Janet L. Stein

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States

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Publications (464)2247.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Key components of the basal transcription machinery and several tissue-specific transcription factor complexes are functionally compartmentalized as specialized subnuclear domains. We have identified a unique 31-38 amino acid targeting signal (NMTS) that directs the Runx (Cbfa/AML) transcription factors to distinct nuclear matrix-(NM) associated sites within the nucleus that support gene expression. Our determination of the NMTS crystal structure, yeast 2 hybrid screens to identify NM interacting proteins, and in situ colocalization studies with Runx interacting factors (YAP, Smad, TLE) suggest that localization of Runx transcription factors at intranuclear sites facilitates the assembly and activity of regulatory complexes that mediate activation and suppression of target genes. Mice homozygous for the deletion of the intranuclear Runx2 targeting signal in a homologous recombination (Runx2 deltaC) do not form bone due to maturational arrest of osteoblasts, demonstrating the importance of fidelity of subnuclear localization for tissue-differentiating activity. These results provide evidence that Runx2 subnuclear targeting and the associated regulatory functions are essential for a spatiotemporal placement that facilitates activation of Runx-dependent genes involved in tissue differentiation during embryonic development.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Connective Tissue Research
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    ABSTRACT: The runt-related transcription factors (RUNX/Cbfa/AML) are essential for cellular differentiation and fetal development. C-terminal truncations of RUNX factors that eliminate the targeting of these factors to subnuclear foci result in lethal hematopoietic and skeletal phenotypes. Here we demonstrate that in living cells the RUNX C-terminus is necessary for the dynamic association of RUNX into stable subnuclear domains. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy shows that RUNX1 and RUNX2 localize to punctate foci that remain stationary in the nuclear space. By fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays, both proteins are shown to dynamically associate at these subnuclear foci, with a 10 second half-time of recovery. A truncation of RUNX2, removing its intranuclear targeting signal (NMTS), increases its mobility by an order of magnitude, resulting in a half-time of recovery equivalent to that of EGFP alone. We propose that the dynamic shuttling of RUNX factors in living cells to positionally stabilized foci, which is dependent on the C-terminus, is a component of the mechanism for gene regulation in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemic disease can be linked to aberrant gene expression. This often is the result of molecular alterations in transcription factors that lead to their misrouting within the nucleus. The acute myelogenous leukemia-related fusion protein AML1ETO is a striking example. It originates from a gene rearrangement t(8;21) that fuses the N-terminal part of the key hematopoietic regulatory factor AML1 (RUNX1) to the ETO (MTG8) repressor protein. AML1ETO lacks the intranuclear targeting signal of the wild-type AML1 and is directed by the ETO component to alternate nuclear matrix-associated sites. To understand this aberrant subnuclear trafficking of AML1ETO, we created a series of mutations in the ETO protein. These were characterized biochemically by immunoblotting and in situ by immunofluorescence microscopy. We identified two independent subnuclear targeting signals in the N- and C-terminal regions of ETO that together direct ETO to the same binding sites occupied by AML1ETO. However, each segment alone is targeted to a different intranuclear location. The N-terminal segment contains a nuclear localization signal and the conserved hydrophobic heptad repeat domain responsible for protein dimerization and interaction with the mSin3A transcriptional repressor. The C-terminal segment spans the nervy domain and the zinc finger region, which together support interactions with the corepressors N-CoR and HDACs. Our findings provide a molecular basis for aberrant subnuclear targeting of the AML1ETO protein, which is a principal defect in t(8;21)-related acute myelogenous leukemia.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The runt homology transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1 is essential for bone development and osteoblast differentiation. Regulatory mechanisms that govern Runx2 transcription in osteoblasts define the osteogenic pathways that control skeletal development. In this study, we systematically examined transcription factor binding within the upstream Runx2 P1 promoter, which regulates expression of the bone-related Runx2 factor. We identified two novel protein/DNA interactions that are mediated by sequence specific factors, based on cross-competition experiments, point mutations, and gel-shift immunoassays. One complex recognizes a non-canonical Runx2 site, whereas the other factor binds to a palindromic sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the novel Runx2 motif (5'TCCCAC3') within the 0.6 kb rat Runx2 promoter reduces transcription by 2-fold, indicating that this site supports enhancement of Runx2 promoter activity. Mutation of the palindromic motif (5'AGTACT3') results in a 2-3-fold activation of the Runx2 promoter, demonstrating that the wild type sequence contributes to transcriptional repression. These studies, together with our previous findings of auto-suppression of the Runx2 promoter and negative regulation by 1,25(OH)(2) Vitamin D3, suggest that physiological control of Runx2 gene expression is mediated by a series of intricate regulatory mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The ordered expression of genes after growth factor stimulation in G(1) supportsthe onset of DNA replication. To characterize regulatory events during S-phase when cell cycle progression has become growth factor independent, we have profiled the expression of over 7,000 human genes using GeneChip DNA microarray analysis. HeLa cells were synchronized at the beginning of S-phase by thymidine/aphidicolin block, and RNA populations were analyzed throughout the S and G(2) phases. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication is maximal during early S-phase, whereas histone mRNAs peak at mid S-phase. Genes related to cell proliferation, including those encoding cyclins, oncoproteins, growth factors, proteins involved in signal transduction, and DNA repair proteins, follow distinct temporal patterns of expression that are functionally linked to initiation of DNA replication and progression through S-phase. The timing of expression for many genes in tumor-derived HeLa cells is highly conserved when compared with normal cells. In contrast, a number of genes show growth phenotype-related expression patterns that may directly reflect loss of stringent growth control in tumor cells. Our data reveal there is a core subset of cell growth-related genes that is fundamental to cycling cells irrespective of cell growth phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2002 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Runx factors control lineage commitment and are transcriptional effectors of Smad signaling. Genetic defects in these pathways interfere with normal development. The in situ localization of Runx and Smad proteins must impact the mechanisms by which these proteins function together in gene regulation. We show that the integration of Runx and Smad signals is mediated by in situ interactions at specific foci within the nucleus. Activated Smads are directed to these subnuclear foci only in the presence of Runx proteins. Smad-Runx complexes are associated in situ with the nuclear matrix, and this association requires the intranuclear targeting signal of Runx factors. The convergence of Smad and Runx proteins at these sites supports transcription as reflected by BrUTP labeling and functional cooperativity between the proteins. Thus, Runx-mediated intranuclear targeting of Smads is critical for the integration of two distinct pathways essential for fetal development.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2002 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The Runx2/Cbfa1 transcription factor regulates a program of gene expression necessary for skeletal development. To understand signals mediating skeletal formation, we examined the in vivo spatio-temporal activity of the Runx2 P1 promoter which controls expression of the bone-related Type II isoform. Transgenic mice carrying 3 kb of Runx2 promoter fused to the lacZ gene exhibit localized promoter activity in early mesenchymal condensations shortly after the embryonic turning event. Expression in developing mesenchyme continues throughout chondrogenesis and is restricted to the axial skeleton. Our data support a function for Runx2 in establishment of the prechondrocytic skeletal primordium.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2002 · Mechanisms of Development
