J Gregory Cairncross

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Are you J Gregory Cairncross?

Claim your profile

Publications (210)1446.58 Total impact

  • Joachim M Baehring · J Gregory Cairncross

    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Neurology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular alterations in glioblastoma have the potential to guide treatment. Here, we explore the relationship between temozolomide (TMZ) response and O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status in brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). Methylation, expression, and sensitivity were assessed in 20 lines; associations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Some BTICs were sensitive. Sensitivity to TMZ was only associated with protein expression (P = .001). There were atypical BTICs including TMZ-resistant lines in which the methylation-specific PCR reaction revealed both methylated and unmethylated bands. BTICs are not uniformly resistant to TMZ; some are sensitive. MGMT status does not predict TMZ response with high precision.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Neuro-Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigating the biology of oligodendroglioma and its characteristic combined deletion of chromosomal arms 1p and 19q, mediated by an unbalanced translocation, t(1;19)(q10;p10), has been hampered by the lack of cell lines that harbor these traits. We grew cells from 2 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in serum-free conditions. Serial propagation and expansion led to the establishment of permanent cell lines that maintained the genetic signature of the parent oligodendrogliomas and displayed features of brain tumor stem cells in vitro. One line was established from a treatment-naïve tumor and the other from a temozolomide resistant recurrent tumor. These lines may be important tools for understanding the biology of oligodendrogliomas and the function of their defining genetic traits.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Neuro-Oncology
  • Shelly Lwu · Mark G. Hamilton · Peter A. Forsyth · J. Gregory Cairncross · Ian F. Parney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An American Academy of Neurology practice parameter recommends that long-term prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AED) should not be routine in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors. However, prospective multi-center North American data shows that most newly diagnosed glioma patients receive prophylactic AED. We examined our own peri-operative AED practice patterns in newly-diagnosed patients with malignant glioma to determine if we deviate from published guidelines. A retrospective chart review was performed in adult patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas undergoing surgery in southern Alberta between January 2003 and December 2005. Demographic information, AED use, seizure incidence, adverse effects, tumor size, and tumor location were recorded. Of 164 eligible patients, 54 (33%) presented with seizures and all received AED. Prophylactic AED were given to 44 patients (27%). Peri-operative seizures (within 1week) occurred in two patients without (3%) and no patients with seizure prophylaxis. Adverse AED reactions and adverse effects attributable to seizures were both rare. Prophylactic AED were continued >1week post-op in 30 patients (18%). Patients receiving prophylactic AED were more likely to have had tumors involving the temporal lobe than those who did not (50 vs. 20%; P<0.01). Patients receiving peri-operative AED prophylaxis were common, had a trend to reduced peri-operative seizures, and had few adverse effects. However, most of these patients were maintained on prophylactic AED continued beyond the first peri-operative week, contradicting published guidelines. Increased awareness of practice guidelines may help modify AED prescription patterns in malignant glioma patients.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Only a subset of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit a response to standard therapy. To date, a biomarker panel with predictive power to distinguish treatment sensitive from treatment refractory GBM tumors does not exist. An analysis was performed using GBM microarray data from 4 independent data sets. An examination of the genes consistently associated with patient outcome, revealed a consensus 38-gene survival set. Worse outcome was associated with increased expression of genes associated with mesenchymal differentiation and angiogenesis. Application to formalin fixed-paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays resulted in a 9-gene subset which appeared robust in these samples. This 9-gene set was then validated in an additional independent sample set. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the 9-gene set was an independent predictor of outcome after adjusting for clinical factors and methylation of the methyl-guanine methyltransferase promoter. The 9-gene profile was also positively associated with markers of glioma stem-like cells, including CD133 and nestin. In sum, a multigene predictor of outcome in glioblastoma was identified which appears applicable to routinely processed FFPE samples. The profile has potential clinical application both for optimization of therapy in GBM and for the identification of novel therapies targeting tumors refractory to standard therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Neuro-Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemoradiotherapy followed by monthly temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Case reports have identified GBM patients who experienced transient radiological deterioration after concurrent chemoradiotherapy which stabilized or resolved after additional cycles of adjuvant TMZ, a phenomenon known as radiographic pseudoprogression. Little is known about the natural history of radiographic pseudoprogression. We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of radiographic pseudoprogression in a population-based cohort of GBM patients and determined its relationship with outcome and MGMT promoter methylation status. Out of 43 evaluable patients, 25 (58%) exhibited radiographic progression on the first MRI after concurrent treatment. Twenty of these went on to receive adjuvant TMZ, and subsequent investigation demonstrated radiographic pseudoprogression in 10 cases (50%). Median survival (MS) was better in patients with pseudoprogression (MS 14.5 months) compared to those with true radiologic progression (MS 9.1 months, p=0.025). The MS of patients with pseudoprogression was similar to those who stabilized/responded during concurrent treatment (p=0.31). Neither the extent of the initial resection nor dexamethasone dosing was associated with pseudoprogression. These data suggest that physicians should continue adjuvant TMZ in GBM patients when early MRI scans show evidence of progression following concurrent chemoradiotherapy, as up to 50% of these patients will experience radiologic stability or improvement in subsequent treatment cycles.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In glioblastoma (GBM), promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is associated with benefit from chemotherapy. Correlations between MGMT promoter methylation and visually assessed imaging features on magnetic resonance (MR) have been reported suggesting that noninvasive detection of MGMT methylation status might be possible. Our study assessed whether MGMT methylation status in GBM could be predicted using MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective analysis of MR images in patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Tumor texture was assessed by two methods. First, we analyzed texture by expert consensus describing the tumor borders, presence or absence of cysts, pattern of enhancement, and appearance of tumor signal in T2-weighted images. Then, we applied space-frequency texture analysis based on the S-transform. Tumor location within the brain was determined using automatized image registration and segmentation techniques. Their association with MGMT methylation was analyzed. We confirmed that ring enhancement assessed visually is significantly associated with unmethylated MGMT promoter status (P=0.006). Texture features on T2-weighted images assessed by the space-frequency analysis were significantly different between methylated and unmethylated cases (P<0.05). However, blinded classification of MGMT promoter methylation status reached an accuracy of only 71%. There were no significant differences in the locations of methylated and unmethylated GBM tumors. Our results provide further evidence that individual MR features are associated with MGMT methylation but better algorithms for predicting methylation status are needed. The relevance of this study lies on the application of novel techniques for the analysis of anatomical MR images of patients with GBM allowing the evaluation of subtleties not seen by an observer and facilitating the standardization of the methods, decreasing the potential for interobserver bias.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · NeuroImage
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary glial tumors of the central nervous system, most commonly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are aggressive lesions with a dismal prognosis. Despite identification and isolation of human brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), characteristics that distinguish BTSCs from neural stem cells remain to be elucidated. We cultured cells isolated from gliomas, using the neurosphere culture system, to understand their growth requirements. Both CD133(+) and CD133(-) adult GBM BTSCs proliferated in the absence of exogenous mitogenic stimulation and gave rise to multipotent GBM spheres that were capable of self-renewal. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 enhanced GBM BTSC survival, proliferation, and subsequent sphere size. Blockade of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling reduced exogenous mitogen-independent GBM sphere growth. Implantation of as few as 10 exogenous mitogen-independent GBM BTSCs led to the formation of highly invasive intracranial tumors, which closely resembled human GBMs, in immunocompromised mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous mitogen independence, mediated in part through EGFR signaling, is one characteristic that distinguishes CD133(+) and CD133(-) GBM BTSCs from neural stem cells. This novel experimental system will permit the elucidation of additional constitutively activated mechanisms that promote GBM BTSC survival, self-renewal, and proliferation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Stem Cells
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2004, a randomised phase III trial by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (NCIC) reported improved median and 2-year survival for patients with glioblastoma treated with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide and radiotherapy. We report the final results with a median follow-up of more than 5 years. Adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were randomly assigned to receive either standard radiotherapy or identical radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by up to six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. The methylation status of the methyl-guanine methyl transferase gene, MGMT, was determined retrospectively from the tumour tissue of 206 patients. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00006353. Between Aug 17, 2000, and March 22, 2002, 573 patients were assigned to treatment. 