[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A set of new ligands, L2H(2)-L5H(2), containing the 1,4,8,11-tetraaza-5,7-dione framework has been prepared, The ligands feature lipophilic substituents either on the carbon atom in the 6 position or on the amino groups, or on both. The solution behaviour of the ligands when included in TritonX-100 micelles has been investigated by means of potentiometric titrations and protonation and complexation constants for the Cu(2+) cation have been determined in micellar medium. Micellar assemblies containing the ligands and pyrene have been prepared, and coupled pH-metric and fluorimetric titrations allowed the determination of the response of the systems as ON-OFF fluorescent sensors for Cu(2+). A correlation between the effective lipophilicity of the ligand and the residual fluorescence (i.e. the fluorescence of the OFF state) was observed, and with the more lipophilic ligand, L3H(2), we obtained a residual fluorescence as low as 8%, with a significant improvement with respect to other published systems. On the other hand, introduction of functionalities on the amino groups of 1,4,8,11-tetraaza-5,7-dione brings the drawback of a small but significant decrease of the exploitable fluorescence, i.e. the fluorescence of the system in the absence of added Cu(2+), at the pH value suitable for full metal complexation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Dalton Transactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper we have investigated some photo-physical characteristics of different micellar-based fluorescent probes containing a fluorophore (pyrene) and a quencher unit (dodecyl-dioxo 2,3,2). The fluorescent response of the probe in the presence of Cu(II) ions was studied using different micellar substrates, and it was found that the pH at which the On-Off jump occurs is not influenced by the chemical structure of surfactant. In addition, the experimental residual fluorescence is not proportionally affected by microviscosity or by the size of the micellar aggregates. The signal of the native fluorescence of pyrene was observed even when the quencher's occupancy number was greater than one. Moreover, we observed discrepancies between experimental values and calculated residual fluorescence using Laplace data. These results were interpreted suggesting that the residual fluorescence has two main components, one that seems to be independent on micellar properties, while the other is directly related to location of molecules inside the surfactant aggregates that serve as substrate.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new approach to the use of micelles in the fluorescent sensing of metal cations is proposed and applied to the case of Hg(2+). We demonstrate how it is possible to transform a system from an ON-OFF to an OFF-ON sensor by changing the length of the chain used to lipophilise a ligand that resides inside TritonX-100 micelles together with pyrene as the fluorophore. Three tetrathia-monoaza macrocyclic ligands have been synthesised with the same ring but functionalised on the nitrogen atom with a methyl (C1-NS4), an n-butyl (C4-NS4) or an n-dodecyl (C12-NS4) chain. The three ligands have been fully characterised in water containing TritonX-100 micelles by means of potentiometric titrations and their apparent protonation and complexation constants with Hg(2+) were determined. On the basis of the distribution diagrams obtained, the more lipophilic C12-NS4 has been developed as an ON-OFF fluorescent sensor for mercury: working at pH<4, in the absence of Hg(2+) the ligand is inside the micelles, protonated and non-quenching, while on addition of mercury the [C12-NS4Hg](2+) complex forms which remains inside the micelles and is quenching. On the other hand, the ligand of intermediate chain length, C4-NS4, can be used to obtain an OFF-ON sensor at 7.0<pH<9.5. In the absence of added metal at pH>7.0 the ligand is unprotonated, it stays inside the micelles and is quenching, while addition of Hg(2+) in the 7.0-9.5 pH range results in the formation of [C4-NS4Hg](2+), which is hydrophilic enough to leave the micelles and to be released into the bulk solution where it is no longer capable of quenching pyrene fluorescence. Additional studies on C1-NS4, C3-NS4 and C8-NS4 indicate that the optimal chain length to observe this OFF-ON behaviour is C(3)-C(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of ligands, containing one (L1H(2)-L4H(2)) or two (L5H(4)-L6H(4)) 1,4,8,11-tetraaza-5,7-dione units and functionalized with a propargyl group on the C atom between the C=O moieties, has been synthesized. Protonation constants for the ligands and formation constants of their Cu(2+) complexes have been determined in water, and the coordination geometry of the complexes existing at various pH values has been investigated by coupled pH-metric and spectrophotometric titrations. Ligands capable of simple uptake of Cu(2+) with the formation of neutral, square-planar complexes containing the -2-charged diamino-diimido donor sets and ligands containing further coordinating groups (quinoline or pyridine) capable of single and double cation translocation have been investigated. The role of the substituents on the amino groups and the structural role played by the propargyl group have been examined as regards Cu(2+) complexation and translocation. In the double-translocating ligand L6H(4), when the two Cu(2+) ions move inside the diamino-diamido donor set, the slim propargyl group allows an unprecedented folding of the whole ligand with apical coordination of one pyridine to form a five-coordinate, square-pyramidal Cu(2+) ion. The crystal and molecular structures of this unusual [L6Cu(2)] complex have been determined by X-ray diffraction. Finally, oxidation of Cu(2+) to Cu(3+) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry in water, which revealed that the redox reaction occurs only when the copper cation is within the diamino-diimido compartment. Moreover, both functionalization of the primary amines with bulky substituents and apical coordination of Cu(2+) make access to the 3+ oxidation state more difficult and disrupt the reversibility of the electrochemical process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A micellar approach is proposed to build a series of systems featuring an "off-on-off" fluorescent window response with changes in pH. The solubilizing properties of micelles are used to self-assemble, in water, plain pyrene with lipophilized pyridine and tertiary amine moieties. Since these components are contained in the small volume of the same micelle, pyrene fluorescence is influenced by the basic moieties: protonated pyridines and free tertiary amines behave as quenchers. Accordingly, fluorescence transitions from the "off" to the "on" state, and viceversa, take place when the pH crosses the pK(a) values of the amine and pyridine fragments. To obtain an "off-on-off" fluorescent response in this investigation we use either a set of dibasic lipophilic molecules (containing covalently linked pyridine and tertiary amine groups) or combinations of separate, lipophilic pyridines and tertiary amines. The use of combinations of dibasic and monobasic lipophilic molecules also gives a window-shaped fluorescence response with changes in pH: it is the highest pyridine pK(a) and the lowest tertiary amine pK(a) that determine the window limits. The pK(a) values of all the examined lipophilic molecules were determined in micelles, and compared with the values found for the same molecules in solvent mixtures in which they are molecularly dispersed. The effect of micellization is to significantly lower the observed protonation constants of the lipophilized species. Moreover, the more lipophilic a molecule is, the lower the observed logK value is. Accordingly, changing the substituents on the basic moieties or modifying their structure, tuning the lipophilicity of the mono- or dibases, and choosing among a large set of possible combination of lipophilized mono- and dibases have allowed us to tune, almost at will, both the width and the position along the pH axis of the obtained fluorescent window.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: pH-driven double Cu2+ ion translocation occurs inside an heteroditopic macrocycle. The movement opens and closes the system allowing or preventing it to function as receptor for bidentate anions. When imidazole is added to a solution buffered at an appropriate pH value, opening of the system and substrate binding can be induced by the substrate itself, which results in a sharp color change (see picture).
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new approach based on self-assembly inside micelles has been individuated to prepare a system behaving as a water-operating selective fluorescent sensor for Cu2+ and Ni2+.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Chemical Communications