[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urea cycle defects are a group of metabolic disorders caused by enzymatic disruption of the urea cycle pathway, transforming nitrogen to urea for excretion from the body. Severe cases present in early infancy with life-threatening metabolic decompensation, and these episodes of hyperammonemia can be fatal or result in permanent neurologic damage. Despite the progress in pharmacologic treatment, long-term survival is poor especially for severe cases. Liver transplant is an alternative treatment option, providing sufficient enzymatic activity and decreasing the risk of metabolic decompensation. Three patients with urea cycle defects received related living-donor liver transplants at our hospital. Patients presented with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, argininosuccinate lyase deficiency, and citrullinemia. Maximum pretransplant ammonia levels were between 232 and 400 μmol/L (normal range is 18-72 μmol/L), and maximum posttransplant values were 52 to 94 μmol/L. All patients stopped medical treatment and dietary protein restriction for urea cycle defects after transplant. The patient with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency already had motor deficits related to recurrent hyperammonemia attacks pretransplant. A major improvement could not be achieved, and he is wheelchair dependent at the age of 6 years. The other 2 patients had normal motor and mental skills before transplant, which have continued 12 and 14 months after transplant. Hepatic artery thrombosis in the patient with the ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, intraabdominal infection in the patient with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the patient with citrullinemia were early postoperative complications. Histopathologic changes in livers explanted from patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and citrullinemia were nonspecific. The argininosuccinate lyase-deficient patient had portoportal fibrosis and cirrhotic nodule formation. In conclusion, liver transplant was a lifesaving procedure for our patients. Proper timing for transplant is important because high ammonia levels may result in permanent neurologic damage; however, transplant at younger ages also may increase morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder that is responsible for the overproduction of oxalate and has an incidence of 1 in 120 000 live births. Indications for combined liver and kidney transplant are still debated. However, combined liver and kidney transplant is preferred in various conditions, including primary hyperoxaluria, liver-based metabolic abnormalities affecting the kidney, and structural diseases affecting both the liver and the kidney, such as congenital hepatic fibrosis and polycystic kidney disease. When compared with sequential liver and kidney transplant, the rejection rate of both liver and kidney allografts was reported to be lower than with combined liver and kidney transplant. With proper anesthesia management, the probable increased complications with combined liver and kidney transplant can be prevented. In this report, we present the anesthesia care of a 22-year-old patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 who had deceased-donor combined liver and kidney transplant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters are used for delivering medications and parenteral nutrition, measuring hemodynamic variations, and providing long-term intravenous access. In our clinic, during liver transection using a living-liver donor, peripherally inserted central venous catheters are generally preferred because they involve a less invasive technique with a lower risk of complications. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old male liver donor into whom we peripherally inserted a central venous catheter from his left basilic vein. After transecting the hepatic vein, the surgeon found foreign material inside the venous lumen, which turned out to be the distal segment of the catheter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Reasons for chronic liver and kidney failure may vary; sometimes more than 1 family member may be affected, and may require a transplant. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities or differences between the perioperative characteristics of siblings undergoing liver or kidney transplant.
Materials and methods:
The medical records of 6 pairs of siblings who underwent liver transplant and 4 pairs of siblings who underwent kidney transplant at Baskent University Hospital between 1989 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Collected data included demographic features; comorbidities; reasons for liver and kidney failure; perioperative laboratory values; intraoperative hemodynamic parameters; use and volume of crystalloids, colloids, blood products, cell saver system, and albumin; duration of anesthesia; urine output; and postoperative follow-up data.
The mean age of the 6 sibling pairs who underwent liver transplant was 16.3 ± 12.2 years. All 12 patients had Child-Pugh grade B cirrhosis, with mean disease duration of 7.8 ± 3.9 years. There were no significant differences between siblings with respect to intraoperative blood product transfusion, crystalloid and colloid fluid replacements, hypotension frequency, blood gas analyses, urinary output, duration of anhepatic phase, inotropic agent administration, postoperative laboratory values, need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors, occurrence of acute renal failure and infections, and duration intensive care unit stay (P > .05). The mean age of the 4 sibling pairs who underwent kidney transplant was 21.3 ± 6.4 years, with mean duration of renal insufficiency of 2.2 ± 1.6 years. There were no significant differences between siblings with respect to intraoperative crystalloid and colloid fluid administration, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative mannitol and furosemide administration, and postoperative laboratory values (P > .05).
