Z Warzecha

Jagiellonian University, Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (121)624.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods . Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results . Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1 β . Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion . Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1 β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL- 1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Coagulative disorders are known to occur in acute pancreatitis and are related to the severity of this disease. Various experimental and clinical studies have shown protective and therapeutic effect of heparin in acute pancreatitis. Aim of the present study was to determine the influence of acenocoumarol, a vitamin K antagonist, on the development of acute pancreatitis. Studies were performed on male Wistar rats weighing 250 - 270 g. Acenocoumarol at the dose of 50, 100 or 150 μg/kg/dose or vehicle were administered once a day for 7 days before induction of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. The severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed after 5-h reperfusion. Pretreatment with acenocoumarol given at the dose of 50 or 100 μg/kg/dose reduced morphological signs of acute pancreatitis. These effects were accompanied with a decrease in the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum activity of lipase and serum concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β. Moreover, the pancreatitis-evoked reductions in pancreatic DNA synthesis and pancreatic blood flow were partially reversed by pretreatment with acenocoumarol given at the dose of 50 and 100 μg/kg/dose. Administration of acenocoumarol at the dose of 150 μg/kg/dose did not exhibit any protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. We concluded that pretreatment with low doses of acenocoumarol reduces the severity of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of obestatin therapy on the course of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein given intraperitoneally 5 times with 1 hour intervals at the dose of 50 μg/kg per dose. Obestatin was administered twice a day at the dose of 8 nmol/kg per dose, starting the first dose 24 hours after the last injection of cerulein. Severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) was examined at 0 hour or 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after the last injection of cerulein. RESULTS: Administration of cerulein led to development of acute edematous pancreatitis in all rats, and maximal severity of this disease was observed 24 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Treatment with obestatin reduced morphological signs of pancreatic damage (pancreatic edema, leukocyte infiltration, vacuolization of acinar cells) and led to earlier regeneration of the pancreas. Biochemical indexes of severity of pancreatitis such as serum activity of pancreatic digestive enzymes were significantly reduced in animals treated with obestatin. These effects were accompanied by increase in pancreatic DNA synthesis and decrease in serum level of proinflammatory interleukin 1β. In addition, administration of obestatin improved pancreatic blood flow in rats with AP. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with exogenous obestatin reduces severity of AP and accelerates pancreatic recovery.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Pancreas
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans’s 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Obestatin, as ghrelin, has been originally extracted from the stomach, which remains its major source. Previous studies have shown that administration of obestatin exhibits protective and healing-promoting effects in several organs, including the stomach and kidney. In pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. The aim of the present study was to check the universality of protective effect of obestatin in the pancreas. For this reason we investigated the influence of obestatin administration on the development of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the gland. Obestatin (4, 8 or 16nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice: 0.5h before exposure to ischemia, and 3h after the first injection. The effect of obestatin on the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed after 6-h reperfusion, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Treatment with obestatin reduced morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland. These effects were accompanied by an improvement of pancreatic DNA synthesis and superoxide dismutase activity, and a decrease in serum level of lipase and pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β. Moreover pretreatment with obestatin reduced myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde concentration in pancreatic tissue of rats with acute pancreatitis. Administration of obestatin inhibits the development of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis. This observation, taken together with previous findings that obestatin protects the pancreas against cerulein-induced pancreatitis, indicates that protective effect of obestatin in the pancreas is universal and independent of the primary cause of acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · European journal of pharmacology
  • P Ceranowicz · Z Warzecha · A Dembinski
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    ABSTRACT: In 1902 William Bayliss and Ernest Starling discovered secretin and it was the beginning of general endocrinology as well as, endocrinology of gastrointestinal tract. Ernest Starling was also a first person who introduced a term hormone for the substances which serves to transfer the information between cells of organism. Subsequent years delivered discovery of successive hormones of the digestive tract. Gastrin was discovered in 1905; whereas cholecystokinin in 1928. Ghrelin and obestatin are last hormones determined in the gastrointestinal tract and they were found in 1999 and 2006, respectively. Both above hormones are originating from the common prohormone. In 60s of past century, the biochemical structure of the gastrointestinal tract hormones was determined for the first time. Substantial progress in endocrinology of the digestive tract took place when radioimmunoassay was employed to measure of hormones concentration. Subsequently, radiolabeled hormones were used to localize hormonal receptors. Next breakthrough in the gastrointestinal tract endocrinology happened after introduction to experimental methods the cloning of complementary DNA. This method has allowed, among the others, to establish the full structure of receptors as well as, a genes coding hormones and their receptors. Discovery of genes structure allowed subsequently introducing these genes into foreign cells, what gives a chance to obtain significant amount of recombined hormones possessing species specificity. This review is presenting a history of the gastrointestinal tract endocrinology, as well as a relevance of gastrointestinal tract hormones in the regulation of body physiological activity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Background Protective effect of pretreatment with ghrelin against different forms of acute pancreatitis (AP) has been recently reported. Moreover, the healing properties of this peptide have been proved in AP evoked by cerulein. However, no studies have investigated whether the administration of ghrelin affects the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced AP. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ghrelin therapy on the course of necrotizing inflammation of the pancreas. Moreover, to test its impact on peroxidation of lipids and antioxidant defense system in the acutely inflamed pancreas. Methods: Acute inflammation of the pancreas was triggered by pancreatic ischemia which was then followed by reperfusion of the gland. Ghrelin (8nmol/kg/dose) was administered into the peritoneum twice daily, 24h after the initiation of AP. The impact of ghrelin on the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was evaluated between 1 and 21 days, and involved histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Results:Treatment with ghrelin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, acinar cells vacuolization, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, leukocytic infiltration of the gland, and led to its earlier regeneration. These effects were accompanied by an improvement in pancreatic blood flow, enhanced DNA synthesis, reduced serum level of pro- inflammatory interleukin-1β, decreased levels of malondialdehyde and an enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in pancreatic tissue. Conclusions: Ghrelin exerts a pronounced therapeutic effect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. The mechanisms involved are likely multifactorial and are mediated by its anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-oxidative properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Current pharmaceutical design
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    ABSTRACT: Background Protective effect of pretreatment with ghrelin against different forms of acute pancreatitis (AP) has been recently reported. Moreover, the healing properties of this peptide have been proved in AP evoked by cerulein. However, no studies have investigated whether the administration of ghrelin affects the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced AP. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ghrelin therapy on the course of necrotizing inflammation of the pancreas. Moreover, to test its impact on peroxidation of lipids and antioxidant defense system in the acutely inflamed pancreas. Methods: Acute inflammation of the pancreas was triggered by pancreatic ischemia which was then followed by reperfusion of the gland. Ghrelin (8nmol/kg/dose) was administered into the peritoneum twice daily, 24h after the initiation of AP. The impact of ghrelin on the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was evaluated between 1 and 21 days, and involved histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Results:Treatment with ghrelin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, acinar cells vacuolization, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, leukocytic infiltration of the gland, and led to its earlier regeneration. These effects were accompanied by an improvement in pancreatic blood flow, enhanced DNA synthesis, reduced serum level of pro- inflammatory interleukin-1β, decreased levels of malondialdehyde and an enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in pancreatic tissue. Conclusions: Ghrelin exerts a pronounced therapeutic effect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. The mechanisms involved are likely multifactorial and are mediated by its anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-oxidative properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Current Pharmaceutical Design
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is a severe disease with high mortality. Clinical studies can bring some data about etiology, pathogenesis and the course of acute pancreatitis. However, studies concerning early events of this disease and the new concepts of treatment cannot be performed on humans, due to ethical reasons. Animal models of acute pancreatitis have been developed to solve this problem. This review presents currently used experimental models of acute pancreatitis, their properties and clinical relevance. Experimental models of acute pancreatitis can be divided into in vivo (non-invasive and invasive) and ex vivo models. The onset, development, severity and extent of acute pancreatitis, as well as the mortality, vary considerably between these different models. Animal models reproducibly produce mild, moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. One of the most commonly used models of acute pancreatitis is created by administration of supramaximal doses of cerulein, an analog of cholecystokinin. This model produces acute mild edematous pancreatitis in rats, whereas administration of cerulein in mice leads to the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis evoked by retrograde administration of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct is the most often used model of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Ex vivo models allow to eliminate the influence of hormonal and nervous factors on the development of acute pancreatitis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine)
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that treatment with ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. Aim of our present investigation was to examine the influence of ghrelin administration on the healing of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and determine the role of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in this effect. Our studies were performed on male Wistar rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by intragastric administration of 75% ethanol. Ghrelin alone or in combination with cyclooxygenase inhibitors was administered twice, 1 and 13 hours after ethanol application. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor (SC-560, 10 mg/kg/dose) or COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib, 10 mg/kg/dose) were given 30 min prior to ghrelin. Twelve or 24 hours after administration of ethanol, rats were anesthetized and experiments were terminated. The study revealed that administration of ethanol induced gastric ulcers in all animals and this effect was accompanied by the reduction in gastric blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover induction of gastric ulcer by ethanol significantly increased mucosal expression of mRNA for COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α. Treatment with ghrelin significantly accelerated gastric ulcer healing. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin was associated with significant reversion of the ulcer-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Ghrelin administration also caused the reduction in mucosal expression of mRNA for IL-1β and TNF-α. Addition of SC-560 slightly reduced the therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the healing of ethanol-induced ulcer and the ulcer area in rats treated SC-560 plus ghrelin was significantly smaller than that observed in rats treated with saline or SC-560 alone. Pretreatment with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, abolished therapeutic effect of ghrelin. We concluded that treatment with ghrelin increases healing rate of gastric ulcers evoked by ethanol and this effect is related to improvement in mucosal blood flow, an increase in mucosal cell proliferation, and reduction in mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Ghrelin is able to reverse a deleterious effect of COX-1 inhibitor on healing of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Activity of COX-2 is necessary for the therapeutic effect of ghrelin in healing of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effect in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of ghrelin administration on the healing of oral ulcers in rats with intact salivary gland and in sialoadenectomized rats. Gingival and lingual ulcers were induced by acetic acid. After induction of ulcers, rats were treated with saline or ghrelin for six days. In rats with intact salivary glands and induction of oral ulcers, administration of ghrelin significantly increased the healing rate of these ulcers. This result was associated with a significant increase in mucosal blood flow and cell proliferation, and a decrease in concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β in gingival and lingual mucosa. Sialoadenectomy decreased cell proliferation and increased concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β in oral mucosa, as well as reduced the healing rate of gingival and lingual ulcers. Administration of ghrelin reversed deleterious effect of sialoadenectomy and increased the healing rate of oral ulcers above a value observed in rats with intact salivary glands. Conclusions: Treatment with ghrelin accelerates healing of oral ulcers in salivary glands-intact rat, as well as in rats with reduced salivary secretion evoked by sialoadenectomy. Mechanisms of beneficial effects of ghrelin administration involve an increase in mucosal blood flow and cell proliferation, as well as a reduction in local inflammation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that tachykinins, the largest family of neuropeptides, affect the development of mucosal damage in the stomach and colon. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of tachykinins receptors antagonists on the development of the mucosa injury in the proximal and distal jejunum. Mucosal damage was induced by administration of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin, celecoxib or combination of indomethacin plus celecoxib given intragastrically. NK-1 receptor antagonist (SR 140333), NK-2 receptor antagonist (SR 48968) and NK-3 receptor antagonist (SR 142801) were administered intraperitoneally twice, 30 min before treatment with NSAID and again 24 h later, 30 min before the end of the experiment. Administration of indomethacin, a relatively selective inhibitor for cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), induced mucosal lesions in the jejunum. Lesions area in the distal jejunum was 8-fold bigger than in the proximal jejunum. This effect was associated with a significant reduction in mucosal blood flow and an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Celecoxib, selective inhibitor for COX-2 failed to induce mucosal lesions and did not affect the mucosal blood flow and IL-1beta concentration in the proximal and distal jejunum. In rats treated with a combination of indomethacin plus celecoxib, ulcers reached maximal area. This effect was associated with the highest concentration of mucosal IL-1beta and maximal reduction in mucosal blood flow. Administration of NK-1 receptor antagonist, SR 140333 reduced jejunal damage induced by indomethacin given alone or in combination with celecoxib. This effect was associated with significant reduction in mucosal concentration of IL-1beta. Effect of SR 140333 on mucosal blood flow was statistically insignificant. Neither NK-2 nor NK-3 receptor inhibitor affected mucosal blood flow, IL-1beta concentration area of NSAIDs-induced mucosal damage in the jejunum. Blockade of NK-1 receptor protects the jejunum against NSAIDs-induced mucosal injury and reduces local inflammation. This observation indicates the involvement of endogenous tachykinins in deleterious effects of NSAID.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Przegla̧d lekarski

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Pancreatology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Pancreatology
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Previous studies have shown that pancreatic ischemic preconditioning or heparin, applied before induction of acute pancreatitis inhibit the development of this disease and accelerate pancreatic recovery. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of treatment with heparin on protective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IP) in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis. Heparin was administered twice, before and during induction of acute pancreatitis. IP was performed by short-term clamping of celiac artery, 30 min before induction of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by clamping of inferior splenic artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion. Rats were sacrificed after 6-h and 24-h reperfusion. Results: IP applied alone caused a mild pancreatic damage associated with a limited increase in plasma amylase activity, concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β and plasma level of D-dimer. Pretreatment with heparin or IP applied alone reduced the severity of acute pancreatitis. Both these procedures caused a similar reduction in plasma lipase, amylase and interleukin-1β, as well as in histological signs of pancreatic damage. These changes were associated with partial reversion of the pancreatitis-evoked fall of pancreatic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Combination of heparin plus IP reduced the protective effect of heparin or IP applied alone. It was manifested by an increase in pancreatic damage and plasma level of lipase, amylase and interleukin-1β, as well as by reduction in pancreatic DNA synthesis and plasma concentration of D-dimer and interleukin-10. Conclusions: heparin abolishes the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning in ischemia reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. This observation suggests that initial clot formation is necessary to induce pancreatic protection by IP.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that administration of ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the influence of ghrelin administration on the course of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers, as well as effects on mucosal production of oxygen free radicals and duodenal antioxidant defense. Duodenal ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by cysteamine administered intragastrically at the dose of 200 mg/kg in 1 ml of saline, 3 times at 4-h intervals. Starting 24 h after the first dose of cysteamine, rats were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose. Seven days after administration of the first dose of cysteamine, the study was terminated. Induction of ulcers by cysteamine was accompanied by a reduction in duodenal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD); whereas mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malonyldialdehyde (MDA - an index of lipid peroxidation) were increased. Treatment with ghrelin increased healing rate of duodenal ulcers and enhanced duodenal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of SOD, and reduced mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and MDA. Treatment with ghrelin increases the healing rate of duodenal ulcers and this effect is related, at least in part, to improvement of duodenal mucosal blood flow, mucosal cell proliferation and antioxidant defense, as well as being related to reduction in mucosal oxidative stress and inflammatory response.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • Z Warzecha · A Dembinski
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, a peptide predominantly produced in the stomach exhibits numerous physiological functions, including stimulation of growth hormone release, food intake and gastric empting, and regulation of energy expenditure. This peptide exhibits also some protective and healing-promoting effects. This review summarizes the recent findings concerning animal and human data showing protective and therapeutic effects of ghrelin in the gut.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that administration of obestatin exhibits a protective effect in the pancreas, attenuating the development of acute pancreatitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of obestatin administration on the healing of chronic gastric ulcers. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in rats by 100% acetic acid applied to the serosal surface of the gastric wall. Obestatin was given twice a day intraperitoneally at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose for 6 days. Six days after induction of ulcers, rats were anesthetized and the stomach was exposed for measurement of gastric blood flow and ulcer area. Biopsy samples from the gastric mucosa were taken for determination of mucosal DNA synthesis and for measurement of gastric expression of mRNA for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Induction of gastric ulcers alone increased mucosal blood flow and tissue expression of mRNA for TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, whereas gastric mucosal DNA synthesis was reduced. In rats with gastric ulcers, administration of obestatin increased gastric mucosal blood flow, accelerated the healing rate of these ulcers and partly reversed the gastric ulcer-induced reduction in gastric mucosal DNA synthesis. These results were associated with a reduction in gastric mucosal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Treatment with obestatin increases gastric mucosal blood flow and cell proliferation, leading to acceleration of healing of gastric ulcers. These effects are associated with a reduction in mucosal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research