278 (97%) of 286 patients in the radiotherapy alone group and 254 (89%) of 287 in the combined-treatment group died during 5 years of follow-up. Overall survival was 27.2% (95% CI 22.2-32.5) at 2 years, 16.0% (12.0-20.6) at 3 years, 12.1% (8.5-16.4) at 4 years, and 9.8% (6.4-14.0) at 5 years with temozolomide, versus 10.9% (7.6-14.8), 4.4% (2.4-7.2), 3.0% (1.4-5.7), and 1.9% (0.6-4.4) with radiotherapy alone (hazard ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; p<0.0001). A benefit of combined therapy was recorded in all clinical prognostic subgroups, including patients aged 60-70 years. Methylation of the MGMT promoter was the strongest predictor for outcome and benefit from temozolomide chemotherapy. Benefits of adjuvant temozolomide with radiotherapy lasted throughout 5 years of follow-up. A few patients in favourable prognostic categories survive longer than 5 years. MGMT methylation status identifies patients most likely to benefit from the addition of temozolomide. EORTC, NCIC, Nélia and Amadeo Barletta Foundation, Schering-Plough.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · The Lancet Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In glioblastoma (GBM), promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT is associated with benefit from chemotherapy. Because MGMT promoter methylation status can not be determined in all cases, a surrogate for the methylation status would be a useful clinical tool. Correlation between methylation status and magnetic resonance imaging features has been reported suggesting that non-invasive MGMT promoter methylation status detection is possible. In this work, a retrospective analysis of T2, FLAIR and T1-post contrast MR images in patients with newly diagnosed GBM is performed using L1-regularized neural networks. Tumor texture, assessed quantitatively was utilized for predicting the MGMT promoter methylation status of a GBM in 59 patients. The texture features were extracted using a space-frequency texture analysis based on the S-transform and utilized by a neural network to predict the methylation status of a GBM. Blinded classification of MGMT promoter methylation status reached an average accuracy of 87.7%, indicating that the proposed technique is accurate enough for clinical use.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In 2004, a randomised phase III trial by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (NCIC) reported improved median and 2-year survival for patients with glioblastoma treated with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide and radiotherapy. We report the final results with a median follow-up of more than 5 years. METHODS: Adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were randomly assigned to receive either standard radiotherapy or identical radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by up to six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. The methylation status of the methyl-guanine methyl transferase gene, MGMT, was determined retrospectively from the tumour tissue of 206 patients. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00006353. FINDINGS: Between Aug 17, 2000, and March 22, 2002, 573 patients were assigned to treatment. 278 (97%) of 286 patients in the radiotherapy alone group and 254 (89%) of 287 in the combined-treatment group died during 5 years of follow-up. Overall survival was 27.2% (95% CI 22.2-32.5) at 2 years, 16.0% (12.0-20.6) at 3 years, 12.1% (8.5-16.4) at 4 years, and 9.8% (6.4-14.0) at 5 years with temozolomide, versus 10.9% (7.6-14.8), 4.4% (2.4-7.2), 3.0% (1.4-5.7), and 1.9% (0.6-4.4) with radiotherapy alone (hazard ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; p<0.0001). A benefit of combined therapy was recorded in all clinical prognostic subgroups, including patients aged 60-70 years. Methylation of the MGMT promoter was the strongest predictor for outcome and benefit from temozolomide chemotherapy. INTERPRETATION: Benefits of adjuvant temozolomide with radiotherapy lasted throughout 5 years of follow-up. A few patients in favourable prognostic categories survive longer than 5 years. MGMT methylation status identifies patients most likely to benefit from the addition of temozolomide. FUNDING: EORTC, NCIC, Nélia and Amadeo Barletta Foundation, Schering-Plough.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · The Lancet Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Cancer/Radiothérapie
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Elderly patients have glioblastomas (GBM) that are aggressive and poorly responsive to treatment. They are also prone to the side effects of treatment of GBM. To shed light on the treatment of elderly patients with GBM, we reviewed the treatment toxicities and survival of patients 65 years of age or older who were treated with chemoradiotherapy, which is the new standard of care for GBM in younger patients. Thirty-nine patients at a single cancer center in Canada met the eligibility criteria for this retrospective study. Nineteen patients were treated initially with TMZ and radiotherapy and 20 others were treated with radiotherapy alone (only two had TMZ subsequently). Eight patients in the chemoradiotherapy group (42%) experienced Grade III or IV toxicity versus none in the radiotherapy group. The median overall survival in the chemoradiotherapy group was 8.5 months (range, 2.0-24.7 months) versus 5.2 months (range, 1.5-14.2 months) in the radiotherapy group, an apparent benefit which may have been due to an imbalance in age at diagnosis, extent of resection and performance status. In this series of GBM cases, methylation of the MGMT gene promoter was not associated with longer survival, either overall, or within the chemoradiotherapy treated subset. Elderly patients with GBM treated with chemoradiotherapy can be expected to experience significant toxicity. Large randomized trials will be necessary to determine whether chemoradiotherapy prolongs the survival of elderly patients and whether MGMT promoter status predicts benefit from temozolomide in this subset of patients.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) are currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Myeloablative therapy with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue (APBPCR) is one strategy to exploit the chemosensitivity of these tumors while deferring cranial radiation in an effort to avoid radiation-related neurotoxicity. Methods Twenty patients (16 AO, 4 AOA) with a median age of 46 years (range, 19–60) and KPS of 90 (range, 70–100) were treated with 4 cycles of procarbazine, Lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine (I-PCV) every six weeks. Responding patients were eligible for myeloablative therapy with busulfan and thiotepa followed by APBPCR. 