A T Moore

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (107)433.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the FAM161A gene have been reported in association with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in several ethnic populations. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of FAM161A-related retinopathy in a British cohort and to characterise the phenotype associated with mutations in this gene. The FAM161A coding region and intron-exon boundaries were screened by Sanger sequencing in 120 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients (with likely autosomal recessive inheritance) in whom mutations in other known major RP genes have been ruled out by commercially available testing. Homozygosity mapping was performed in one consanguineous family, and high-throughput sequencing of candidate genes was performed to identify disease-associated changes. Clinical assessment of affected individuals included perimetry testing, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and optical coherence tomography. Two patients of British origin with a homozygous mutation in FAM161A (c.1309A>T, p.Arg437*) were identified by Sanger sequencing. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent high-throughput sequencing analysis identified a further family of Pakistani origin with the same genotype. Clinical examination of affected members of these families revealed that this mutation was associated with a diverse clinical phenotype, ranging from mild disease with preservation of central acuity to severe visual impairment. Homozygosity for the c.1309A>T, p.Arg437* variant in FAM161A is a relatively common cause of arRP. The mutation occurs in diverse ethnic populations, associated with typical retinitis pigmentosa with disease onset usually in the second or third decade of life.Eye advance online publication, 26 June 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.93.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Eye (London, England)
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    J Smith · D Ward · M Michaelides · A T Moore · S Simpson
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    ABSTRACT: The horizon scanning review aimed to identify new and emerging technologies in development that have the potential to slow or stop disease progression and/or reverse sight loss in people with inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Potential treatments were identified using recognized horizon scanning methods. These included a combination of online searches using predetermined search terms, suggestions from clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups, and contact with commercial developers. Twenty-nine relevant technologies were identified. These included 9 gene therapeutic approaches, 10 medical devices, 5 pharmacological agents, and 5 regenerative and cell therapies. A further 11 technologies were identified in very early phases of development (typically phase I or pre-clinical) and were included in the final report to give a complete picture of developments 'on the horizon'. Clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups provided helpful information and insights, such as the availability of specialised services for patients, the potential impacts of individual technologies on people with IRDs and their families, and helped to identify additional relevant technologies. This engagement ensured that important areas of innovation were not missed. Most of the health technologies identified are still at an early stage of development and it is difficult to estimate when treatments might be available. Further, well designed trials that generate data on efficacy, applicability, acceptability, and costs of the technologies, as well as the long-term impacts for various conditions are required before these can be considered for adoption into routine clinical practice.Eye advance online publication, 26 June 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.115.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Eye (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo report the clinical phenotype in a series of four children from three families with the rare association of high myopia, central macular atrophy, and normal full-field electroretinography (ERG).Methods Four male patients were ascertained with reduced vision, nystagmus, and atrophy of the macula from early childhood. Patients underwent full ophthalmic examination, electrophysiological testing, and retinal imaging.ResultsMinimum duration of follow-up was 8 years. At last review, visual acuity ranged from 0.22 to 1.20 logMAR (6/9.5-6/95 Snellen) at a mean age of 10.5 years (median 9.5 years, range 9-14 years). Refractive error ranged from a spherical equivalent of -7.40 D to -24.00 D. Three had convergent squint. Fundus examination and imaging demonstrated bilateral macular atrophy in all patients that varied from mild atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to well-demarcated, punched-out atrophic lesions of retina, RPE, and choroid. Flash ERG was normal under photopic and scotopic conditions in all patients. Pattern ERG, performed in three patients, was consistent with mild to severe macular dysfunction. Progression of the area of atrophy was evident in one patient and of the myopia in two patients but all patients had stable visual acuity.Conclusions Patients with congenital high myopia and macular atrophy present in infancy with reduced visual acuity and nystagmus. The macular atrophic lesions vary in size and severity but electrophysiological testing is consistent with dysfunction confined to the macula. There was no deterioration in visual acuity over 8-10 years of monitoring.Eye advance online publication, 22 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.53.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Eye (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe the phenotype of a family with de novo mutation in the GUCY2D.Materials and methodsFive subjects, including two monozygotic twins, underwent ophthalmic clinical examination while some had autofluorescence imaging (AF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Symptomatic individuals underwent electrophysiological testing. The youngest subject (21 years) was also evaluated psychophysically. DNA obtained from the individuals was screened for mutations in GUCY2D. Microsatellite markers were used to determine the haplotype of 17p surrounding the GUCY2D gene.ResultsThe youngest subject had 6/18 visual acuity, an annulus of hyper-autofluorescence in the perifoveal region, and a subfoveal absence of outer segments on OCT. In the older individuals, severe thinning of inner retina and a patchy loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium were observed in the perifoveal region. All three showed generalised cone system dysfunction with preserved rod function on electrophysiology. Psychophysical evaluation was consistent with poor cone function. Screening of the GUCY2D gene revealed the mutation p.R838H in all the affected individuals and was absent in the asymptomatic patients. Haplotyping showed that the mutation originated from the unaffected mother.Conclusions Autosomal dominant cone dystrophy due to GUCY2D can occur without a history in the antecedents due to a de novo mutation. This is important to consider in any simplex case with a similar phenotype. The phenotype description of this disorder is expanded with detailed description of the OCT findings. This paper describes the concordance of the phenotypic findings in the monozygotic twins.Eye advance online publication, 31 January 2014; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.7.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Eye (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To investigate the prevalence of sequence variants in LCA5 in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), early onset rod-cone dystrophy (EORD) and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), to delineate the ocular phenotypes, and to provide an overview of all published LCA5 variants in an online database. Patients underwent standard ophthalmic evaluations after providing informed consent. In selected patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence imaging was possible. DNA samples from 797 unrelated patients with LCA and 211 with the various types of RP were screened by Sanger sequence analysis of all LCA5 exons and intron/exon junctions. Some LCA patients were pre-screened by APEX technology or selected based on homozygosity mapping. In silico analyses were performed to assess the pathogenicity of the variants. Segregation analysis was performed where possible. Published and novel LCA5 variants were collected, amended for their correct nomenclature, and listed in a Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD). Sequence analysis identified 18 new probands with 19 different LCA5 variants. Seventeen of the 19 LCA5 variants were novel. Except for two missense variants and one splice site variant, all variants were protein-truncating mutations. Most patients expressed a severe phenotype, typical of LCA. However, some LCA subjects had better vision and intact inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions on OCT imaging. In two families with LCA5 variants, the phenotype was more compatible with EORD with affected individuals displaying preserved islands of RPE. One of these milder families harbored a homozygous splice site mutation, a second family was found to have a combination of a stop mutation and a missense mutation. This is the largest LCA5 study to date. We sequenced 1008 patients (797 with LCA, 211 with arRP) and identified 18 probands with LCA5 mutations. Mutations in LCA5 are a rare cause of childhood retinal dystrophy accounting for ∼2% of disease in this cohort and the majority of LCA5 mutations are likely null. The LCA5 protein truncating mutations are predominantly associated with LCA. However, in two families with the milder EORD, the LCA5 gene analysis revealed a homozygous splice site mutation in one and a stop mutation in combination with a missense mutation in a second family, suggesting that this milder phenotype is due to residual function of lebercilin and expanding the currently known phenotypic spectrum to include the milder early onset RP. Some patients have remaining foveal cone structures (intact IS/OS junctions on OCT imaging) and remaining visual acuities, which may bode well for upcoming treatment trials.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Eye (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case-control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking. METHODS: To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, 'Y402H') with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26,494 individuals, including 14,174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene-smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry. RESULTS: In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-2.45; P = 1.1 x 10(-161)]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies. CONCLUSION: The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Eye (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Vision