In conclusion, the 6 sibling pairs who underwent liver transplant and 4 sibling pairs who underwent kidney transplant in our cohort had similar perioperative characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Frequency of pulmonary complications after renal transplant has been reported to range from 3% to 17%. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal transplant recipients admitted to an intensive care unit to identify incidence and cause of acute respiratory failure in the postoperative period and compare clinical features and outcomes between those with and without acute respiratory failure.
Materials and methods:
We retrospectively screened the data of 540 consecutive adult renal transplant recipients who received their grafts at a single transplant center and included those patients admitted to an intensive care unit during this period for this study. Acute respiratory failure was defined as severe dyspnea, respiratory distress, decreased oxygen saturation, hypoxemia or hypercapnia on room air, or requirement of noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation.
Among the 540 adult renal transplant recipients, 55 (10.7%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, including 26 (47.3%) admitted for acute respiratory failure. Median time from transplant to intensive care unit admission was 10 months (range, 0-67 mo). The leading causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia (56%) and cardiogenic pulmonary edema (44%). Mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen ratio was 174 ± 59, invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 13 patients (50%), and noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used in 8 patients (31%). The overall mortality was 16.4%.
Acute respiratory failure was the reason for intensive care unit admission in almost half of our renal transplant recipients. Main causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Mortality of patients admitted for acute respiratory failure was similar to those without acute respiratory failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplant currently is the best treatment option for end-stage liver disease. During liver transplant, there is major blood loss due to surgery and primary disease. By using a cell saver, the need for blood transfusion is markedly reduced. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cell saver use on morbidity and mortality in living-donor liver transplant.
We retrospectively evaluated 178 living-donor liver transplants, performed from 2005 to 2013 in our center. Child-Turcotte-Pugh A patients, deceased-donor liver transplants, and liver transplants performed for fulminant hepatic failure were not included in this study. Intraoperative blood transfusion was done in all patients to keep hemoglobin level between 10 and 12 g/dL. Cell saver was used in all liver transplants except in patients with malignancy, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.
We included 126 patients in the study. Cell saver was used in 84 liver transplants (66%). In 42 patients (34%), liver transplant was performed without a cell saver. In living-donor liver transplant with cell saver use, 10 mL/kg blood (range, 2-50 mL/kg blood) was transfused from the cell saver; in addition, 5 to 10 mL/kg allogeneic blood was transfused. In living-donor liver transplant without cell saver, 20 to 25 mL/kg allogeneic blood was transfused.
During liver transplant, major blood transfusion is needed because of surgery and primary disease. Cell saver use markedly decreases the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and avoids adverse events of massive transfusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome is a congenital, common, hereditary disorder. Facial dysmorphism, growth retardation, and various heart defects are typical clinical features. In patients with minor cardiac pathology, life expectancy is normal. We report a case of renal transplant in a pediatric patient with Noonan syndrome that ended with death of the patient. Our patient presented with unexpected and refractory postoperative neurological complications that were unresponsive to intensive therapy, and the patient died because of secondary complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increased life span, the need for liver transplant for elderly patients also increased in the world. In this study, we reviewed our experience to determine the outcomes and problems of patients aged > 60 years who had liver transplants.
Data of recipients aged > 60 years were reviewed retrospectively. We analyzed 16 elderly patients who had liver transplant for chronic liver disease between 2001 and 2014 in our center.
In our series, there were 5 women and 11 men between age 60 and 65 years. The mean Child-Pugh score was 7.9 ± 1.7 and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 14.1 ± 5.1. Primary liver disease was hepatitis B in 9 patients (34.5%), most of them with hepatocellular carcinoma. The other causes of liver failure were hepatitis C (n = 4), alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 2), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 2); 1 patient had both hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, and 1 patient had both hepatitis B virus and alcoholic cirrhosis. There were 9 patients who had hepatocellular carcinoma. Mortality was observed in 4 patients. The reasons for mortality were sepsis (n=3) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1).