1p and 19q chromosomes were analyzed prospectively but patients were enrolled without regard to deletion status. Results Fifteen patients (75%) had a response to I-PCV and 14 underwent transplant. Median disease-free and overall survival of the transplanted patients has not been reached but is at least 36 months. No patients required dose reduction or termination of I-PCV due to toxicity. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was a complication of transplant in three patients and resulted in one death. Patients with and without deletions of 1p and 19q had durable responses. Conclusions This regimen conferred durable responses in more than one-half of patients, allowing deferral of radiotherapy for three years or longer. The major limitation of this approach is the acute toxicity associated with both the induction and consolidation regimens; temozolomide has replaced I-PCV for the current trial and the incidence and severity of VOD is being followed closely.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
  • Warren P Mason · J Gregory Cairncross
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For nearly a century, glial neoplasms have been classified by microscopic features alone with treatment prescribed based on histology using a "one-size-fits-all" formula. However, recent advances in our understanding of the molecular events underlying gliomagenesis are beginning to change the way we think about the diagnostic classification of gliomas. Indeed, several recurring molecular derangements are now being viewed as cornerstones of a new diagnostic framework because these alterations appear to be superior to traditional microscopic classification schemes as guideposts for treatment selection and prognosis. Moreover, molecular analysis of tumor tissue is identifying aberrant growth signaling pathways in glioma which can now be blocked selectively by a new generation of targeted therapies, including small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Time will tell whether these new agents can be successfully introduced into the clinical arena. In the meantime, the molecular characteristics of gliomas are being used to select patients for both randomized trials and phase II studies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Neurology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas are notorious for resistance to therapy, which has been attributed to DNA-repair proficiency, a multitude of deregulated molecular pathways, and, more recently, to the particular biologic behavior of tumor stem-like cells. Here, we aimed to identify molecular profiles specific for treatment resistance to the current standard of care of concomitant chemoradiotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. Gene expression profiles of 80 glioblastomas were interrogated for associations with resistance to therapy. Patients were treated within clinical trials testing the addition of concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide to radiotherapy. An expression signature dominated by HOX genes, which comprises Prominin-1 (CD133), emerged as a predictor for poor survival in patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (n = 42; hazard ratio = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.38 to 5.26; P = .004). This association could be validated in an independent data set. Provocatively, the HOX cluster was reminiscent of a "self-renewal" signature (P = .008; Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) recently characterized in a mouse leukemia model. The HOX signature and EGFR expression were independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis, adjusted for the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, a known predictive factor for benefit from temozolomide, and age. Better outcome was associated with gene clusters characterizing features of tumor-host interaction including tumor vascularization and cell adhesion, and innate immune response. This study provides first clinical evidence for the implication of a "glioma stem cell" or "self-renewal" phenotype in treatment resistance of glioblastoma. Biologic mechanisms identified here to be relevant for resistance will guide future targeted therapies and respective marker development for individualized treatment and patient selection.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402 study, a phase III trial of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (PCV-plus-RT) vs. radiotherapy alone for pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma confirmed the prognostic significance of 1p 19q deletion and showed that only progression-free survival (PFS) was prolonged in PCV-plus-RT-treated patients and only in association with 1p 19q deletion. We reviewed tumor histopathology, separating 115 tumors deemed to be classic for oligodendroglioma (CFO) from 132 lacking classic features of oligodendroglioma (NCFO) and evaluated the relationship of histopathology and 1p 19q status to treatment and outcome. The study disclosed: (i) overall survival (OS) of patients with CFO was significantly longer than for patients with NCFO (P < 0.0001) and was not affected by necrosis. Median OS for CFO patients with and without necrosis was 6.6 and 6.3 years (OS log-rank P = not significant), respectively, in contrast to NCFO showing 1.9 and 3.3 years respectively (OS log-rank P = 0.014). (ii) Classic oligodendroglial morphology was highly associated with 1p 19q deletion, present in 80% of CFO and only in 13% of NCFO. (iii) On multivariate analysis, both classic oligodendroglial morphology and 1p 19q deletion remained significantly associated with PFS and OS. (iv) Patients with CFO treated with PCV-plus-RT showed a trend toward increased survival compared with CFO treated with RT (P = 0.08). Median OS was not reached in the PCV-plus-RT group and was 6.3 years in RT group. These findings suggest that classic oligodendroglial morphology combined with 1p 19q deletion may in the future be predictive of chemotherapeutic response and survival.