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    ABSTRACT: The accessibility of regulatory elements in chromatin represents a principal rate-limiting parameter of gene transcription and is modulated by enzymatic transcriptional co-factors that alter the topology of chromatin or covalently modify histones (e.g. by acetylation). The bone-specific activation and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) enhancement of osteocalcin (OC) gene transcription are both functionally linked to modifications in nucleosomal organization. The initiation of tissue-specific basal transcription is accompanied by the induction of two DNase I hypersensitive sites, and this chromatin remodeling event requires binding of the key osteogenic factor RUNX2/CBFA1 to the OC promoter. Here, we analyzed the acetylation status of histones H3 and H4 when the OC gene is active (in osteoblastic ROS17/2.8 cells) or inactive (in fibroblastic ROS24/1 cells) using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We find that acetylated histone H3 and H4 proteins are associated with the OC promoter only when the gene is transcriptionally active and that the acetylation status is relatively uniform across the OC locus under basal conditions. Acetylation of H4 at the OC gene is selectively increased following vitamin D(3) enhancement of OC transcription, with the most prominent changes occurring in the region between the vitamin D(3) enhancer and basal promoter. Thus, our results suggest functional linkage of H3 and H4 acetylation in specific regions of the OC promoter to chromatin remodeling that accompanies tissue-specific transcriptional activation and vitamin D enhancement of OC gene expression. These findings provide mechanistic insights into bone-specific gene activation within a native genomic context in response to steroid hormone-related regulatory cues.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The steroid hormone 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 (VD3) regulates osteoblast differentiation by either activating or repressing transcription of numerous bone phenotypic genes. We addressed whether VD3 also influences osteogenesis by controlling activity of the runt-related transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, a key regulator of bone formation in vivo. Our data showed that expression of Runx2 was downregulated by VD3 within 24 h in MC3T3 and ROS 17/2.8, but not in ROS 24.1 cells, which lack a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR). Transient transfection assays showed that the initial 0.6 kb of the bone-related rat and mouse Runx2 promoters both exhibited a 50% reduction of promoter activity in response to VD3 in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, VD3 inhibited Runx2 transcription in ROS 24.1 cells only upon forced expression of the VDR. Gel mobility shift assays with antibodies and oligonucleotide competition experiments demonstrated that proximal promoter sequences (-92 to -16) contain a functional VD3-responsive element (VDRE) that binds a VDR/retinoid X receptor heterodimer. Mutation of this VDRE completely abolished responsiveness of the Runx2 promoter to VD3 treatment. Together these studies establish that Runx2 expression is regulated by VD3. This VD3-mediated suppression of Runx2 activity provides regulatory coupling between tissue-specific and steroid hormone-dependent control of genes during bone formation.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: The IFN regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2) oncoprotein controls the cell cycle-dependent expression of histone H4 genes during S phase and may function as a component of an E2F-independent mechanism to regulate cell growth. To investigate the role of IRF-2 in control of cell proliferation, we have constructed a stable FDC-P1 cell line (F2) in which expression of IRF-2 is doxycycline (DOX)-inducible, and a control cell line (F0). Both the F2 and F0 cell lines were synchronized in the G1 phase by isoleucine deprivation, and IRF-2 was induced by DOX on release of cells from the cell cycle block. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that forced expression of IRF-2 has limited effects on cell cycle progression before the first mitosis. However, continued cell growth in the presence of elevated IRF-2 levels results in polyploidy (>4n) or genomic disintegration (<2n) and cell death. Western blot analyses revealed that the levels of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitory protein p27 are selectively increased. These changes occur concomitant with a significant elevation in the levels of the FAS-L protein, which is the ligand of the FAS (Apo1/CD95) receptor. We also found a subtle change in the ratio of the apoptosis-promoting Bax protein and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Hence, IRF-2 induces a cell death response involving the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in FDC-P1 cells. Our data suggest that the IRF-2 oncoprotein regulates a critical cell cycle checkpoint that controls progression through G2 and mitosis in FDC-P1 hematopoietic progenitor cells.
    Preview · Article · May 2002 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Murine CDP/Cux, a homologue of the Drosophila Cut homeoprotein, modulates the promoter activity of cell cycle-related and cell-type-specific genes. CDP/Cux interacts with histone gene promoters as the DNA binding subunit of a large nuclear complex (HiNF-D). CDP/Cux is a ubiquitous protein containing four conserved DNA binding domains: three Cut repeats and a homeodomain. In this study, we analyzed genetically targeted mice (Cutl1tm2Ejn, referred to as ΔC) that express a mutant CDP/Cux protein with a deletion of the C terminus, including the homeodomain. In comparison to the wild-type protein, indirect immunofluorescence showed that the mutant protein exhibited significantly reduced nuclear localization. Consistent with these data, DNA binding activity of HiNF-D was lost in nuclear extracts derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or adult tissues of homozygous mutant (ΔC−/−) mice, indicating the functional loss of CDP/Cux protein in the nucleus. No significant difference in growth characteristics or total histone H4 mRNA levels was observed between wild-type and ΔC−/− MEFs in culture. However, specific histone genes (H4.1 and H1) containing CDP/Cux binding sites have reduced expression levels in homozygous mutant MEFs. Stringent control of growth and differentiation appears to be compromised in vivo. Homozygous mutant mice have stunted growth (20 to 50% weight reduction), a high postnatal death rate of 60 to 70%, sparse abnormal coat hair, and severely reduced fertility. The deregulated hair cycle and severely diminished fertility in Cutl1tm2Ejn/tm2Ejn mice suggest that CDP/Cux is required for the developmental control of dermal and reproductive functions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are critical determinants for cellular differentiation and cell type-specific gene expression. Their functional roles in osteoblast development have not been determined. We addressed a key component of the mechanisms by which C/EBP factors regulate transcription of a tissue-specific gene during osteoblast differentiation. Expression of both C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta increases from the growth to maturation developmental stages and, like the bone-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene, is also stimulated 3-6-fold by vitamin D(3), a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. We characterized a C/EBP enhancer element in the proximal promoter of the rat osteocalcin gene, which resides in close proximity to a Runx2 (Cbfa1) element, essential for tissue-specific activation. We find that C/EBP and Runx2 factors interact together in a synergistic manner to enhance OC transcription (35-40-fold) in cell culture systems. We show by mutational analysis that this synergism is mediated through the C/EBP-responsive element in the OC promoter and by a direct interaction between Runx2 and C/EBPbeta. Furthermore, we have mapped a domain in Runx2 necessary for this interaction by immunoprecipitation. A Runx2 mutant lacking this interaction domain does not exhibit functional synergism. We conclude that, in addition to Runx2 DNA binding functions, Runx2 can also form a protein complex at C/EBP sites to regulate transcription. Taken together, our findings indicate that C/EBP is a principal transactivator of the OC gene and the synergism with Runx2 suggests that a combinatorial interaction of these factors is a principal mechanism for regulating tissue-specific expression during osteoblast differentiation.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Jane B. Lian · Gary S. Stein · Janet L. Stein
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the transplantation of stem cells and their differentiation to tissue-specific phenotypes, as well as methods for introducing genes into subpopulations of stem cells greatly expands the potential for therapeutic strategies to correct genetic, metabolic, and degenerative disorders of the skeleton. The use of mesenchymal stem cells for systemic diseases, such as osteoporosis, and local repair of skeletal defects by tissue engineering is emphasized. Current procedures and planned future approaches that are under investigation will be discussed in this review.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Current Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Key components of DNA replication and the basal transcriptional machinery as well as several tissue-specific transcription factors are compartmentalized in specialized nuclear domains. In the present study, we show that determinants of subnuclear targeting of the bone-related Runx2/Cbfa1 protein reside in the C-terminus. With a panel of C-terminal mutations, we further demonstrate that targeting of Runx2 to discrete subnuclear foci is mediated by a 38 amino acid sequence (aa 397-434). This nuclear matrix-targeting signal (NMTS) directs the heterologous Gal4 protein to nuclear-matrix-associated Runx2 foci and enhances transactivation of a luciferase gene controlled by Gal4 binding sites. Importantly, we show that targeting of Runx2 to the NM-associated foci contributes to transactivation of the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene in osseous cells. Taken together, these findings identify a critical component of the mechanisms mediating Runx2 targeting to subnuclear foci and provide functional linkage between subnuclear organization of Runx2 and bone-specific transcriptional control.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2001
