[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Fig. S2. Phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream factors in HCC827 and VMRC‐LCD cells, and Mig‐6 expression in PC‐9 cells and Calu‐6 cells after KU55933 and/or gefitinib treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase signaling pathways regulate cellular activities. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) repress the EGFR pathway constitutively activated by somatic EGFR gene mutations and have drastically improved the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, still there are some problems, including resistance, remain to be solved. Recently, the combination therapy with EGFR-TKIs and cytotoxic agents has been shown to improve the prognosis of NSCLC patients. To enhance the anti-cancer effects of EGFR-TKIs, we examined the crosstalk of the EGFR pathways with Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling pathways. ATM is a key protein kinase in the DNA damage response and is known to phosphorylate Akt, an EGFR downstream factor. We found that the combination of an ATM inhibitor, KU55933, and an EGFR-TKI, gefitinib, resulted in synergistic cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines carrying the sensitive EGFR mutation. We also found that KU55933 enhanced the gefitinib-dependent repression of the phosphorylation of EGFR and/or its downstream factors. ATM inhibition may facilitate the gefitinib-dependent repression of the phosphorylation of EGFR and/or its downstream factors, to exert anti-cancer effects against NSCLC cells with the sensitive EGFR mutation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Linker histones bind to nucleosomes and compact poly-nucleosomes into a higher-order chromatin configuration. Somatic and germ cell-specific linker histone subtypes have been identified, and may have distinct functions. In the present study, we reconstituted poly-nucleosomes containing human histones H1.2 and H1T, as representative somatic and germ cell-specific linker histones, respectively, and found that H1T forms less compacted chromatin, as compared to H1.2. An in vitro homologous-pairing assay revealed that H1T weakly inhibited RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing in chromatin, although the somatic H1 subtypes, H1.0, H1.1, H1.2, H1.3, H1.4, and H1.5, substantially suppressed it. An in vivo recombination assay revealed that H1T overproduction minimally affected the recombination frequency, but significant suppression was observed when H1.2 was overproduced in human cells. These results suggested that the testis-specific linker histone, H1T, possesses a specific function to produce the chromatin architecture required for proper chromosome regulation, such as homologous recombination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Mature lymphoid cells express the transcription repressor Bach2, which imposes regulation on humoral and cellular immunity. Here we found critical roles for Bach2 in the development of cells of the B lineage, commencing from the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage, with Bach1 as an auxiliary. Overexpression of Bach2 in pre-pro-B cells deficient in the transcription factor EBF1 and single-cell analysis of CLPs revealed that Bach2 and Bach1 repressed the expression of genes important for myeloid cells ('myeloid genes'). Bach2 and Bach1 bound to presumptive regulatory regions of the myeloid genes. Bach2(hi) CLPs showed resistance to myeloid differentiation even when cultured under myeloid conditions. Our results suggest that Bach2 functions with Bach1 and EBF1 to promote B cell development by repressing myeloid genes in CLPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms in chromatin reorganization after the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).
Methods and materials:
To examine the dynamics of H2A.Z isoforms at damaged sites, we constructed GM0637 cells stably expressing each of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled H2A.Z isoforms, and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis and inverted FRAP analysis in combination with microirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining using an anti-RAD51 antibody was performed to study the kinetics of RAD51 foci formation after 2-Gy irradiation of wild-type (WT), H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells. Colony-forming assays were also performed to compare the survival rates of WT, H2A.Z-1-, and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells with control, and H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells after irradiation.
FRAP analysis revealed that H2A.Z-2 was incorporated into damaged chromatin just after the induction of DSBs, whereas H2A.Z-1 remained essentially unchanged. Inverted FRAP analysis showed that H2A.Z-2 was released from damaged chromatin. These findings indicated that H2A.Z-2 was exchanged at DSB sites immediately after the induction of DSBs. RAD51 focus formation after ionizing irradiation was disturbed in H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells but not in H2A.Z-1-deficient cells. The survival rate of H2A.Z-2-deficient cells after irradiation was lower than those of WT and H2A.Z-1- DT40 cells. Similar to DT40 cells, H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells were also radiation-sensitive compared to control and H2A.Z-1-depleted cells.
We found that vertebrate H2A.Z-2 is involved in the regulation of the DNA damage response at a very early stage, via the damaged chromatin reorganization required for RAD51 focus formation.
Article · Jul 2014 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Supplement Table 1: Upregulated and downregulated genes in the livers of 8-week-old Bach1-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice of the same age.
Supplement Table 2: Upregulated and downregulated genes in the livers of aged Bach1-deficient mice compared with 8-week-old Bach1-deficient mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress contributes to both aging and tumorigenesis. The transcription factor Bach1, a regulator of oxidative stress response, augments oxidative stress by repressing the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene (Hmox1) and suppresses oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence by restricting the p53 transcriptional activity. Here we investigated the lifelong effects of Bach1 deficiency on mice. Bach1-deficient mice showed longevity similar to wild-type mice. Although HO-1 was upregulated in the cells of Bach1-deficient animals, the levels of ROS in Bach1-deficient HSCs were comparable to those in wild-type cells. Bach1 (-/-); p53 (-/-) mice succumbed to spontaneous cancers as frequently as p53-deficient mice. Bach1 deficiency significantly altered transcriptome in the liver of the young mice, which surprisingly became similar to that of wild-type mice during the course of aging. The transcriptome adaptation to Bach1 deficiency may reflect how oxidative stress response is tuned upon genetic and environmental perturbations. We concluded that Bach1 deficiency and accompanying overexpression of HO-1 did not influence aging or p53 deficiency-driven tumorigenesis. Our results suggest that it is useful to target Bach1 for acute injury responses without inducing any apparent deteriorative effect.
Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination plays essential roles in mitotic DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and meiotic genetic recombination. In eukaryotes, RAD51 promotes the central homologous-pairing step during homologous recombination, but is not sufficient to overcome the reaction barrier imposed by nucleosomes. RAD54, a member of the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor family, is required to promote the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in nucleosomal DNA. In higher eukaryotes, most nucleosomes form higher-ordered chromatin containing the linker histone H1. However, the mechanism by which RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing occurs in higher-ordered chromatin has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that a histone chaperone, Nap1, accumulates on DSB sites in human cells, and DSB repair is substantially decreased in Nap1-knockdown cells. We determined that Nap1 binds to RAD54, enhances the RAD54-mediated nucleosome remodeling by evicting histone H1, and eventually stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Genetic information encoded in chromosomal DNA is challenged by intrinsic and exogenous sources of DNA damage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are extremely dangerous DNA lesions. RAD51 plays a central role in homologous recombinational DSB repair, by facilitating the recombination of damaged DNA with intact DNA in eukaryotes. RAD51 accumulates at sites containing DNA damage to form nuclear foci. However, the mechanism of RAD51 accumulation at sites of DNA damage is still unclear. Posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, play a role in the regulation of protein localization and dynamics. Recently, the covalent binding of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to target proteins, termed SUMOylation, at sites containing DNA damage has been determined to play a role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. Here we show that the SUMOylation E2, UBC9, and E3, PIAS1 and PIAS4 enzymes are required for RAD51 accretion at sites containing DNA damage in human cells. Moreover, we identified a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) in RAD51, which is necessary for RAD51 accumulation at sites of DNA damage. These findings suggest that the SUMO-SIM system plays an important role in DNA repair, through the regulation of RAD51 dynamics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays a critical role in responding to DNA damage, by activating DNA repair pathways responsible for cellular survival. PARP inhibition is used to treat certain solid cancers, such as breast and ovarian cancers. However, its effectiveness with other solid cancers, such as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), has not been clarified. We evaluated the effects of PARP inhibition on the survival of human esophageal cancer cells, with a special focus on the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The effects were monitored by colony formation assays and DNA damage responses, with immunofluorescence staining of γH2AX and RAD51. We found that PARP inhibition synergized with cisplatin, and the cells were highly sensitive, in a similar manner to the combination of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Comparable increases in RAD51 foci formation were observed after each combinational treatment with cisplatin and either 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) or 5-FU in three human esophageal cancer cell lines, TE11, TE14 and TE15. In addition, decreasing the amount of RAD51 by RNA interference rendered the TE11 cells even more hypersensitive to these combinational treatments. Our findings suggested that the homologous recombinational repair pathway may be involved in the synergism between cisplatin and either 3-AB or 5-FU, and that 3-AB and 5-FU may similarly modify the cisplatin-induced DNA damage to types requiring the recruitment of RAD51 proteins for their repair. Understanding these mechanisms could be useful for improving the clinical outcome of ESCC patients, who suffer from aggressive diseases that presently lack effective treatment options. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most well established chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM-1) is the rate‑limiting enzyme in de novo DNA synthesis, and has been considered to play an important role in the 5-FU metabolic pathway. However, the means by which RRM-1 participates in the anticancer effects of 5-FU and cisplatin (CDDP) have not been well studied. Here, we show that RRM-1 significantly contributes to the induction of DNA damage by 5-FU in esophageal cancer cell lines. An assay of γ-H2AX focus formation, a marker of DNA damage, after 5-FU treatment revealed good correlation with the levels of RRM-1 protein expression. Moreover, the increased sensitivity and RAD51 focus formation induced by the combination treatment of 5-FU and CDDP were significantly repressed by RRM-1 depletion. These results suggest that RRM-1 is involved not only in the induction of DNA damage by 5-FU but also in the synergistic cytotoxic effect in the combination therapy of 5-FU and CDDP.
Full-text Article · Apr 2013 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The analysis of dicentric chromosomes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) by Giemsa staining is the most established method for biological dosimetry. However, this method requires a well-trained person because of the difficulty in detecting aberrations rapidly and accurately. Here, we applied a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomere and centromere peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes, to solve the problem of biological dosimetry in radiation emergency medicine. A comparison by a well-trained observer found that FISH analysis of PBLs for the dose estimation was more accurate than the conventional Giemsa analysis, especially in samples irradiated at high doses. These results show that FISH analysis with centromeric/telomeric PNA probes could become the standard method for biological dosimetry in radiation emergency medicine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce various types of chromosomal DNA damages. Among these DNA damages, DNA double strand breaks(DSBs) are the most severe damages resulting in cell death or chromosome abnormalities. Proteins associated with DNA repair, such as phosphorylated form of histone H2AX, a histone variant of H2A, and a DNA recombinase RAD51, has been shown to form radiation-induced repair foci at sites containing DNA damage. Reorganization of damaged chromatin by protein modifications or exchange of histones has been shown to play an important role in the formation of radiation induced repair foci.
Article · Mar 2012 · Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine