apoptotic cell death comparable to those of FM3A cells. Furthermore, FM3A cells became resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by vincristine and 5-FU after transfection with pEBG-SEK(K → R), a dominant negative inhibitory mutant of SEK. These results suggest that downregulation of JNK/SAPK activity appears to confer on Pgp-associated FM3A/M cells a cross-resistance to Pgp-unrelated drugs.
No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current concepts of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease center on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dopamine is one of the major sources of ROS. In this study, the molecular events during the dopamine-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells were studied using auto-oxidized dopamine. Auto-oxidized-dopamine induced DNA fragmentation and activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) faster and stronger than dopamine. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, prevented the auto-oxidized dopamine-induced JNK/SAPK activation and DNA fragmentation. Meanwhile, Bcl-2 started to decrease after onset of apoptosis, and Bax was increased up to beginning of apoptosis, and thereafter decreased. Therefore, these results suggested that activation of JNK/SAPK and the decreased ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 to proapoptotic Bax appear to be associated with the dopamine-induced apoptosis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1998 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of NF-κB during the PMA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells was investigated using K562 cells transfected with each or both subunits of NF-κB. The NF-κB subunit-transfected cells have shown much higher sensitivity to PMA-induced differentiation than their parental cells. This result was consistent with the findings that PMA-stimulated activities of NF-κB were markedly increased in the NF-κB subunit-transfected cells in comparison with their parental cells and PMA-induced differentiation was enhanced by pretreatment with IκB-α antisense oligonucleotide in the NF-κB subunit-transfected cells. Meanwhile, there were basically no difference in the basal and PMA-stimulated MAP kinase activities among the parental and NF-κB subunit-transfected cells, respectively. However, PMA-induced differentiation was blocked by pretreatment with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK, in both parental and NF-κB-transfected cells. Therefore, these results suggest that during the PMA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells, NF-κB works downstream of MAP kinase, or that activation of both NF-κB and MAP kinase pathways is involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Revealing the regulatory mechanism of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDRI) gene is important to gain understanding of MDR in tumor cells. Using MDR1 deletion constructs and the 22W mutant of c-Raf in which the NH2-terminal half has been deleted, we examined the effect of the activated Raf on human MDR1 promoter activity in transient expression assay and stable transfectants of GHE-L cells. A DNA sequence exhibiting strong activation of MDR1 promoter by 22W was located between −197 and −136 containing the upstream heat shock element (HSE) motifs without other regulatory elements, whereas the MDR1 deletion construct containing downstream HSE motif showed a relatively weaker activation by 22W. We observed that the activated Raf significantly potentiated the induction of MDRCAT activity in GHE-L cells by sodium arsenite or heat shock, which stimulates heat shock factor (HSF) binding to HSE. In addition, protein kinase A inhibitor (H-87) blocked the activation of the MDR1 promoter by 22W in GHE-L cells in a dose-dependent manner. From these results, we propose the possibility that Raf- and protein kinase A-dependent pathways control the transcription of MDR1 gene via a mechanism involving the modulation of HSF activity.