[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder with genetic predisposition. The polymorphisms 47A-->G (Arg16Gly) and 79C-->G (Gln27Glu) of the adrenergic beta-2 receptor (ADRB2) gene in the 5q32 region affect the functional reaction to adrenergic stimulation, which contributes to the regulation of immunological response. The -367T-->C polymorphism within the 5'-leading regulatory sequence affects ADRB2 transcriptional activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ADRB2 gene variants are associated with susceptibility to GD. All polymorphisms were studied in Polish GD patients (n=300) and healthy control subjects without a family history of autoimmune disorders (n=301). Genotypes were determined by the MassARRAY system (Sequenom, San Diego, CA). Gly16 and Gln27 allele frequencies were 61.4% and 55.2% among healthy controls, almost the same as previously reported in 4441 white participants of a cardiovascular health study. We found a higher risk of GD in Gln27 carriers (CC or CG genotypes) than in Glu27 homozygous (GG genotype) participants (OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.27-3.12, p=0.003, pcorr=0.03). The frequency of the 79GG protective genotype was significantly smaller in the GD patients without symptoms of Graves ophthalmopathy compared to controls (10% vs 22%, OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.234-0.706, p=0.0017, pcorr=0.015). We didn't find any association of -367T--> or 47A-->G genotypes/alleles with Graves disease, however, haplotype analysis has shown a significant difference in haplotype distribution between patients and controls (the global p=0.001) with increased -367T/47A/79C haplotype frequency in GD patients compared to controls (34% vs 25%, p=0.00073, pcorr=0.0044). In conclusion, Gln27 carriers (79CC or 79GC genotypes) have increased risk of Graves disease. Our results suggest that ADRB2 plays a role in susceptibility to Graves disease in humans.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescent and young adults in Poland.
3,687 men (48.2%) and women (51.8%), median age 23 (interquartile range 19-30 years) participated in a survey via a "pop-up window" which appeared on two popular Polish internet portals during one month. Questions concerning their body image, exercise behaviour, education level and use of anabolic-androgenic steroids were asked.
The prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids use was 6.2% among males and 2.9% among females. Male AAS users, compared to non-users, were more often concerned about their physical appearance, were less educated and often engaged in some sport activity. Among female AAS users, no significant differences concerning self-body image satisfaction or participation in sports were found. However, compared to non-users, female AAS users were less educated.
The abuse of AAS is a reality in Poland and may become a serious health concern among adolescents and young adults.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Sozial- und Präaventivmedizin SPM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral estrogen increases the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in healthy individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of intranasal 17beta-estradiol (E2) on serum CRP and its most potent stimulant, interleukin-6 in healthy postmenopausal women.
Thirty-six healthy postmenopausal women (45-54 y) were enrolled. According to their individual preferences, they were assigned to intranasal (n = 10), transdermal (n = 14), or oral (n = 12) continuous E2 treatment with a sequential progestin (10-14 d in a 28-d cycle). Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months during the estrogen-only phase to adjust for the progestin effect.
In women taking intranasal or transdermal E2, there were no significant changes in median serum CRP levels during the 12-month treatment period. In women taking oral E2 preparations, serum median CRP levels were significantly higher compared to baseline after 6 and 12 months of the therapy (P < 0.05). Conversely, serum median bioactive interleukin-6 levels were significantly lower after 6 and 12 months in women taking E2 intranasally or orally and after 12 months in women taking E2 transdermally (P < 0.05).
