[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports a 73-year old woman with simultaneous presentation of acute monoblastic leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia (AML), French-American-British (FAB) type M5a) and mantle cell lymphoma. The patient presented with wasting, generalized lymphadenopathy, an extensive infiltrative rash and pancytopenia. Bone marrow and lymph node histopatholology showed extensive infiltration by leukemic monoblasts. Marrow cytogenetics revealed a complex karyotype, including t(8;16)(p11;p13). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of peripheral blood, lymph node and bone marrow demonstrated two populations, expressing CD5, CD19, CD20 and CD22 and CD45, HLA-DR, CD13, CD33, CD14 and CD38, respectively. A focus of abnormal lymphocytes in the lymph node biopsy demonstrated BCL1 expression and t(11;14)(p11;p13) by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement by the polymerase chain reaction. The patient received infusional cytarabine, daunorubicin and etoposide chemotherapy, with complete remission of both the AML and the mantle cell leukemia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous presentations of AML, FAB M5a and mantle cell lymphoma. The case is discussed and the literature is reviewed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II antigens are variably expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. The biological and clinical significance of HLA Class II antigen expression by AML cells is not known. Therefore, we sought to characterize cases of AML without detectable HLA-DR expression. Samples from 248 consecutive adult AML patients were immunophenotyped by multiparameter flow cytometry at diagnosis. HLA-DR antigens were not detected on AML cells from 43 patients, including 20 with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and 23 with other subtypes of AML. All APL cases had t(15;17), but there were no characteristic chromosome abnormalities in non-APL cases. No direct expression of other antigens was identified in HLA-DR-negative APL and non-APL cases. Interestingly, cells from three HLA-DR-negative non-APL patients had similar morphology to that of the hypogranular variant of APL. This morphology, however, was not present in any HLA-DR-positive AML cases. Treatment response was similar in the 23 HLA-DR-negative non-APL and the 205 HLA-DR-positive patients. Finally, relapse was infrequently associated with changes in HLA-DR antigen expression, as the HLA-DR antigen was lost at relapse in only 4% of HLA-DR-positive cases, and was gained at relapse in only 17% of HLA-DR-negative cases. We conclude that HLA-DR-negative AML includes approximately equal numbers of APL and non-APL cases, and that the morphology of HLA-DR-negative non-APL cases can mimic the hypogranular variant of APL. The diagnosis of APL cannot be based on morphology and lack of HLA-DR antigen expression; rather, it requires cytogenetic or molecular confirmation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute monoblastic leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia [AML], French-American-British type M5a) with leukemia cutis developed in a patient 6 weeks after the initiation of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy for refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. AML disappeared from both marrow and skin after the discontinuation of EPO. Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow cells demonstrated coexpression of the EPO receptor with CD45 and CD13 on the surface of blasts. The incubation of marrow cells with EPO, compared to without, resulted in 1.3- and 1.6-fold increases, respectively, in tritiated thymidine incorporation and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into CD13(+) cells. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with the EPO-dependent transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to AML. It is concluded that leukemic transformation in patients with MDS treated with EPO may be EPO-dependent and that management should consist of the discontinuation of EPO followed by observation, if clinically feasible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between the overexpression of proto-oncogene HER-2/neu and resistance to tamoxifen in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive primary and metastatic breast cancer has been suggested. We examine a possible interaction between HER-2/neu or p53 expression and tamoxifen effectiveness in patients with ER-positive, node-positive disease treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil in a large adjuvant chemotherapy trial (Cancer and Leukemia Group B [CALGB] 8541). Tamoxifen assignment was not randomized-physician discretion was used for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Trial protocol then specified assignment to postmenopausal women with ER-positive tumors, although not all took tamoxifen.
CALGB 8541 assessed HER-2/neu expression in patients with ER-positive disease by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and amplification by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IHC assessed expression of p53. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models assessed tamoxifen-HER-2/neu status interactions and tamoxifen-p53 status interactions.
HER-2/neu status was available for 651 patients with ER-positive disease; 650, 608, and 353 patients were assessed by IHC, PCR, and FISH, respectively. Approximately one half received tamoxifen. Reduction in risk of disease recurrence or death resulting from tamoxifen was approximately 37% (32% with overexpression and 39% with normal expression of HER-2/neu; n = 155 by IHC). The tamoxifen-HER-2/neu status interaction was not significant in multivariate analysis of all three HER-2/neu assessment methods. Tamoxifen-p53 interaction did not significantly predict outcome.