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    ABSTRACT: Key components of DNA replication and the basal transcriptional machinery as well as several tissue-specific transcription factors are compartmentalized in specialized nuclear domains. In the present study, we show that determinants of subnuclear targeting of the bone-related Runx2/Cbfa1 protein reside in the C-terminus. With a panel of C-terminal mutations, we further demonstrate that targeting of Runx2 to discrete subnuclear foci is mediated by a 38 amino acid sequence (aa 397-434). This nuclear matrix-targeting signal (NMTS) directs the heterologous Gal4 protein to nuclear-matrix-associated Runx2 foci and enhances transactivation of a luciferase gene controlled by Gal4 binding sites. Importantly, we show that targeting of Runx2 to the NM-associated foci contributes to transactivation of the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene in osseous cells. Taken together, these findings identify a critical component of the mechanisms mediating Runx2 targeting to subnuclear foci and provide functional linkage between subnuclear organization of Runx2 and bone-specific transcriptional control.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Cbfa1/Runx2 is a transcription factor essential for bone formation and osteoblast differentiation. Two major N-terminal isoforms of Cbfa1, designated type I/p56 (PEBP2aA1, starting with the sequence MRIPV) and type II/p57 (til-1, starting with the sequence MASNS), each regulated by distinct promoters, are known. Here, we show that the type I transcript is constitutively expressed in nonosseous mesenchymal tissues and in osteoblast progenitor cells. Cbfa1 type I isoform expression does not change with the differentiation status of the cells. In contrast, the type II transcript is increased during differentiation of primary osteoblasts and is induced in osteoprogenitors and in premyoblast C2C12 cells in response to bone morphogenetic protein-2. The functional equivalence of the two isoforms in activation and repression of bone-specific genes indicates overlapping functional roles. The presence of the ubiquitous type I isoform in nonosseous cells and before bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced expression of the type II isoform suggests a regulatory role for Cbfa1 type I in early stages of mesenchymal cell development, whereas type II is necessary for osteogenesis and maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype. Our data indicate that Cbfa1 function is regulated by transcription, cellular protein levels, and DNA binding activity during osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, our studies suggest that developmental timing and cell type- specific expression of type I and type II Cbfa isoforms, and not necessarily molecular properties or sequences that reside in the N-terminus of Cbfa1, are the principal determinants of the osteogenic activity of Cbfa1.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of histone gene transcription at the G1/S phase transition via the Site II cell cycle control element is distinct from E2F-dependent mechanisms operative at the growth factor-related restriction point. E2F-independent activation of histone H4 gene expression combines contributions of several promoter factors, including HiNF-M/IRF2 and the HiNF-D/CDP-cut complex which contains pRB, CDK1, and cyclin A as non-DNA binding subunits. Mutational analyses suggest additional rate-limiting factors for Site II function. Using sequence-specific Site II DNA affinity chromatography, we identified a 45 kDa protein (KIAA0005 or BZAP45) that is embryonically expressed and phylogenetically conserved. Based on amino acid sequence analysis, BZAP45 contains a unique decapeptide that is part of a putative leucine-zipper protein with a nucleotide (ATP or GTP) binding fold. Bacterial expression of a full-length cDNA produces a 45 kDa protein. Binding studies reveal that highly purified BZAP45 does not interact with Site II, suggesting that BZAP45 function may require partner proteins. Forced expression of BZAP45 strongly stimulates H4 promoter (nt -215 to -1)/CAT reporter gene activity. Deletion analyses and point mutations indicate that BZAP45 enhances H4 gene transcription through Site II. Thus, BZAP45 is a novel regulatory factor that contributes to transcriptional control at the G1/S phase transition.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Runx (Cbfa/AML) transcription factors are critical for tissue-specific gene expression. A unique targeting signal in the C terminus directs Runx factors to discrete foci within the nucleus. Using Runx2/CBFA1/AML3 and its essential role in osteogenesis as a model, we investigated the fundamental importance of fidelity of subnuclear localization for tissue differentiating activity by deleting the intranuclear targeting signal via homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the deletion (Runx2 Delta C) do not form bone due to maturational arrest of osteoblasts. Heterozygotes do not develop clavicles, but are otherwise normal. These phenotypes are indistinguishable from those of the homozygous and heterozygous null mutants, indicating that the intranuclear targeting signal is a critical determinant for function. The expressed truncated Runx2 Delta C protein enters the nucleus and retains normal DNA binding activity, but shows complete loss of intranuclear targeting. These results demonstrate that the multifunctional N-terminal region of the Runx2 protein is not sufficient for biological activity. We conclude that subnuclear localization of Runx factors in specific foci together with associated regulatory functions is essential for control of Runx-dependent genes involved in tissue differentiation during embryonic development.