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Brain Pathology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A randomised trial published by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group (trial 26981-22981/CE.3) showed that addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma significantly improved survival. We aimed to undertake an exploratory subanalysis of the EORTC and NCIC data to confirm or identify new prognostic factors for survival in adult patients with glioblastoma, derive nomograms that predict an individual patient's prognosis, and suggest stratification factors for future trials. Data from 573 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were randomly assigned to radiotherapy alone or to the same radiotherapy plus temozolomide in the EORTC and NCIC trial were included in this subanalysis. Survival modelling was done in three patient populations: intention-to-treat population of all randomised patients (population 1); patients assigned temozolomide and radiotherapy (population 2, n=287); and patients assigned temozolomide and radiotherapy who had assessment of MGMT promoter methylation status and who had undergone tumour resection (population 3, n=103). Cox proportional hazards models were fitted with and without O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. Nomograms were developed to predict an individual patient's median and 2-year survival probabilities. No nomogram was developed in the radiotherapy-alone group because combined treatment is now the new standard of care. Independent of the MGMT promoter methylation status, analysis in all randomised patients (population 1) identified combined treatment with temozolomide, more extensive tumour resection, younger age, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 27 or higher, and no corticosteroid treatment at baseline as independent prognostic factors correlated with improved survival outcome. In patients assigned temozolomide and radiotherapy (population 2), younger age, better performance status, more extensive tumour resection, and MMSE score of 27 or higher were associated with better survival. In patients who had tumours resected, who were assigned temozolomide and radiotherapy, and who had available MGMT promoter methylation status (population 3), methylated MGMT, better performance status, and MMSE score of 27 or higher were associated with improved survival. Nomograms were developed and are available at http://www.eortc.be/tools/gbmcalculator. MGMT promoter methylation status, age, performance status, extent of resection, and MMSE are suggested as eligibility or stratification factors for future trials in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Stratifying by MGMT promoter methylation status should be mandatory in all glioblastoma trials that use alkylating chemotherapy. Nomograms can be used to predict an individual patient's prognosis, and they integrate pertinent molecular information that is consistent with a paradigm shift towards individualised patient management.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · The Lancet Oncology
  • Roger Stupp · J. Gregory Cairncross
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite optimal surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy, malignant gliomas almost always recur. One cause of failure is explained by the diffusely infiltrating pattern of growth displayed by most gliomas, with malignant cells disseminated far beyond the initial bulky tumor. Although most relapses occur at or near the initial site of tumor, either along the resection margin or at the edge of the radiation field, distant recurrences or seeding of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs in long-surviving patients. Malignant gliomas are not a localized disease but instead affect the whole brain and may display wide dissemination even at early stages. Thus, therapeutic strategies aiming only at bulky local disease are doomed to fail. The successful treatments of the future will need to eradicate microscopic disease in many sites within the brain and do so without neurotoxic effects. Here, we summarize progress in the medical treatment of malignant glioma.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2007

Publication Stats

22k Citations
1,446.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2015
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2014
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Lausanne
      • Genetics Laboratory
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Brain Canada
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004-2008
    • Tom Baker Cancer Centre
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2002
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • London Health Sciences Centre
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 1998-2002
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1985-2002
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • Cancer Treatment Centre
      Anaheim, California, United States
  • 2000
    • American Academy of Neurology
      Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
  • 1989-2000
    • Regional Integration Cancer Center
      Мендоса, Mendoza, Argentina
  • 1999
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1990-1999
    • Lakeland Regional Health Cancer Center
      Lakeland, Florida, United States
  • 1995
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Neurology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 1994
    • Renfrew Victoria Hospital
      Renfrew, Ontario, Canada
  • 1993
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1987-1992
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1991
    • Cancer Centre London - Parkside
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1980-1989
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Neurology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1983-1984
    • The Rockefeller University
      New York, New York, United States