Disease-free and overall survival benefit of tamoxifen in patients with ER-positive, node-positive breast cancer does not depend on HER-2/neu or p53 status. Our data suggest that neither HER-2/neu nor p53 expression should be used to determine assignment of tamoxifen.
No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with resistant diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DA-NHL) have a poor prognosis. Studies have suggested infusional therapy may be beneficial.
This trial used an infusional regimen called I-CHOPE in resistant patients who had previously received only bolus CHOPE or CHOP regimen. Resistance was defined as: a) primary refractory disease, b) progression on therapy, c) partial response, d) complete remission lasting less than one year. Eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of DA-NHL (IWF E-H), no prior irradiation and adequate organ function.
Thirty-seven patients were entered and twenty-nine were eligible. Reasons for ineligibility were incorrect histology (5) and other (3). The median age was 57 years (range 29-81) with 21 males. The performance status scores were: 0 (12 patients); 1 (9 patients); 2 (8 patients). Prior therapy consisted of standard CHOP (26 patients), bolus CHOPE (2 patients), high dose CHOP (1 patient). Therapy consisted of a 120 hour continuous intravenous infusion of doxorubicin 10 mg/m2/day, vincristine 0.28 mg/m2/day (maximum 0.4 mg/day), and etoposide 48 mg/m2/day. Cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 was given as an i.v. bolus day 6 and prednisone was given at 100 mg/day p.o. on days 1-5. G-CSF was allowed for myelosuppression. The overall response rate was 48% (CR 17%; PR 31%). Freedom from progression was 24% at six months and 8% at one year. Survival was 69% at six months and 40% at one year. In an exploratory analysis a prior CR or PR predicted response to I-CHOPE. Twelve of sixteen patients who had a CR/PR on previous therapy responded while two of thirteen who had no prior response, responded to I-CHOPE (P = 0.003). The toxicity was tolerable with grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity being leucopenia 94% and thrombocytopenia 41%. The grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities were infection in 28%, phlebitis in 11%, and stomatitis in 15%.
I-CHOPE can induce responses in this group of patients with a poor prognosis, but most were seen in those who had previously had a response to bolus chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate a regimen of sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with Hodgkin disease.
The Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a Phase II study of three cycles of etoposide, vinblastine, and doxorubicin (EVA) chemotherapy followed by subtotal lymph node radiation for patients with localized Hodgkin disease and unfavorable prognostic features. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. Fifty-three patients met all study eligibility criteria; 48 of them (91%) had mediastinal disease and 29 (55%) had bulky mediastinal disease.
A complete response (CR) occurred in 35 of the patients (66%). Of all patients who had CR, 26% had the CR after the chemotherapy and before the radiation, and 74% after the chemotherapy and radiation. Twenty percent of the patients who had CR experienced disease progression; in these patients, the progression was outside the radiotherapy field in the lung and involved widespread disease.
EVA offers a nonbleomycin-containing alternative for patients in whom preexisting pulmonary disease may be exacerbated by bleomycin and radiation therapy. EVA, as given in this study (in three cycles), was insufficient chemotherapy for patients who had disease in areas outside the radiation fields (occult disease).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that high expression of the erbB-2 gene (also known as HER-2/neu and ERBB2) in breast cancer is associated with patient response to dose-intensive treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and 5-flurouracil (CAF) on the basis of short-term follow-up of 397 patients (set A) with axillary lymph node-positive tumors who were enrolled in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocol 8541.
To validate those findings, we conducted immunohistochemical analyses of erbB-2 and p53 protein expression in an additional cohort of 595 patients (set B) from CALGB 8541, as well as a molecular analysis of erbB-2 gene amplification in tumors from all patients (sets A and B). Marker data were compared with clinical, histologic, treatment, and outcome data.
Updated analyses of data from set A (median follow-up, 10.4 years) showed an even stronger interaction between erbB-2 expression and CAF dose, by use of either immunohistochemical or molecular data. A similar interaction between erbB-2 expression and CAF dose was observed in all 992 patients, analyzed as a single group. However, for set B alone (median follow-up, 8.2 years), results varied with the method of statistical analysis. By use of a proportional hazards model, the erbB-2 expression-CAF dose interaction was not significant for all patients. However, in the subgroups of patients randomly assigned to the high- or the moderate-dose arms, significance was achieved. When patient data were adjusted for differences by use of a prognostic index (to balance an apparent failure of randomization in the low-dose arm), the erbB-2 expression-CAF dose interaction was significant in all patients from the validation set B as well. An interaction was also observed between p53 immunopositivity and CAF dose.
