Publications (3)19.53 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muir-Torre syndrome is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder predisposing to both sebaceous skin tumors and internal neoplasms. In a significant proportion of Muir-Torre syndrome patients skin tumors exhibit microsatellite instability as a hallmark of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Most individuals predisposed to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer harbor a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair genes MSH2 or MLH1. In Muir-Torre syndrome the vast majority of germline mutations have been identified in MSH2. Microsatellite instability in tumor tissue develops after somatic inactivation of the corresponding second mismatch repair allele ("second hit"). So far, the mechanisms of somatic inactivation of the second allele in microsatellite instability positive tumors from patients with known mismatch repair germline mutations are not well understood. We examined whether allele loss (loss of heterozygosity) is a frequent mechanism for inactivation of the second MSH2 allele in a sample of nine microsatellite instability positive skin tumors from eight unrelated Muir-Torre patients with known MSH2 germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity was determined using microsatellite markers or heteroduplex analysis, respectively. Only one of the nine skin tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity at the MSH2 locus. Thus, we could show in a sample of sebaceous tumors from patients with genetically proven Muir-Torre syndrome that loss of heterozygosity most probably is not the preferred mode of somatic inactivation of the second MSH2 allele.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic sebaceous tumors (CST) are well-circumscribed, large, deeply located dermal sebaceous proliferations with a cystic growth pattern. We identified 12 CST in 8 of 19 patients with Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). We interpret CST as a tumor spectrum with clearly benign cystic sebaceous adenomas at one end and proliferative atypical cystic sebaceous tumors at the other. When examining these proliferative atypical tumors on morphologic criteria alone, the possibility of an evolving cystic sebaceous carcinoma cannot be excluded. We have not observed recurrences or metastases, indicating that these lesions are not highly malignant carcinomas. In 10 of 12 cases of CST, we examined microsatellite instability (MSI). All 10 examined examples of CST from patients with MTS showed MSI characteristic for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which is caused by autosomal dominant inherited DNA mismatch repair (MMR) defects. Mutational analysis of the MMR genes hMSH2 and hMLH1 had revealed different germline mutations in the hMSH2 gene in three of six examined patients with MTS with CST. We then found four more CST in patients without a history of internal malignancy. All four CST exhibited MSI. By mutational analysis in one of these patients we identified a truncating germline mutation in the MMR gene hMLH1. We conclude that CST is a marker for the mismatch repair-deficient subtype of MTS with a high risk for later internal malignancies. By recognizing CST, the histopathologist can suggest the great likelihood of MTS to the clinician.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant disease defined by the coincidence of at least one sebaceous skin tumor and one internal malignancy. About half of MTS patients are affected by colorectal cancer. In a subgroup of MTS patients the disease has an underlying DNA mismatch-repair (MMR) defect and thus is allelic to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent germ-line mutations in DNA MMR genes are the underlying cause of the MTS phenotype. We ascertained 16 MTS patients with sebaceous skin tumors and colorectal cancer, and we examined their skin and visceral tumors for microsatellite instability. All the patients exhibited high genomic instability in at least one tumor. The search for germ-line mutations in the hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes in 13 of the MTS patients revealed truncating mutations in 9 (69%): eight mutations in the hMSH2 gene and one in the hMLH1 gene. This is the first systematic search for germ-line mutations in patients ascertained on the basis of sebaceous skin tumors. Our results indicate that (1) MTS patients exhibit significantly more mutations in the hMSH2 gene than in the hMLH1 gene; and (2) the subpopulation of MTS patients who are also affected by colorectal cancer, irrespective of family history and age at onset of tumors, may have a likelihood for an underlying DNA MMR defect similar to that for patients with a family history fulfilling the strict clinical criteria for HNPCC.
University of Bonn
Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Institute of Human Genetics