Liver transplant can be safely performed and has acceptable long-term outcomes in low-risk elderly recipients. Age alone should not be a contraindication for liver transplant in elderly patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary complications are major sources of morbidity after liver transplant due to vulnerable vascularization of the bile ducts. Biliary complications are the "Achilles' heel" of liver transplant with their high incidence, need for repeated and prolonged treatment, and potential effects on graft and patient survival. Although standardization of reconstruction techniques and improvements in immunosuppression and organ preservation have reduced the incidence of biliary complications, in early reports the morbidity rates are 50%, with related mortality rate 25% to 30%. Prophylaxis is a major issue. Although many risk factors (old donor age, marginal graft, prolonged ischemia time, living-donor liver transplant, partial liver transplant, donation after cardiac death, hepatic arterial thrombosis, organ preservation, chronic rejection, and other donor and recipient characteristics) do not directly affect biliary complications, accumulation of the factors mentioned above, should be avoided. However, no accepted standard has been established. Treatment strategy is a subject of debate. Recently, nonoperative treatment of biliary complications have been preferred for diagnosis and therapy, because percutaneous or endoscopic treatment may prevent the need for surgical intervention. In this study, we reviewed our treatment of early and late biliary complications after liver transplant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intraoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative outcomes in orthotopic liver transplant recipients.
After ethics committee approval was obtained, we retrospectively analyzed the records of patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplant from January 2000 to December 2013. A total 389 orthotopic liver transplants were performed in our center, but patients aged < 15 years (179 patients) were not included in the analyses. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on their maximum intraoperative blood glucose level: group 1 (patients with intraoperative blood glucose level < 200 mg/dL) and group 2 (patients with intraoperative blood glucose level > 200 mg/dL). Postoperative complications between the 2 groups were compared.
There were 58 patients (37.6%; group 1, blood glucose < 200 mg/dL) who had controlled blood glucose and 96 patients (62.3%; group 2, blood glucose > 200 mg/dL) who had uncontrolled blood glucose. The mean age and weight for groups 1 and 2 were similar. There were no differences between the 2 groups regarding the duration of anhepatic phase (P = .20), operation time (P = .41), frequency of immediate intraoperative extubation (P = .14), and postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (P = .06). There were no significant differences in frequency of patients who had postoperative infectious complications, acute kidney injury, or need for hemodialysis. Mortality rates after liver transplant were similar between the 2 groups (P = .81).
Intraoperative hyperglycemia during orthotopic liver transplant was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection, acute renal failure, or mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the anesthetic management and short-term morbidity and mortality in pediatrics patients who underwent an orthotopic liver transplant for fulminant hepatic failure or end-stage liver disease in a university hospital.
We retrospectively analyzed the records of children who underwent orthotopic liver transplant from May 2002 to May 2012. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: group fulminant hepatic failure (n=22) and group end-stage liver disease (n=19). Perioperative data related to anesthetic management and intraoperative events were collected along with information related to postoperative course and survival to hospital discharge.
Mean age and weight for groups fulminant hepatic failure and end-stage liver disease were 8.6 ± 2.7 years and 10.8 ± 3.8 years (P = .04) and 29.2 ± 11.9 kg and 33.7 ± 16.9 kg (P = .46). There were no differences between the groups regarding length of anhepatic phase (65 ± 21 min vs 73 ± 18 min, P = .13) and operation time (9.1 ± 1.6 h vs 9.5 ± 1.8 h, P = .23). When compared with the patients in group fulminant hepatic failure, those in group end-stage liver disease more commonly had a Glasgow Coma score of 7 or less (32% vs 6%, P = .04). Compared with patients in group fulminant hepatic failure, those in group end-stage liver disease were more frequently extubated in the operating room (31.8% versus 89.5% P < .001). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (2.78 ± 4.02 d vs 2.85 ± 10.21 d, P = .05), and the mortality rates at 1 year after orthotopic liver transplant (7.3% vs 0%, P = .09) were similar between the groups.
During pediatric orthotopic liver transplant, those children with fulminant hepatic failure require more intraoperative fluids and more frequent perioperative mechanical ventilation than those with end-stage liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency, type, and predictors of intraoperative adverse events during donor hepatectomy for living-donor liver transplant.