The hypothesis that patients whose breast tumors exhibit high erbB-2 expression benefit from dose-intensive CAF should be further validated before clinical implementation. Interactions between erbB-2 expression, p53 expression, and CAF dose underscore the complexities of predictive markers where multiple interactions may confound the outcome.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1998 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is clinically indolent, but is associated with severe neutropenia in approximately 50% of cases. The pathogenesis of the neutropenia is unclear. We report reversal of severe neutropenia associated with T-LGL leukemia in five patients treated with cyclosporine (CSA). All five had persistent neutrophil counts below 0.5 x 10(9)/L, two had agranulocytosis, and four had recurrent infections. Increased populations of LGL were present in blood and marrow, with a T-LGL immunophenotype (CD3(+)CD8(+)CD16(+/-)CD56(+/-)CD57(+)) shown by multiparameter flow cytometry, and clonal T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements in two of two pretreatment blood samples studied. CSA was initiated at doses of 1 to 1.5 mg/kg orally every 12 hours, with subsequent dose adjustments based on trough serum levels. Four patients attained normal neutrophil counts with CSA alone; one required addition of low-dose granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Time to attainment of 1.5 x 10(9)/L neutrophils ranged from 21 to 75 days. Attempts to taper and withdraw CSA resulted in recurrent neutropenia. Three patients have maintained normal neutrophil counts on continued CSA therapy for 2, 8, and 8.5 years. Two patients died 1.7 and 4.6 years after initiation of CSA despite normal neutrophil counts-one of metastatic melanoma and one of complications after aortofemoral bypass surgery. Despite resolution of neutropenia, increased populations of T-LGL cells have persisted in all patients during CSA therapy, as shown by morphology and flow cytometry and by the presence of clonal TCR gene rearrangements in four patients' posttreatment blood samples. We conclude that CSA is an effective therapy for neutropenia associated with T-LGL leukemia, and that resolution of neutropenia despite persistence of abnormal cells implies that CSA may inhibit T-LGL secretion of yet unidentified mediators of neutropenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the new anticancer agent, docetaxel, with a novel mechanism of action in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma International Working Formulation (IWF) A through H, to determine the response rate by histologic group and the toxicities of this agent in this population.
Sixty-eight patients previously treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with two prior cytotoxic regimens for low-grade and one prior regimen for intermediate-grade lymphoma were entered onto this phase II trial. Central pathologic review was required. Twenty-four IWF A to C and 31 IWF D to H patients with normal hepatic and renal function, performance status (PS) 0 to 2, and adequate hematologic function were eligible. Patients received docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously over 1 hour without corticosteroid premedications every 3 weeks with weekly hematologic monitoring, and tumor assessment every 3 weeks. For grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity, the docetaxel dosage was lowered to 75 mg/m2. Patients received a maximum of six cycles of therapy.
The major response rate was 13% (95% confidence limits, 3% to 32%) for IWF A to C and 16% (95% confidence limits, 5% to 34%) for IWF D to H; response durations ranged from 1.4 to 20 months. Time to response ranged from 1.3 to 2.8 months. Patients refractory to previous chemotherapy were less apt to respond to docetaxel, but the differences were not statistically different in this small sample size. Twelve percent of IWF A to C and 6% of IWF D to H patients discontinued treatment because of toxicity. The major toxicity was granulocytopenia (grade 3 to 4), which occurred in virtually all patients during the first course of therapy.
This study confirms that docetaxel has limited but definite activity in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and suggests that the previously reported responses with taxanes can not be attributed solely to the use of corticosteroid premedications.
No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experimental animal model of meningeal leukemia was developed in the nude rat, rnu/rnu, using the human-derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line HPB-ALL. Anesthetized rats were placed in a modified stereotaxic frame and then injected intrathecally, at the level of the cisterna magna, with human leukemic cells. Cerebrospinal fluid and tissue samples from brain, spinal cord, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, and cervical lymph nodes were subjected to histopathologic examination and molecular genetic screening by clonotype primer-directed polymerase chain reaction (CPD-PCR). Ninety-three percent of animals (n = 14) developed signs of meningeal irritation leading to death 30 to 63 days postinjection (median, 36.0 days, mean, 38.7); death occurred between 30 and 39 days in 77% of all animals. Leukemic cells progressively infiltrated the pericerebellar and pericerebral subarachnoid space and infiltrated the Virchow-Robin (perivascular) space. The infiltrating meningeal leukemia closely resembled the pathologic presentation in the human condition. By CPD-PCR, leukemic cells were first detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on day 4 postinjection, were variably present over the ensuing 17 days, and were consistently detected after day 21. At terminal stages, CPD-PCR tissue surveys showed leukemic DNA in all brains and spinal cords and rarely in cervical lymph nodes, but leukemic DNA was not detected in any other tissue screened. Leukemic meningitis was reliably produced with a predictable survival time. Intrathecal administration of leukemic cells was an efficient means of transmitting leukemic meningitis and it compartmentalized the disease to the central nervous system (CNS), eliminating potential complications of systemic illness. The use of human-derived cell lines may render this model more relevant to the development of future therapeutic strategies to treat leukemia and lymphoma that invade the CNS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we developed an antitumor immunoconjugate that appears to be promising as a novel curative antitumor agent against a variety of human solid tumors. We generated a new antihuman endoglin (EDG) monoclonal antibody (mAb) K4-2C10 (or termed SN6f) that cross-reacts with mouse endothelial cells. Such cross-reactive anti-EDG mAbs have not been reported previously. This mAb was used to target tumor-associated vasculature in SCID mice inoculated with human tumors. No anti-EDG mAb or its immunoconjugates have previously been successfully used for targeting vasculature in vivo. In this study, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were inoculated s.c. into SCID mice. K4-2C10 did not react with the MCF-7 cells but showed a weak reactivity with mouse endothelial cells. The mAb reacted with the proliferating endothelial cells more strongly than with the quiescent endothelial cells. The mAb exhibited much stronger reactivity (>10-fold) with human endothelial cells than with mouse endothelial cells and reacted strongly with vascular endothelium of tumor-associated blood vessels in a variety of human malignant tissues. Conjugates of K4-2C10 with ricin A chain (RA) and deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRA) showed a weak but specific cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells in vitro; the 50% inhibitory dose of the RA and dgRA conjugates was 54 nm and 29 nm, respectively. Remarkable antitumor efficacy was observed when a small amount (a total of 60 microgram corresponding to 24% of the LD50 dose) of the dgRA conjugate was administered i.v. into SCID mice that had been inoculated s.c. with MCF-7. Unconjugated mAb K4-2C10 was not significantly effective in the inhibition of the tumor growth. The immunotoxin (IT) completely inhibited growth of the tumor in all of the treated mice (n = 8). Furthermore, similar antitumor efficacy was observed when the IT was administered i.v. into the tumor-inoculated SCID mice that had been pretreated with unconjugated K4-2C10 to block the potentially available weak binding sites of normal tissues. The strong therapeutic effects of the IT were reproduced in another set of therapeutic experiments. No significant side effects were observed in the mice. The differences in the tumor growth between the control group and the IT-treated groups were statistically significant. The IT showed antiangiogenic activity in the dorsal air sac method. The results indicate that K4-2C10 IT effectively treated the tumor-bearing mice by selectively inhibiting the tumor-associated blood vessels and by disrupting tumor-associated angiogenesis. The strong antitumor efficacy of the K4-2C10 IT is remarkable in view of the fact that K4-2C10 and its IT showed only a weak reactivity with mouse endothelial cells, and a relatively small amount of the IT was administered i.v. to treat s.c. tumors. We anticipate that the K4-2C10 IT will show much stronger antitumor efficacy and antiangiogenic activity in patients with solid tumors and other angiogenesis-associated diseases. The present results demonstrate for the first time that an anti-EDG mAb or its immunoconjugate can effectively target tumor-associated vasculature in vivo.
Preview · Article · Aug 1997 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-mpl, the human homolog of v-mpl, is the receptor for thrombopoietin. Given that c-mpl expression carries an adverse prognosis in myelodysplastic syndrome and given the prognostic significance of expression of other growth factor receptors in other diseases, we attempted to determine whether c-mp/mRNA expression is a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
We analyzed bone marrow samples from 45 newly diagnosed AML patients by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Samples from 27 patients (60%) expressed c-mpl mRNA (c-mpl+); their clinical and laboratory features were compared with those of the 18 patients without detectable levels of c-mpl(c-mpl-). No significant differences in age, sex, leukocyte count, French-American-British subtype, or karyotype group were found. c-mpl+ patients more commonly had secondary AML (41% v 11%; P = .046) and more commonly expressed CD34 (67% v 12%; P = .0004). There was no significant difference in complete remission (CR) rate. However, c-mpl+ patients had shorter CR durations (P = .008; median, 6.0 v > 17.0 months). This was true when only de novo AML patients were considered and when controlling for age, cytogenetics, or CD34 expression. There was a trend toward shorter survival in c-mpl+ patients (P = .058; median, 7.8 v 9.0 months).
