[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are bioactive molecules widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Polyphenols in food sources are extensively studied for their role in the maintenance of human health and in the protection against development of chronic/degenerative diseases. Polyphenols act mainly as antioxidant molecules, protecting cell constituents against oxidative damage. The enormous number of polyphenolic compounds leads to huge different mechanisms of action not fully understood. Recently, some evidence is emerging about the role of polyphenols, such as curcumin, pinocembrin, resveratrol, and quercetin, in modulating the activity of some aquaporin (AQP) isoforms. AQPs are integral, small hydrophobic water channel proteins, extensively expressed in many organs and tissues, whose major function is to facilitate the transport of water or glycerol over cell plasma membranes. Here we summarize AQP physiological functions and report emerging evidence on the implication of these proteins in a number of pathophysiological processes. In particular, this review offers an overview about the role of AQPs in brain, eye, skin diseases, and metabolic syndrome, focusing on the ability of polyphenols to modulate AQP expression. This original analysis can contribute to elucidating some peculiar effects exerted by polyphenols and can lead to the development of an innovative potential preventive/therapeutic strategy.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae/lipid rafts are membrane-rich cholesterol domains endowed with several functions in signal transduction and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been reported to be implicated in regulating multiple cancer-associated processes, ranging from tumor growth to multidrug resistance and angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Cav-1 are frequently colocalized, suggesting an important role played by this interaction on cancer cell survival and proliferation. Thus, our attention was directed to a leukemia cell line (B1647) that constitutively produces VEGF and expresses the tyrosine-kinase receptor VEGFR-2. We investigated the presence of VEGFR-2 in caveolae/lipid rafts, focusing on the correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glucose transport modulation induced by VEGF, peculiar features of tumor proliferation. In order to better understand the involvement of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in the redox signal transduction, we evaluated the effect of different compounds able to inhibit VEGF interaction with its receptor by different mechanisms, corroborating the obtained results by immunoprecipitation and fluorescence techniques. Results here reported showed that, in B1647 leukemia cells, VEGFR-2 is present in caveolae through association with Cav-1, demonstrating that caveolae/lipid rafts act as platforms for negative modulation of VEGF redox signal transduction cascades leading to glucose uptake and cell proliferation, suggesting therefore novel potential targets.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decade the generation and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide, in cell signalling transduction pathways have been intensively studied and it is now clear that an increase of ROS level affects cellular growth and proliferation pathways related to cancer development. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been long thought to permeate biological membranes by simple diffusion since recent evidence challenged this notion disclosing the role of aquaporin water channels (AQP) in mediating H2O2 transport across plasma membranes. We previously demonstrated that NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox)-generated ROS sustain glucose uptake and cellular proliferation in leukaemia cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific AQP isoforms can channel Nox-produced H2O2 across the plasma membrane of leukaemia cells affecting downstream pathways linked to cell proliferation. In this work we demonstrate that AQP inhibition caused a decrease in intracellular ROS accumulation in leukaemia cells both when H2O2 was produced by Nox enzymes and when it was exogenously added. Furthermore, AQP8 overexpression or silencing resulted to modulate VEGF capacity of triggering an H2O2 intracellular level increase or decrease, respectively. Finally, we report that AQP8 is capable of increasing H2O2 induced phosphorylation of both PI3K and p38 MAPK, and that AQP8 expression affected positively cell proliferation. Taken together, the results here reported indicate that AQP8 is able to modulate H2O2 transport through the plasma membrane affecting redox signalling linked to leukaemia cells proliferation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLCγ phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H
. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL), whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in vascular pathophysiology and in hematological malignancies. VEGF is supposed to utilize ROS as messenger intermediates downstream of the VEGF receptor-2. NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) family is a major source of cellular ROS and is implicated in increased ROS production in tumor cells. We previously demonstrated that B1647 cells, a human leukemic cell line, express Nox2 and Nox4, both at mRNA and protein level. We suggest here that the VEGF-induced increase in ROS can be related to Nox2 and Nox4 activities. Nox-derived ROS are involved in early signaling events such as the autophosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2, and in the modulation of glucose uptake, a cellular activity strictly bound to VEGF-induced leukemic cell proliferation, as shown by experiments with antioxidants and Nox inhibitors and siRNA. Nox-generated ROS are required to sustain B1647 cell viability and proliferation; in fact, antioxidants such as EUK-134 or Nox inhibitors and siRNA direct cells to apoptotic cell death, suggesting that manipulation of cellular Nox2 and Nox4 could affect survival of leukemic cells.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently demonstrated reliance of glycolytic cancer cells on trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) for survival raises the question of its suitability as a target for anticancer drug development. In this study, the effects of several new and known compounds on proliferation, tPMET activity and NAD(P)H intrinsic fluorescence in human myelogenous leukemic cell lines were investigated. The whole data confirm the importance of tPMET in leukemic cell survival and suggest this activity as a new potential anti-leukemic target.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Leukemia research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism involved in the prosurvival effect of interleukin-3 on the human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line M07e is investigated. A decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, glucose transport activity and cell survival was observed in the presence of inhibitors of plasma membrane ROS sources, such as diphenylene iodonium and apocynin, and by small interference RNA for Nox2. Moreover, IL-3 incubation stimulated the synthesis of Nox2 cytosolic sub-unit p47phox and glucose transporter Glut1. Thus, the inhibition of ROS generation by Nox inhibitors stimulated apoptosis showing that ROS production, induced by IL-3 via Nox2, protects leukaemic cells from cell death. Also incubation with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as anti-leukaemic drugs blocking the stem cell factor receptor (c-kit), showed similar effects, hinting that IL-3 transmodulates c-kit phosphorylation. These mechanisms may play an important role in acute myeloid leukaemia treatment, representing a novel therapeutic target.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Free Radical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the human acute myeloid leukemia cell line M07e, the growth factor interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces ROS formation, positively affecting Glut1-mediated glucose uptake and cell survival. The effect of IL-3 and exogenous hydrogen peroxide on cell viability seems to be mediated through inhibition of the cell death commitment, as shown by apoptotic markers such as caspase activities, apoptotic nuclei, and changes in the amount of proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family. The pivotal role of ROS is confirmed using various antioxidants, such as EUK-134, ebselen, TEMPO, and hydroxylamine probe. In fact, these antioxidants, acting through different mechanisms, decrease glucose transport activity and cell proliferation activated by IL-3 or by low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, antioxidants foster programmed cell death commitment, as shown by the cited apoptotic parameters. EUK-134, a combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, opposes the effects of IL-3 and H2O2, decreasing phosphorylation levels of signaling enzymes such as Akt, Src tyrosine kinase, and ERK. Results show that ROS production induced by IL-3 can protect leukemic cells from apoptosis, the effect being counteracted by antioxidants. This mechanism may play an important role in supporting acute myeloid leukemia treatment, thus representing a novel therapeutic strategy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of superoxide-generating enzymes homologues of phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase, the Nox family, has led to the concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are 'intentionally' generated with biological functions in various cell types. In this study, by treating an acute leukaemic cell line with different antioxidants, ROS generation was shown to be crucially involved in the modulation of glucose transport (mediated by Glut1), which is frequently up-regulated in cancer cells. Then, this study tried to elucidate ROS source(s) and mechanisms by which ROS are involved in Glut1 activity regulation. Results prove that Nox2 and Nox4 are the candidates and that phosphorylation processes are important in the regulation of glucose uptake on which cancer cells rely. On the whole, data suggest that both Glut1 and Nox homologues may be considered new potential targets in the treatment of leukaemia.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Free Radical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous paper, we demonstrated that tissue trans fatty acids can not only derive from the diet but also be endogenously formed. The central focus of this study was to prove that the in vivo isomerization occurs via a radical process. Two different models of radical insult were used: CCl(4) and AAPH injection to rats fed a diet completely free of trans isomers. Following this acute radical stress, a significant increase in unnatural trans fatty acid content of erythrocyte, kidney, and heart, but not liver, was observed. These results can be mainly explained by the high content, particularly in the liver, of antioxidant vitamins A and E that exhibit also an "anti-isomerizing" effect. Since during ageing cellular components are exposed to increasing radical insults, the observation of a significant trans fatty acid accumulation in 30-month-old rats could confirm that the in vivo formation of unnatural isomers is due to a radical process. Trans fatty acids can influence the physical characteristics of bilayer microdomains, affecting membrane properties and functions; thus, knowledge of biological radical species responsible for cis/trans isomerization and their possible sources can provide protective systems for preserving lipid geometry.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some applications to biological samples of a method for the separation and the quantitative analysis of phospholipids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and light scattering mass detection are described. Results obtained in the determination of phospholipid classes from rat tissues such as liver, heart and kidney have been compared with data from the literature. The method has been applied to the evaluation of phospholipids in human low-density lipoproteins (LDL), about which little is known. The procedure is also suitable for a rapid and reliable assay of the water-soluble phospholipase A2 activity; the relationship between the aggregation state of substrate phospholipids (mixed micelles, multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles) and the enzyme activity has been studied.