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2001 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcriptional mediators of interferon-responsive signaling pathways that are involved in antiviral defense, immune response, and cell growth regulation. To investigate the role of IRF proteins in the regulation of histone H4 gene transcription, we compared the transcriptional contributions of IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-3, and IRF-7 using transient transfection assays with H4 promoter/luciferase (Luc) reporter genes. These IRF proteins up-regulate reporter gene expression but IRF-1, IRF-3, and IRF-7 are more potent activators of the H4 promoter than IRF-2. Forced expression of different IRF combinations reveals that IRF-2 reduces IRF-1 or IRF-3 dependent activation, but does not affect IRF-7 function. Thus, IRF-2 may have a dual function in histone H4 gene transcription by acting as a weak activator at low dosage and a competitive inhibitor of other strongly activating IRFs at high levels. IRF-1/IRF-3 and IRF-1/IRF-7 pairs each mediate the highest levels of site II-dependent promoter activity and can up-regulate transcription by 120-150-fold. We also find that interferon gamma up-regulates IRF-1 and site II-dependent promoter activity. This up-regulation is not observed when the IRF site is mutated or if cells are preloaded with IRF-1. Our results indicate that IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-3, and IRF-7 can all regulate histone H4 gene expression. The pairwise utilization of distinct IRF factors provides a flexible transcriptional mechanism for integration of diverse growth-related signaling pathways.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene, a marker of bone formation, is largely restricted to cells in mineralized tissues. Recent studies have shown that the Cbfa1 (also known as Runx2, AML-3, and PEBP2alphaA) transcription factor supports commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells to hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts. This study addresses the functional involvement of Cbfa sites in expression of the Gallus BSP gene. Gel mobility shift analyses with nuclear extracts from ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells revealed that multiple Cbfa consensus sequences are functional Cbfa DNA binding sites. Responsiveness of the 1.2-kb Gallus BSP promoter to Cbfa factors Cbfa1, Cbfa2, and Cbfa3 was assayed in osseous and nonosseous cells. Each of the Cbfa factors mediated repression of the wild-type BSP promoter, in contrast to their well known activation of various hematopoietic and skeletal phenotypic genes. Suppression of BSP by Cbfa factors was not observed in BSP promoters in which Cbfa sites were deleted or mutated. Expression of the endogenous BSP gene in Gallus osteoblasts was similarly downregulated by forced expression of Cbfa factors. Our data indicate that Cbfa repression of the BSP promoter does not involve the transducin-like enhancer (TLE) proteins. Neither coexpression of TLE1 or TLE2 nor the absence of the TLE interaction motif of Cbfa1 (amino acids 501 to 513) influenced repressor activity. However, removal of the C terminus of Cbfa1 (amino acids 362 to 513) relieved suppression of the BSP promoter. Our results, together with the evolutionary conservation of the seven Cbfa sites in the Gallus and human BSP promoters, suggest that suppressor activity by Cbfa is of significant physiologic consequence and may contribute to spatiotemporal expression of BSP during bone development.
    Full-text · Article · May 2001 · Molecular and Cellular Biology

Publication Stats

19k Citations
2,247.56 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 1988-2015
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Vermont Medical Center
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2002-2012
    • University of Concepción
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      • • Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989-2012
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Universidad Andrés Bello
      • Faculty of Medicine
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2005
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2003-2005
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Oral Biochemistry
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2001
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1995
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Tumor Cell Biology
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1994
    • Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 1975-1994
    • University of Florida
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • College of Medicine
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1992
    • The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
      ADM, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1985
    • The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1984
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Molecular Biology
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1979
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States