These data suggest that c-mpl expression is an adverse prognostic factor for treatment outcome in adult AML that must be considered in the analysis of clinical studies using thrombopoietin in AML.
No preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic growth factors are being administered to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) both to shorten the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and in an attempt to increase cytotoxicity of cell cycle-specific agents. However, limited information is available concerning the effects of growth factors in AML patients. To examine the in vivo effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on AML cells, laboratory studies were performed before and after a 72-hour intravenous infusion of G-CSF (10 micrograms/kg/d) administered to 28 untreated AML patients. Twenty-seven patients (96%) showed increases in at least one of the following parameters after G-CSF: blood blasts, bone marrow (BM) blasts, leukemia cells in S phase or interphase cells with leukemia-specific markers shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The median paired change in absolute blast count was +2.7 x 10(9)/L (P = .0001) after G-CSF, as compared with 0.0 during the 72 hours before initiation of G-CSF. The median percentage of BM leukemia cells in S phase increased from 6.0% to 10.7% after G-CSF (median change, %5.9%; P = .009). Interphase BM cells with trisomy 8 or monosomy 7 increased in 6 of 6 patients with these abnormalities (P = .02) with a median percent increase of 47%. Blood neutrophil counts also increased during G-CSF (median paired change, +2.8 x 10(9)/L; P < .0001). Trisomy 8 or monosomy 7 was shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization in post-G-CSF blood neutrophils from 4 of 6 patients but was also present in neutrophils before G-CSF. We conclude that the percentage of leukemia cells in S phase increases and that leukemia cell populations undergo expansion during short-term administration of G-CSF in almost all AML patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the activity and toxicity of combined etoposide, vinblastine, and doxorubicin (EVA) in advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD) in relapse from or refractory to mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP).
Eligible patients were more than 15 years of age and had received only one prior course of MOPP and were in relapse with measurable disease. The EVA regimen (etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously [IV] on days 1, 2, and 3; vinblastine 6 mg/m2 IV on day 1; and doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 IV on day 1) was administered every 28 days for a minimum of four and a maximum of six cycles. Patients were restaged at 3 and 6 months.
Forty-five eligible patients were treated, with an overall response rate of 73%. There were 40% complete responses (CRs) and 33% partial responses (PRs). The median follow-up time in 42 months. The median time to treatment failure (TTF) is 10 months, with 31% continuing progression-free. Eighteen patients achieved a second CR, with only seven recurrences in that group. Failure-free survival and overall survival were significantly better in patients whose first MOPP-induced remission was longer than 12 months and who were free of B symptoms at relapse. Toxicity was primarily myelosuppression, which resulted in two toxic deaths. Pulmonary toxicity was not observed.
EVA is an effective second-line regimen for the treatment of HD in relapse following MOPP chemotherapy.