The results of our study show that intranasal, similarly to transdermal, E2 administration does not increase serum CRP levels in postmenopausal women. They also support the hypothesis that CRP increase during oral estrogen treatment is not mediated by the enhancement of interleukin-6 production by the immune cells but is rather caused by the hepatic first-pass metabolism effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contests in the animal world to determine social status almost exclusively involve males, which points out that androgens may be indispensable in the development of competitive instincts. In animal studies, it has been shown that prenatal exposure to androgens may produce permanent changes toward more aggressive behavior in adulthood. Thus, there is a strong suspicion that women involved in competitive activities, such as sports, may have been exposed to high androgen levels in utero. There is strong evidence that the ratio between the second to fourth digits ratio (2D:4D ratio) correlates negatively with intrauterine androgen concentrations and could potentially be used as a marker for prenatal androgen exposure. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that women engaged in sports have lower 2D:4D ratio-a marker of high prenatal androgen exposure. We measured the 2D:4D ratios in elite and non-elite female athletes and compared them with female individuals not engaged in any sport activities. Our results showed that elite female athletes have significantly lower left hand 2D:4D ratios compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, we can speculate that low 2D:4D ratio may be a positive correlate of sports potential in females.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · American Journal of Human Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Menopauza stanowi ważny aspekt zdrowia kobiety. Niedobór estrogenów po menopauzie, poza zatrzy-maniem miesiączkowania, spowodowaniem obja-wów wypadowych i zmian zanikowych śluzówek układu moczowo-płciowego, prowadzi także do wzrostu występowania chorób wieku podeszłego. Uważa się, że długotrwała hipoestrogenemia pome-nopauzalna jest jednym z istotnych czynników odpo-wiedzialnych za rozwój miażdżycy i jej powikłań ser-cowo-naczyniowych, osteoporozy oraz choroby Alz-heimera. Czy zatem uzupełnianie niedoboru estro-genów u kobiet po menopauzie może zapobiegać wczesnym i późnym jej następstwom? Wyniki du-żych randomizowanych badań nie dały jednoznacz-nej odpowiedzi na to pytanie. Obecnie stosowanie hormonalnej terapii zastępczej (HTZ) zaleca się je-dynie w najmniejszych skutecznych dawkach, w celu łagodzenia objawów wypadowych. Podkreśla się także, że przed rozpoczęciem HTZ należy wykluczyć obecność przeciwwskazań oraz indywidualnie wy-ważyć korzyści i ryzyko jej stosowania. Proponując pacjentce rozpoczęcie HTZ, trzeba pamiętać o zwią-zanych z tym zagrożeniach: zwiększeniu ryzyka roz-woju raka sutka i endometrium, powikłań zakrzepo-wo-zatorowych oraz kamicy pęcherzyka żółciowego. Słowa kluczowe: menopauza, hormonalna terapia zastępcza, zdrowie kobiet, objawy wypadowe, choroba niedokrwienna serca, osteoporoza, choroba Alzheimera, rak sutka MENOPAUZA — WAŻNY ETAP W ŻYCIU KOBIETY Menopauza (z grec. men — miesiąc, pausis — pauza) oznacza ostatnią miesiączkę w życiu kobiety, związaną zfizjologicznym wygaśnięciem czynności hormonalnej jajników . Zgodnie z definicją Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia (WHO, World Health Organization) terminem "okres pomenopauzalny" określa się czas od menopauzy do końca życia. W okresie pomenopauzalnym zaburze-niom endokrynnym, takim jak zmniejszenie stężeń: 17b-estradiolu poniżej 30 pg/ml, testosteronu, androsten-dionu i dehydroepiandrostendionu (DHEA, dehydroepian-drosterone) oraz podwyższenie stężenia folikulotropiny (FSH, folicle stimulating hormone) powyżej 30 jm., towa-rzyszą zaburzenia somatyczne i psychoemocjonalne. WPolsce, podobnie jak winnych krajach rozwiniętych, menopauza występuje około 50. roku życia . Średni czas życia kobiet w Polsce wynosi prawie 80 lat, a więc 1/3 tego czasu przypada na okres pomenopauzalny. Jeszcze sto-sunkowo niedawno, wpołowie XIX wieku, kobiety prze-żywały średnio zaledwie 43 lata. Zatem większość z nich nie dożywała menopauzy i związanych z nią problemów. Obecnie w Polsce problemy zdrowotne, psychologiczne, społeczne i ekonomiczne związane z menopauzą dotyczą około 5 mln kobiet po 50. roku życia .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and the prevalence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use among 50 year old inhabitants of the two cities in the north part of Poland: Gdynia and Sopot. Materials: The survey was conducted on a sample of 586 women (269 were postmenopausal and 317 were premenopausal) in the years 2002-2003. Results: Depending on the education level 56.4 to 93.5% of women have heard about HRT. Most of the women pointed out the improvement of well being as an advantage of HRT use. One out of five women knew that the use of HRT prevents osteoporosis development. Among the risks of HRT use, cancer was pointed out in the first place. During the study 29% of women were current users of HRT. The most often reason of not using HRT was the lack of information about such a therapeutic option. 20% of the women have never heard of HRT and 32% have never spoke with their doctors about the possibility of introducing such a treatment. One out of five women, which has heard about HRT, did not use it because according to them it was "against the nature". Only 12.5% from the women who have heard about it didn't use it because they were afraid of cancer 50% of women taking HRT were using transdermal continuous oestrogen therapy. Conclusions: The prevalence of HRT use among the 50 year old inhabitants of Gdynia and Sopot is two times higher compared to the whole Polish population (29% vs. 15.7%) and it is comparable to other European countries. The most often reason of not using HRT is the lack of information of such a therapeutic option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the knowledge about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the prevalence of its current use in Polish female population.
Cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of 1544 women between 18 and 87 years of age.
Almost half of the Polish women have heard of HRT. Depending on the education level, 26-38% of women knew that HRT alleviates the physical and psychological symptoms of menopause and 18-32% knew that HRT reduces the risk of developing osteoporosis. Forty-three percent of all the women with a higher level of education were aware that HRT increases the risk of breast and uterine cancer. The prevalence of current HRT use among women aged 45-64 was 12%. Women who had only basic education were less likely to use HRT than those with a medium and higher education level. Lack of information about HRT was the main cause of not using it. Forty-four percent of the perimenopausal women (age range 45-54 years) have never heard of HRT and 36% were never told by their healthcare providers that they could use it. Nineteen percent of perimenopausal women were not using HRT because they were afraid of the HRT related risks. Sixty-four percent of women who were using HRT were prescribed oral HRT preparations.
A fairly small proportion of Polish women currently uses HRT, largely because most remain poorly informed about the therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although osteopenia is often reported in Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood. Oestrogen deficiency also leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Enhanced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production among Type 1 diabetic patients could be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic bone loss since it is a potent bone resorbing cytokine.
To evaluate the relationship between serum bioactive IL-6 levels and BMD at the femoral neck of post-menopausal women with Type 1 diabetes.
We studied BMD, urine excretion of deoxypirydynoline crosslinks, serum bioactive IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels in 20 post-menopausal women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and compared these results with 20 matched healthy post-menopausal controls.
Post-menopausal women with Type 1 diabetes had significantly lower BMD at the femoral neck and increased serum bioactive IL-6 levels compared with the control group, but no relationship was observed between these variables in a multiple regression analysis. Using BMD at the femoral neck of diabetic women as the dependent variable in the multiple step regression analysis model, we found that independent variables that were strongly associated with bone mass at the femoral neck in this group were: time since menopause and duration of diabetes.
Although our study had a small sample size, we found that post-menopausal women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus present lower bone mass and higher serum bioactive IL-6 levels than matched healthy controls, but we were unable to find a correlation between these two parameters.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2003 · Diabetic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various hormones can influence the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and oestrogens are the most extensively studied. There is, however, controversy about the nature of the IL-6 secreted by human cells and its regulation by 17beta-oestradiol. The aim of this work was to clarify whether oestrogen deprivation after menopause may contribute to an enhanced IL-6 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in postmenopausal women. Twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women, age range 45-63 years, with clinical symptoms of oestrogen deficiency were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 16 healthy young women, age range 22-31 years, with regular menses and who were not taking oral contraceptives. Levels of IL-6 in the sera and PBMC culture supernatants were measured by the biological B9 cell-proliferation assay and expression of the IL-6 gene in non-stimulated PBMC was detected by RT-PCR. The effect of 17beta-oestradiol on spontaneous IL-6 production by the PBMC of postmenopausal women was also studied in vitro and in vivo. Seventeen out of the twenty-two postmenopausal women were given hormonal replacement therapy of 50 microg 17beta-oestradiol/day transdermally and the spontaneous production of IL-6 by the PBMC was analysed after 6 and 12 months of treatment. The postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum levels of IL-6 than the young controls. The spontaneous production of IL-6 by non-stimulated PBMC into the culture supernatants was also significantly higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the young. We also found that IL-6 gene expression was present in the non-stimulated PBMC isolated directly from the venous blood of the majority of the postmenopausal women. Women with IL-6 gene expression in the non-stimulated PBMC had significantly lower serum levels of 17beta-oestradiol compared with those where the IL-6 gene was not expressed in the PBMC. Our in vitro experiments showed that 17beta-oestradiol at concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-10) M decreased spontaneous IL-6 production by the PBMC of postmenopausal women. In vivo treatment with 17beta-oestradiol transdermally also significantly decreased spontaneous IL-6 production by the PBMC of postmenopausal women after 12 months of the therapy. Our results indicate that oestrogen deprivation after menopause may enhance IL-6 production by the PBMC of postmenopausal women. We suspect that the late complications of oestrogen deficiency, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and Alzheimer's disease, may be mediated by an exaggerated production of IL-6 - a cytokine which seems to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of these age-related diseases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2002 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 35 patients with mild essential hypertension the influence of 9 week Viskaldix therapy on hemodynamics was evaluated. Twelve of them underwent repeated hemodynamic examinations after mean 13 months treatment. Viskaldix therapy lowered total peripheral resistance --TPR and there was no significant influence on the heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. It was demonstrated that decrease of total peripheral resistance after treatment with Viskaldix was directly proportional to the initial values of TPR.
No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Kardiologia polska