[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer epidemiologyColorectal cancer ranks as the fourth most prevalent cancer in the USA based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer statistics. The incidence and deaths in 2014 of colorectal cancer is estimated to be 136,830 and 50,310, respectively . The 5-year survival for all stages combined is 64.7 % based on recent SEER data. Incidence rates for colorectal cancer have been falling on average 3.1 % per year over the last 10 years. Death rates have been decreasing on average 2.9 % per year from 2002 to 2011 .The role of oxaliplatin in colorectal cancerOxaliplatin is third-generation diaminocyclohexane platinum chemotherapy that crosslinks strands of DNA forming DNA adducts inhibiting DNA replication and transcription . Early studies indicated synergistic anti-neoplastic activity in combination with 5-fluorouracil (FU) in colorectal cancer cell lines . This led to a randomized trial comparing 5-FU alone and in combination with oxali ...
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Supportive Care in Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs have emerged as important post-translational regulators of gene expression and are involved in several physiological and pathological states including the pathogenesis of human colon cancers. In regards to tumor development, microRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Two hereditary predispositions (i.e., Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis) contribute to the development of colon cancer. In addition, individuals who suffer from inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis have a higher risk of developing colon cancer. Here, we discuss the occurrence of the deregulated expression of microRNAs in colon cancer that arise as a result of hereditary predisposition and inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that elevated S100P promotes the pathogenesis of cancers, including colon cancer. S100P exerts its effects by binding to and activating the Receptor for Advance Glycation End-products (RAGE). The effects of up-regulated S100P/RAGE signaling on cell functions are well documented. Despite these observations, little is known about the downstream targets of S100P/RAGE signaling. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that activation of RAGE by S100P regulates oncogenic microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression through Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) stimulation in colon cancer cells. Ectopic S100P up-regulated miR-155 levels in human colon cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of S100P resulted in a decrease in miR-155 levels. Exogenous S100P induced miR-155 expression, but blockage of the RAGE with anti-RAGE antibody suppressed the induction of miR-155 by exogenous S100P. Attenuation of AP-1 activation through pharmacological inhibition of MEK activation or genetic inhibition of c-Jun activation using dominant negative c-Jun (TAM67) suppressed miR-155 induction by exogenous S100P. Also, S100P treatment stimulated the enrichment of c-Fos, an AP-1 family member, at the miR-155 host gene promoter site. Finally, a functional study demonstrated that miR-155 knockdown decreases colon cancer cell growth, motility, and invasion. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the expression of miR-155 is regulated by S100P and is dependent on RAGE activation and stimulation of AP-1.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the PGE2 receptor, EP4, is up-regulated during colorectal carcinogenesis. However the mechanism leading to deregulation of the EP4 receptor is not known. The present study was conducted to investigate the regulation of EP4 receptor by miRNAs.
We analyzed 26 colon cancers (i.e. 15 adenocarcinomas and 9 adenomas) and 16 normal colon specimens for EP4 receptor expression by immunohistochemistry. A bioinformatics approached identified putative microRNA binding sites with the 3'-UTR of the EP4 receptor. Both colon cancer cell lines and tumor specimens were analyzed for miR-101 and EP4 expression by qRT-PCR and Western analysis respectively and simultaneously in situ hybridizations was used to confirm our results. In vitro and in vivo assays were used to confirm our clinical findings.
We observed an inverse correlation between the levels of miR-101 and EP4 receptor protein. Transfection of LS174T cells with miR-101 significantly suppressed a luciferase reporter containing the EP4 receptor-3'-UTR. In contrast, a mutant EP4 receptor-3'-UTR construct was unaffected. Ectopic expression of miR-101 markedly reduced cell proliferation and motility. Co-transfection of EP4 receptor could rescue colon cancer cells from the tumor suppressive effects of miR-101. Moreover, the pharmacologic inhibition of EP4 receptor signaling or silencing of EP4 receptor phenocopied the effect of miR-101. This is the first study to show that the EP4 receptor is negatively regulated by miR-101.
These data provide new insights in the modulation of EP-4 receptor expression at the post-transcriptional level by miR-101 and suggests therapeutic strategies against miR-101 targets may be warranted.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Cancer biology & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms driving cancer-induced bone pain are poorly understood. A central factor implicated to be a key player in the process of tumorigenesis, osteoclastogenesis and nociception is p38 MAPK. We determined the role of p38 MAPK in a mouse model of breast cancer induced bone pain in which mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic remodeling occurs.
In cancer-treated mice, acute as well as chronic inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 blocked flinching and guarding behaviors in a dose-dependent manner whereas no effect on thresholds to tactile stimuli was observed. Radiographic analyses of bones demonstrated that chronic inhibition of p38 MAPK reduced bone loss and incidence of spontaneous fracture in cancer-treated mice. Histological analysis of bones collected from mice treated with the p38 MAPK inhibitor showed complete absence of osteoblastic growth in the intramedullary space as well as significantly reduced tumor burden.
Blockade of non-evoked pain behaviors but not hypersensitivity suggests differences in the underlying mechanisms of specific components of the pain syndrome and a possibility to individualize aspects of pain management. While it is not known whether the role of p38 MAPK signaling can be expanded to other cancers, the data suggest a need for understanding molecular mechanisms and cellular events that initiate and maintain cancer-induced bone pain for effective management for both ongoing pain as well as breakthrough pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) levels are frequently elevated in colorectal carcinomas. PGE₂ is perceived via four transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (EP1-4), among which the EP4 receptor is most relevant. PGE₂/EP4-receptor interaction activates CREB via the ERK/MEK pathway. However, the downstream target genes activated by this pathway remained to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have identified S100P (an EF-hand calcium binding protein) as a novel downstream target. We show by realtime RT-PCR that S100P mRNA levels are elevated in 14/17 (82%) colon tumor tissues as compared to paired adjacent normal colonic tissues. S100P expression is stimulated in the presence of PGE₂ in a time dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels in colon, breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of the EP4 receptor attenuates PGE₂-dependent S100P mRNA induction. RNA(i)-mediated knockdown of CREB inhibits endogenous S100P expression. Furthermore, using luciferase reporter analysis and EMSA we show that mutation and/or deletion of the CRE sequence within the S100P promoter abolished PGE₂-mediated transcriptional induction. Finally, we demonstrate that RNA(i)-mediated knockdown of S100P compromised invadopodia formation, colony growth and motility of colon cancer cells. Interestingly, endogenous knock down of S100P decreases ERK expression levels, suggesting a role for ERK in regulating S100P mediated cell growth and motility. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our findings show for the first time that S100P expression is regulated by PGE₂/EP4-receptor signaling and may participate in a feedback signaling that perpetuates tumor cell growth and migration. Therefore, our data suggest that dysregulated S100P expression resulting from aberrant PGE₂/EP4 receptor signaling may have important consequences relevant to colon cancer pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Cancer biology & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer is an aggressive form that currently requires more drug treatment options. Thus, we have further modified cyclohexanone derivatives of curcumin and examined them for cytotoxicity towards ER-negative human breast cancer cells. Two of the analogs screened elicited increased cytotoxic potency compared to curcumin and other previously studied derivatives. Specifically, 2,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethylene)-cyclohexanone (RL90) and 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)-cyclohexanone (RL91) elicited EC(50) values of 1.54 and 1.10 µM, respectively, in MDA-MB-231 cells and EC(50) values of 0.51 and 0.23 in SKBr3 cells. All other new compounds examined were less potent than curcumin, which elicited EC(50) values of 7.6 and 2.4 µM in MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 cells, respectively. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that RL90 and RL91 significantly induced G(2)/M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. RL90 and RL91 also modulated the expression of key cell signaling proteins, specifically, in SKBr3 cells, protein levels of Her-2, Akt, and NFκB were decreased in a time-dependent manner, while activity of stress kinases JNK1/2 and P38 MAPK were increased. Signaling events in MDA-MB-231 cells were differently implicated, as EGFR protein levels were decreased and activity of GSK-3β transiently decreased, while β-catenin protein level and activity of P38 MAPK, Akt, and JNK1/2 were transiently increased. In conclusion replacement of the phenyl group of cyclohexanone derived curcumin derivatives with heterocyclic rings forms a class of second-generation analogs that are more potent than both curcumin and other derivatives. These new derivatives provide a platform for the further development of drugs for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is an essential RNA and DNA binding protein involved in gene expression and signal transduction including DNA transcription, RNA splicing, RNA stability and translation. The role of hnRNP K in cancer is relatively understudied. However, several cellular functions strongly indicate that hnRNP K is involved in tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the altered protein expression and the subcellular distribution of the hnRNP K protein using tissue microarrays in pancreatic cancer. We showed an increased cytoplasmic hnRNP K in pancreatic cancer. This increase in hnRNP K protein occurs at the posttranscriptional level. We postulate that the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP K will lead to silenced mRNA translation of tumor suppressor genes and thus contributes to pancreatic cancer development. We also demonstrated that knocking down of hnRNP K expression by siRNA inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth and colony formation. hnRNP K was identified as a member of the p53/HDM2 pathway. Whether hnRNP K interacts with the mutant p53 is not known. Using two different pancreatic cancer cell lines, we can demonstrate that hnRNP K interacts with the mutant p53. The subcellular distribution and function of the mutant p53 and the interaction of hnRNP K/mutant p53 were affected by the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway, growth factors and the specific p53 mutations in pancreatic cancer cells. Since Kras is activated and p53 is mutated in most pancreatic cancers, these data unveiled an important new signaling pathway that linked by hnRNP K and mutant p53 in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal adenocarcinoma risk in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is increased 30- to 125-fold versus the general population. Among all BE patients, however, neoplastic progression occurs only once per 200 patient-years. Molecular biomarkers are therefore needed to risk-stratify patients for more efficient surveillance endoscopy and to improve the early detection of progression. We therefore performed a retrospective, multicenter, double-blinded validation study of eight BE progression prediction methylation biomarkers. Progression or nonprogression were determined at 2 years (tier 1) and 4 years (tier 2). Methylation was assayed in 145 nonprogressors and 50 progressors using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Progressors were significantly older than nonprogressors (70.6 versus 62.5 years; P < 0.001). We evaluated a linear combination of the eight markers, using coefficients from a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were high in the 2-year, 4-year, and combined data models (0.843, 0.829, and 0.840; P < 0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). In addition, even after rigorous overfitting correction, the incremental AUCs contributed by panels based on the 8 markers plus age versus age alone were substantial (Delta-AUC = 0.152, 0.114, and 0.118, respectively) in all 3 models. A methylation biomarker-based panel to predict neoplastic progression in BE has potential clinical value in improving both the efficiency of surveillance endoscopy and the early detection of neoplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: eIF3f is a subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3). We previously showed that eIF3f is phosphorylated by cyclin dependent kinase 11 (CDK11(p46)) which is an important effector in apoptosis. Here, we identified a second eIF3f phosphorylation site (Thr119) by CDK11(p46) during apoptosis. We demonstrated that eIF3f is directly phosphorylated by CDK11(p46) in vivo. Phosphorylation of eIF3f plays an important role in regulating its function in translation and apoptosis. Phosphorylation of eIF3f enhances the association of eIF3f with the core eIF3 subunits during apoptosis. Our data suggested that eIF3f may inhibit translation by increasing the binding to the eIF3 complex during apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant regulation of the translation initiation is known to contribute to tumorigenesis. eIF3 plays an important role in translation initiation. eIF3f is the p47 subunit of the eIF3 complex whose function in cancer is not clear. Initial studies from our group indicated that eIF3f expression is decreased in melanoma. Overexpression of eIF3f inhibits translation and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells. The eIF3f gene is located at chromosome region 11p15.4. Loss of 11p15.4 is a common event in many tumors including melanoma. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism of the decreased expression of eIF3f in melanoma, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis in 24 melanoma specimens using three microsatellite markers encompassing the eIF3f gene. We showed that the prevalence of LOH ranged from 75% to 92% in melanoma. We also performed eIF3f gene copy number analysis using quantitative real-time PCR to further confirm the specific allelic loss of the eIF3f gene in melanoma. We demonstrated a statistically significant decrease of the eIF3f gene copy number in melanoma compared with normal tissues with a tumor/normal ratio of 0.52. To further elucidate the somatic genetic alterations, we carried out mutation analysis covering the entire coding region and 5'UTR of the eIF3f gene in melanoma tissues and cell lines. Despite some polymorphisms, we did not find any mutations. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that eIF3f protein expression is decreased in melanoma compared to benign nevi. These data provide new insight into the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of eIF3f during melanoma tumorigenesis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary selenium (Se) supplementation has been shown to be effective against reducing the risk of incidence of different human cancers. Selenium exists in both organic and inorganic forms. Different chemical forms of selenium metabolize differently in vivo, activate distinct molecular mechanisms and exhibit varying degree of anti-carcinogenicity in different cancer types. The effectiveness of a Se compound could also vary depending on the genetic background of the tumor cells. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which different Se compounds exert their anti-tumorigenic effects is necessary for their use in cancer chemoprevention.
Preview · Article · May 2008 · Cancer biology & therapy