No preview · Article · Sep 1995 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD40 was originally described as a B-cell-restricted antigen and was subsequently found to be a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. CD40 is also expressed on dendritic cells, thymic epithelium, monocytes, and some carcinoma cell lines, and plays a critical role in cell contact-dependent activation. Primary and cultured Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells, the presumed malignant cells of Hodgkin's disease (HD); were found to express high levels of cell surface CD40. We found that recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L) induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion and enhanced IL-6, TNF, and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha/TNF-beta) release from cultured H-RS cells. These cytokines play a significant role in the clinical presentation and pathology of HD, a tumor of cytokine-producing cells. CD40L had no mitogenic activity for HD-derived cell lines. In contrast, CD40L enhanced expression of costimulatory molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-T and B7-1 on cultured H-RS cells, both of which are overexpressed on primary H-RS cells. In addition, CD40L induced a 40% to 60% reduction of the expression of the HD-associated CD30 antigen, another member of the TNF receptor superfamily. Primary and cultured H-RS cells express not only CD30, but also CD40. CD40L has pleiotropic biologic activities on H-RS cells, and the CD40-CD40L interaction might be a critical element in the deregulated cytokine network and cell contact-dependent activation cascade typical for HD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) have been among those tumors demonstrated to show frequent responses to alpha interferon in phase I and II clinical trials. In addition, there are data suggesting that alpha interferon demonstrates synergistic antitumor activity with alkylating agents in animal models for a number of tumors. Based on these data, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) undertook a phase II pilot study of the combination of interferon rIFN alpha 2b (2 x 10(6) IU/m2 s.c. tiw) and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/m2 per day orally) with the ultimate purpose of examining this combination as long-term therapy of follicular lymphoma in comparison to oral cyclophosphamide alone. One hundred five advanced stage III or IV eligible patients with pathologically diagnosed International Working Formulation B or C histology were entered on CALGB 8553 to determine toxicity and response rates to the combination. Both previously chemotherapy-treated patients (32) and patients without prior chemotherapy (73) were entered on study. For patients without prior chemotherapy the overall response rate to the combination regimen was 86% with 58% of chemotherapy-treated patients achieving complete response. Chemotherapy-treated patients had a total response rate of 62% with only 25% complete responders. Complete responses in patients without prior chemotherapy were positively correlated with absence of B symptoms, and good performance status and negatively correlated with the histological subtype of follicular mixed small-cleaved and large cell histology (IWF C); only performance status was significantly correlated with response in patients who had previously had chemotherapy. Survival at 5 years is estimated to be 63% for those without chemotherapy and 39% for those previously treated with chemotherapy patients. The maximum toxicities experienced during therapy with the combination regimen of cyclophosphamide and interferon alpha were primarily related to myelosuppression. Sixty-seven percent of patients without prior chemotherapy and 65% of patients receiving prior chemotherapy experienced severe leukopenia while severe thrombocytopenia and anemia occurred in 6-31% of these patients. Non-myelosuppressive toxicities were less frequently seen. These response rates are similar to those achieved in a previous CALGB trial with oral cyclophosphamide as a single agent, although severe myelotoxicity was increased to approximately 60% of patients from less than 10% with the single-agent therapy. The combination of alpha interferon and cyclophosphamide administered in this fashion is safe when peripheral counts are carefully monitored. Randomized studies of this regimen in comparison to oral cyclophosphamide are currently in progress.
No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Medical and Pediatric Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translocations which involve chromosome band 11q23 are frequently found in infants and adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We previously cloned a gene called ALL-1 which spans the 11q23 breakpoint and is rearranged in most cases of leukemia with 11q23 abnormalities. In the present report, we have investigated the occurrence of ALL-1 rearrangement in cases of AML without cytogenetic evidence of 11q23 abnormalities. We detected molecular rearrangements of the ALL-1 gene in 3 of 4 patients with de novo AML and trisomy 11 as a sole chromosomal abnormality. Furthermore, we found DNA rearrangements of ALL-1 in 2 of 19 patients with de novo AML and normal cytogenetics. We conclude that molecular rearrangement of ALL-1 often can be detected in de novo AML, despite the absence of cytogenetic abnormalities involving 11q23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to improve the efficacy of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy for intermediate-grade and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, a phase II evaluation of a regimen consisting of Adriamycin (doxorubicin; Adria Laboratories, Columbus, OH), methotrexate, Oncovin (vincristine; Eli Lilly Co, Indianapolis, IN), prednisone, leucovorin, cytarabine (ara-c), cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (AMOPLACE) was conducted. This regimen includes three additional agents not found in CHOP, uses weekly doses of alternating myelosuppressive and nonmyelosuppressive drugs, and incorporates most single agents active against diffuse lymphomas.
Ninety-one previously untreated patients were enrolled and 60 patients were confirmed eligible after central pathology review. Fifty-eight percent of patients had diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL), 83% had stage III or IV disease, and 45% had B symptoms.
Patients were treated with six to eight cycles of AMOPLACE and analyzed for response and survival. With a median follow-up of 48 months, complete responses (CRs) were seen in 68% of all patients with failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) estimates at 4 years of 45% and 54%. In the DLCL subset, the CR rate was 69% and FFS and OS estimates at 4 years were 49% and 60%, respectively. The major toxicity was myelosuppression, with 73% of patients having WBC nadirs less than 1,000/microL; two treatment-related deaths occurred.
We conclude that AMOPLACE is associated with CR and OS rates comparable with those of other third-generation regimens.
No preview · Article · Mar 1993 · Journal of Clinical Oncology