Retrospective analyses of the data from 182 consecutive living-donor liver transplant donors between May 2002 and September 2008.
Ninety-one patients (50%) had at least 1 intraoperative adverse event including hypothermia (39%), hypotension (26%), need for transfusions (17%), and hypertension (7%). Patients with an adverse event were older (P = .001), had a larger graft weight (P = .023), more frequently underwent a right hepatectomy (P = .019), and were more frequently classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class II (P = .027) than those who did not have these adverse events. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only age (95% confidence interval 1.018-1.099; P = .001) was a risk factor for intraoperative adverse events. Patients with these adverse events more frequently required admission to the intensive care unit and were hospitalized longer postoperatively. A before and after analysis showed that after introduction of in-line fluid warmers and more frequent use of acute normovolemic hemodilution, the frequency of intraoperative adverse events was significantly lower (80% vs 29%; P < .001).
Intraoperative adverse events such as hypothermia and hypotension were common in living-donor liver transplant donors, and older age was associated with an increased risk of these adverse events. However, the effect of these adverse events on postoperative recovery is not clear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early hepatic arterial thrombosis after living-donor liver transplantation is a cause of graft loss and patient mortality. We analyzed early hepatic arterial thrombosis after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation.
Since September 2001, we performed 122 living-donor liver transplants on 119 children. Ten hepatic arterial thromboses developed in the early postoperative period. The 7 male and 4 female patients of overall mean age of 6.3±6.1 years underwent 5 left lateral segment, 3 right lobe, and 2 left lobe transplantations.
Among 10 children with hepatic arterial thrombosis, 8 diagnoses were made before any elevation of liver function tests. One child displayed fever at the time of the hepatic arterial thrombosis. The median time for diagnosis was 5 days. Hepatic arterial thrombosis was treated with interventional radiologic techniques in 9 children, with 1 undergoing surgical exploration owing to failed radiologic approaches, and a reanastomosis using a polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Successful revascularization was achieved in all children, except 1. Four children died, the remaining 6 are alive with good graft function. During the mean follow-up of 52.7±18.8 months, multiple intrahepatic biliary stenoses were identified in 1 child.
Routine Doppler ultrasonography is effective for the early diagnosis of hepatic arterial thrombosis. Interventional radiologic approaches such as arterial thrombolysis and intraluminal stent placement should be the first therapeutic choices for patients with early hepatic arterial thrombosis; if radiologic methods fail, one must consider surgical exploration or retransplantation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RIFLE criteria have been used to determine the incidence of acute kidney dysfunction (AKD) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, no studies have focused on the incidence of AKD after OLT in patients with normal pre-OLT kidney functions. Using the RIFLE criteria, we determined the incidence and risk factors for AKD after OLT in patients with normal pre-OLT kidney function. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 112 patients who underwent OLT from January 2000 to February 2009 with normal prior kidney function. We investigated three levels of renal dysfunction outlined in the RIFLE criteria: risk (R); injury (I); and failure (F). Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were collected. AKD occurred in 64 (57%) OLTs with risk, injury, and failure frequencies of 19%, 11%, and 28%, respectively. Compared with those who did not develop AKD postoperatively, those who did had significantly higher MELD scores (19 ± 7 vs 16 ± 8; P = .018), more frequently use of inotropic agents intraoperatively (54% vs 35%; P = .070), more colloid treatment (300 ± 433 mL vs 105 ± 203 mL; P = .007), longer anhepatic phase (88.0 ± 42.0 minutes vs 73.0 ± 20.0 minutes; P = .037), and a greater incidence of intraoperative acidosis (64% vs 44%; P = .047). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MELD score (odds ratio 1.107, 95% CI 1.022-1.200, P = .013), duration of anhepatic phase (odds ratio 1.020 95% CI 1.000-1.040, P = .053), and intraoperative acidosis (odds ratio 0.277 95% CI 0.093-0.825 P = .021) were independent risk factors for AKD. In conclusion, our results suggested that, based on RIFLE criteria, AKD occurs in more than half of OLTs postoperatively. A higher MELD score, longer anhepatic phase, and occurrence of intraoperative acidosis were associated with AKD.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Transplantation Proceedings