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukaemia line, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in response to cytokines acting as intracellular messengers to modulate glucose transport. The aim of this work was to study the signal cascade involved in the acute glucose transport activation in cells exposed to growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) and thrombopoietin (TPO), to better understand some aspects of the aberrant proliferation in leukaemia. Results confirm ROS involvement in modulation of glucose transport in this cell line. Furthermore, GM-CSF and TPO produced changes in Glut1 phosphorylation and specific inhibitors employed to identify protein kinases involved in Glut activation by these cytokines proved that Akt, PLC gamma, Syk and the Src family take part in signal transduction leading to Glut1 activation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Free Radical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In leukemic cells, glucose transport is activated by SCF and H2O2 through a common signal cascade involving Akt, PLCgamma, Syk, and the Src family, in this order. An explanation can be provided by the phosphorylation of c-kit, the SCF receptor, elicited by either SCF or H2O2. Moreover, antioxidants prevent the SCF effect on glucose transport, confirming the involvement of H2O2 in the pathway leading to glucose-transport activation and suggesting a potential role for reactive oxygen species in leukemia proliferation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In leukemic cells, glucose transport is activated by SCIF and H2O2 through a common signal cascade involving Akt, PLC gamma, Syk, and the Src family, in this order. An explanation can be provided by the phosphorylation of c-kit, the SCIF receptor, elicited by either SCF or H2O2. Moreover, antioxidants prevent the SCF effect on glucose transport, confirming the involvement of H2O2 in the pathway leading to glucose-transport activation and suggesting a potential role for reactive oxygen species in leukemia proliferation.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to investigate the role of cytosolic calcium and calmodulin-dependent systems in the activation of glucose uptake in the human megakaryocytic cell line M07e. Glucose uptake was significantly raised by elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) with thapsigargin, this effect being additive to the activation induced by cytokines (SCF, GM-CSF and TPO) and hydrogen peroxide. Intracellular Ca(2+) chelation by BAPTA decreased basal and activated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. BAPTA reduced the GLUT1 translocation induced by SCF and H(2)O(2), suggesting a major role for Ca(2+) in GLUT1 intracellular trafficking. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl-borate (2-APB) abolished the activation of glucose uptake induced by cytokines and H(2)O(2) suggesting an involvement in GLUT1 regulation in responses related to InsP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release. Under our experimental conditions, all the stimuli inducing glucose uptake activation failed to increase [Ca(2+)](c) suggesting that cytosolic Ca(2+) plays a permissive role in the regulation of GLUT1. The calmodulin antagonist W-7 and the inhibitor of Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CAMK II) KN-62 removed the glucose transport activation by all the tested stimuli. These results suggest that in M07e cells calmodulin and CAMKII are involved in GLUT1 stimulation by cytokines and ROS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of a family of superoxide-generating enzymes, homologues of phagocyte oxidase, has led to the concept that ROS are "intentionally" generated with biological functions in various cell types. We have recently shown that, in two leukaemic cell lines (M07e and B1647), there is a correlation between ROS and an important physiological activity, like glucose uptake, which is up-regulated in leukaemic cells. In this study, we tried to elucidate the sources of ROS generation and the mechanisms by which ROS are involved in the regulation of glucose uptake in B1647 cells. In particular, we investigated the presence and the role of a member of the NAD(P)H oxidase family (Nox). Data obtained in the presence of Nox inhibitors suggest that ROS involved in glucose uptake could be generated by this membrane-bound enzymatic complex. The effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antioxidants show the importance of phosphorylation processes in the regulation of glucose uptake. PI3-kinase seems to be involved in ROS generation, possibly through Rac, which binds to Nox. The activation of tyrosine kinase receptor by vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), produced by an autocrine pathway in this cell line, seems to be an important step of this pathway.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Acta Biologica Szegediensis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose transport into cells may be regulated by a variety of conditions, including ischemia. We investigated whether some enzymes frequently involved in the metabolic adaptation to ischemia are also required for glucose transport activation. Ischemia was simulated by incubating during 3 h H9c2 cardiomyoblasts in a serum- and glucose-free medium in hypoxia. Under these conditions 2-deoxy-d-[2,6-(3)H]-glucose uptake was increased (57% above control levels, p<0.0001) consistently with GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma. Tyrosine kinases inhibition via tyrphostin had no effect on glucose transport up-regulation induced by simulated ischemia. On the other hand, chelerythrine, a broad range inhibitor of protein kinase C isoforms, and rottlerin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C delta, completely prevented the stimulation of the transport rate. A lower activation of hexose uptake (19%, p<0.001) followed also treatment with Gö6976, an inhibitor of conventional protein kinases C. Finally, PD98059-mediated inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, a downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), only partially reduced the activation of glucose transport induced by simulated ischemia (31%, p<0.01), while SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, did not exert any effect. These results indicate that stimulation of protein kinase C delta is strongly related to the up-regulation of glucose transport induced by simulated ischemia in cultured cardiomyoblasts and that conventional protein kinases C and ERK 1/2 are partially involved in the signalling pathways mediating this process.