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Vision
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    AG Robson · L S Mengher · M H Tan · A T Moore
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    ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Eye (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · May 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC), a retinal dystrophy often associated with glaucoma and cataract, forms part of a phenotypic spectrum of 'bestrophinopathies'. It has been shown previously that ADVIRC results from BEST1 mutations that cause exon skipping and lead to the production of shortened and internally deleted isoforms. This study describes a novel ADVIRC mutation and show that it disrupts an exonic splice enhancer (ESE) site, altering the binding of a splicing-associated SR protein. As with previous ADVIRC mutations, the novel c.704T-->C mutation in exon 6 altered normal splicing in an ex vivo splicing assay. Both this and another exon 6 ADVIRC-causing mutation (c.707G-->A) either weakened or abolished splicing in an ESE-dependent splice assay compared with a nearby exon 6 mutation associated with Best disease (c.703G-->C). Gel shift assays were undertaken with RNA oligonucleotides encompassing the ADVIRC and Best disease mutations with four of the most commonly investigated SR proteins. Although SC35, SRp40 and SRp55 proteins all bound to the wild-type and mutated sequences with similar intensities, there was increased binding of ASF/SF2 to the two ADVIRC-mutated sequences compared with the wild-type or Best disease-mutated sequences. The exon skipping seen for these two exon 6 ADVIRC mutations and their affinity for ASF/SF2 suggests that the region encompassing these mutations may form part of a CERES (composite exonic regulatory elements of splicing) site.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Medical Genetics
  • S Sivaprasad · A T Moore
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    ABSTRACT: Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a rare but important cause of visual impairment in children. There have been considerable recent advances in our understanding of both the pathogenesis and the management of this sight-threatening complication. New treatment modalities for these neovascular lesions make early recognition very important for timely management and preservation of vision. This review highlights the causes and current management options available for this condition in children.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · The British journal of ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: To screen for mutations of connexin50 (Cx50)/GJA8 in a panel of patients with inherited cataract and to determine the cellular and functional consequences of the identified mutation. All patients in the study underwent a full clinical examination and leucocyte DNA was extracted from venous blood. The GJA8 gene was sequenced directly. Connexin function and cellular trafficking were examined by expression in Xenopus oocytes and HeLa cells. Screening of the GJA8 gene identified a 139 G to A transition that resulted in the replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine (D47N) in the coding region of Cx50. This change co-segregated with cataract among affected members of a family with autosomal dominant nuclear pulverulent cataracts. While pairs of Xenopus oocytes injected with wild type Cx50 RNA formed functional gap junction channels, pairs of oocytes injected with Cx50D47N showed no detectable intercellular conductance. Co-expression of Cx50D47N did not inhibit gap junctional conductance of wild type Cx50. In transiently transfected HeLa cells, wild type Cx50 localised to appositional membranes and within the perinuclear region, but Cx50D47N showed no immunostaining at appositional membranes with immunoreactivity confined to the cytoplasm. Incubation of HeLa cells transfected with Cx50D47N at 27 degrees C resulted in formation of gap junctional plaques. The pulverulent cataracts present in members of this family are associated with a novel GJA8 mutation, Cx50D47N, that acts as a loss-of-function mutation. The consequent decrease in lens intercellular communication and changes associated with intracellular retention of the mutant connexin may contribute to cataract formation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish the functional significance of annular macular abnormalities present on fundus autofluorescence imaging (AF) in patients with cone or cone-rod dystrophy. Fundus AF was performed on ten subjects (age range 18-82 years) with cone or cone-rod dystrophy consequent upon RPGR or RIMS1 mutation. International-standard full-field and pattern electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in all cases. Photopic and scotopic fine matrix mapping (FMM) and multifocal ERG were performed on selected cases. Subjects had annuli of high density AF that bordered central areas of low density in older RPGR cases and most RIMS1 cases. The size of the AF ring correlated with age and enlarged with time in two subjects. High-density rings were associated with a gradient of scotopic and photopic sensitivity loss. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) P50 amplitude, when detectable, was inversely related to the size of the AF ring. Multifocal ERGs in two subjects showed widespread reduction with relative sparing over the foveal area, in keeping with FMM data. Some patients with cone-rod dystrophy have a parafoveal ring of increased autofluorescence that may enlarge with time. Increased autofluorescence is associated with reduced rod and cone sensitivity, rather than photoreceptor cell death, and AF imaging may help identify viable areas of retina amenable to future therapeutic intervention.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · The British journal of ophthalmology
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    E O'Connor · L E Allen · K Bradshaw · J Boylan · A T Moore · D Trump

    Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: Without Abstract
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · Documenta Ophthalmologica
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that sun exposure may be a risk factor for age related macular degeneration (AMD) and that skin sensitivity to sunlight and iris colour could be confounding factors. The aim was to investigate this further in the white population. 446 cases with end stage AMD were compared with 283 spouse controls. Data on sun exposure, places of residence, iris colour, subjective assessment of change in iris colour, hair colour at age 20, and skin sensitivity were obtained using a questionnaire. Iris colour was graded clinically by comparison with standard photographs. AMD was graded using stereoscopic colour fundus photographs as well as clinical examination and was defined as the presence of geographic atrophy or choroidal neovascularisation. All variables were included in a multiple logistic regression model including age, sex, and smoking. There was no association between AMD and sun exposure or related factors except for the suggestion of an association between sunburn prone skin type and geographic atrophy which reached borderline significance. No significant association between AMD and sun exposure, iris colour, change in iris colour, or hair colour was demonstrated.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that smoking is a risk factor for age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, not all studies have demonstrated this association and several key questions about the role of smoking in AMD have still to be determined. The aim of this study was to further investigate this relation for both choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and geographic atrophy (GA). To investigate the relation between smoking and the risk of developing age related macular degeneration (AMD) in white people, 435 cases with end stage AMD were compared with 280 controls. All subjects had graded stereoscopic colour fundus photography and AMD was defined as the presence of GA or CNV. Smoking history was assessed using multiple parameters in a detailed questionnaire. Comparison of current and former smokers with non-smokers was consistent with smoking being a risk factor for AMD but did not reach statistical significance. There was a strong association between AMD and pack years of cigarette smoking (p = 0.002), the odds ratio increasing with the amount smoked; for subjects with more than 40 pack years of smoking the odds ratio was 2.75 (95% CI 1.22 to 6.20) compared with non-smokers. Both types of AMD showed a similar relation; smoking more than 40 pack years of cigarettes was associated with an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI 1.28 to 9.20) for GA and 2.49 (95% CI 1.06 to 5.82) for CNV. Stopping smoking was associated with reduced odds of AMD and the risk in those who had not smoked for over 20 years was comparable to non-smokers. The risk profile was similar for males and females. Passive smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of AMD (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.40) in non-smokers. The authors have demonstrated a strong association between the risk of both GA and CNV and pack years of cigarette smoking. This provides support for a causal relation between smoking and AMD. They also show an increased risk for AMD in non-smokers exposed to passive smoking. Stopping smoking appears to reduce the risk of developing AMD.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · British Journal of Ophthalmology

Publication Stats

4k Citations
433.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1995-2015
    • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Medical Retina
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997-2008
    • University College London
      • Institute of Ophthalmology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992-2005
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Pathology
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998-2003
    • Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • London College of Clinical Hypnosis
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom