Lawren H. Daltroy

Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (67)353.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Response shift (RS) refers to a change in the meaning of one's self-evaluation of a target construct as a result of a change in the respondent's internal standards of measurement; a change in the respondent's values; or a redefinition of the target construct. To explore the influence of social, psychological, and medical factors on self-report of function, the authors compared a measure of function based on observed performance, the Physical Capacity Evaluation (PCE; Daltroy et al., 1995), with a self-reported measure of difficulty in performing instrumental activities of daily living, the Functional Disability Index score of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (J. F. Fries et al., 1980). 289 Ss (aged 65–97 yrs) were assessed. The goals were to develop and validate the measure of observed physical ability (the PCE) and to test the extent to which variables in addition to observed function would predict self-reported disability. The data also allowed several tests of the response shift phenomenon. Data were consistent with RS predictions that people recalibrate their self-assessments of functional ability based on recent health problems. Results suggest that for participants who have not experienced recent decline, provision of an external reference point may counteract RS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate a theory-based educational program to prevent Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses (TBI), a randomized controlled trial of an educational program was delivered to ferry passengers traveling to an endemic area in southeastern Massachusetts. Rates of TBI and precautionary and tick check behaviors were measured over three summers in 30,164 passengers. There were lower rates of TBI among participants receiving TBI education compared with control participants receiving bicycle safety education (relative risk [RR] = 0.79) and a 60% reduction in risk among those receiving TBI education who visited Nantucket Island for more than 2 weeks compared to control participants (RR = 0.41, 95% confidence intervals = 0.18 to 0.95, p < .038). TBI-educated participants were also significantly more likely to take precautions (use repellent, protective clothing, limit time in tick areas) and check themselves for ticks. The study demonstrates that a theory-based Lyme disease prevention program can increase precautionary behavior and result in a significant reduction in TBI.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Health Education & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme disease (borreliosis) incidence continues to increase despite a growing knowledge of primary and secondary prevention strategies. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of tick exposure and thereby decrease the incidence of new Lyme disease cases. Secondary prevention targets the development of disease or reduces disease severity among people who have been bitten by infected ticks. Numerous prevention strategies are available, and although they vary in cost, acceptability and effectiveness, uptake has been universally poor. Research in areas where Lyme disease is endemic has demonstrated that despite adequate knowledge about its symptoms and transmission, many people do not perform behaviors to reduce their risk of infection. New prevention strategies should aim to increase people's confidence in their ability to carry out preventive behaviors, raise awareness of desirable outcomes, and aid in the realization that the necessary skills and resources are available for preventive measures to be taken. In this article we evaluate the prevention and treatment strategies for Lyme disease, and discuss how these strategies can be implemented effectively. As many patients with Lyme disease develop arthritis and are referred to rheumatologists it is important that these health-care providers can educate patients about disease-prevention strategies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology
  • Kimberly A Kaphingst · Rima E Rudd · William Dejong · Lawren H Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertisements present a number of facts about prescription drug risks and benefits in a brief time. This study assessed comprehension of information in three advertisements among 50 adults with limited literacy. Participants correctly answered an average of 59% of comprehension questions. The percentage of respondents correctly answering individual comprehension questions ranged from 26% to 92%. A multivariate analysis suggested that type of information (risk vs. other) and channel (text vs. audio) predicted comprehension. There was a significant interaction effect for literacy and place of birth. Our results suggest key areas for future research on comprehension of DTC advertising.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Health Communication
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    Kimberly A Kaphingst · Rima E Rudd · William DeJong · Lawren H Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows television direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements that do not fully disclose drug risks if the ads include "adequate provision" for dissemination of the drug's approved labeling. This requirement can be met in part by referring consumers to multiple text sources of product labeling. This study was designed to assess the materials to which consumers were referred in 23 DTC television advertisements. SMOG assessments showed that the average reading grade levels were in the high school range for the main body sections of the materials and college-level range for the brief summary sections. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument identified specific difficulties with the materials, including content, graphics, layout, and typography features. Stronger plain language requirements are recommended. Health care providers should be aware that patients who ask about an advertised drug might not have the full information required to make an informed decision.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Patient Education and Counseling
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    Kimberly A Kaphingst · William DeJong · Rima E Rudd · Lawren H Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports the results of a content analysis of 23 direct-to-consumer (DTC) product-specific television prescription drug advertisements broadcast during 2001. A majority of ads used both medical and lay terms to convey medical ideas. Most gave consumers somewhat more time to absorb facts about benefits than those about risks, which could have implications for the "fair balance" requirement. Complete references to additional product information were given only in text, casting doubt on whether these ads are making"adequate provision"for dissemination of detailed product information. Overall, our results call into question the potential of these ads to educate consumers.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · Journal of Health Communication
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    ABSTRACT: The Community Asthma Program was designed to increase awareness of asthma among urban residents and to bring more people into available care. Educational sessions with patients indicated that many adults struggle with the complicated demands of managing a chronic disease. At the same time, however, a good deal of the written materials meant to provide information and assistance instead make inappropriate demands on the average adult reader. The project team members developed a glossary of asthma terms to improve communication between patients and providers and to help patients understand the materials commonly used in neighborhood health centers. We report on the development of the glossary and describe formative research activities, initial dissemination efforts, and an interim evaluation. Health literacy, included in the goals and objectives for Healthy People 2010, can be improved when health materials are written in plain language and designed for the existing skills of the average U.S. adult reader.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Health Promotion Practice
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    ABSTRACT: When factors that influence exercise behavior are known, health care professionals can more likely design and modify patient education materials targeted to promote exercise behavior. This study aimed to identify predictors of exercise behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 6 months after a visit with their rheumatologist. Twenty-five rheumatologists and 132 patients with rheumatoid arthritis participated. One hundred thirteen patients (85.6%) completed the 6-month follow-up. Rheumatologists and patients completed baseline questionnaires and were audiotaped during a subsequent visit. Physical function and exercise behavior were ascertained via questionnaire 6 months following the visit. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of exercise behavior at 6 months. Eighty-nine patients (79%) were female. The average age was 54.8 years (SD=14.4, range=20-94). The mean duration of illness was 9.8 years (SD=8.7, range= <1-35). Patients were moderately impaired (mean Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36] function score=49.3, SD=27.5). Thirty-four patients (27%) were exercising 6 months after visiting their rheumatologist. More than 50% of the rheumatologists had 5 or more years of clinical experience, 18 (72%) were male, and 10 (42%) reported they exercised regularly. Predictors of exercise behavior at 6 months were patients' past history of exercise (odds ratio=6.8, 95% confidence interval=3.1-15) and rheumatologists' current exercise behavior (odds ratio=0.26, 95% confidence interval=0.09-0.77). Patients were nearly 7 times more likely to exercise 6 months after visiting their rheumatologist if they participated in exercise in the past. If a patient's rheumatologist was currently performing aerobic exercise, the patient was 26% more likely to be engaged in exercise at follow-up. These data may be useful in understanding patient motivation to participate in exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Physical Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: In a cross-sectional study, we previously identified 2 potentially modifiable risk factors for adverse outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): self-efficacy and social support. The goal of this study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial a theory-based intervention to improve patient self-efficacy and partner support to manage SLE. Patients with SLE ages 18 years and older who met the American College of Rheumatology criteria and were able to identify a partner (spouse or family member) were recruited from 2 academic medical centers and randomized into an experimental group or a control group. Patients in the experimental group and their partners received an intervention designed to enhance self-efficacy, couples communication about lupus, social support, and problem solving, in the form of a 1-hour session with a nurse educator followed by monthly telephone counseling for 6 months. Patients in the control group and their partners received an attention placebo, including a 45-minute video presentation about lupus, and monthly telephone calls. Measures of physical and mental health status, disease activity, and psychosocial factors were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The effect of the intervention on physical and mental health and disease activity at 6 and at 12 months was modeled with linear regression and adjusted for baseline health status, disease activity, sociodemographic factors, treatment change, and psychosocial factors. One hundred twenty-two patients (plus their partners) were enrolled and randomized as follows: 64 to the experimental intervention and 58 to the attention control group. The participants were predominantly white, approximately half were college educated, and the groups were balanced for sociodemographic factors. At 6 months, significantly higher scores for couples communication (P = 0.01) and problem-focused coping (P = 0.03) were seen in the experimental group compared with the control group. At 12 months (6 months after the intervention ended), social support was higher (4.4 versus 4.1; P = 0.03), self-efficacy was higher (7.2 versus 6.2; P = 0.02), couples communication was higher (3.5 versus 3.1; P = 0.03), and fatigue was lower (5.1 versus 6.3; P = 0.02) in the experimental group compared with the control group. Global mental health status at 12 months, as measured by the Short Form 36 survey, was 69 points in the experimental group compared with 58 points in the control group (P = 0.04). In multivariate models, adjusting for baseline covariates, scores for couple communication (P = 0.01) were significantly higher at 6 months, and scores for self-efficacy (P = 0.004) and global mental health status (P = 0.03) were significantly higher at 12 months in the experimental group compared with the control group, and the mean score for global physical function was higher by 7 points, which was a clinically meaningful change (P = 0.2). The mean score for fatigue was also significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P = 0.05). SLE disease activity was unchanged by this intervention. This randomized, controlled trial of a theory-based educational intervention in SLE demonstrated significantly higher scores for couple communication, self-efficacy, and mental health status, and lower fatigue scores in the experimental group compared with the control group. Because couple communication and self-efficacy appear to be modifiable risk factors, they may also be potential targets in more disadvantaged populations.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) has developed an array of outcomes assessment instruments designed for the efficient collection of outcomes data from patients of all ages with musculoskeletal conditions in all body regions. The Lower Limb Instruments were developed through a process of literature review, consensus-building, and field-testing. The instruments were distributed to a total of 290 subjects in twenty orthopaedic practices throughout the United States and Canada. Of the 290 patients, seventy each had a diagnosis in the categories of foot and ankle, sports/knee, and hip and knee and forty each had a diagnosis in the categories of trauma and rehabilitation. Retests to be taken twenty-four hours after the first test were distributed to subsamples of patients for each instrument. Seventy-one one-year follow-up questionnaires (twenty-five Sports/Knee, twenty-five Foot and Ankle, sixteen Hip and Knee, and five Lower Limb Core instruments) were returned. The Lower Limb Core Scale and the Hip and Knee Core Scale, each consisting of seven items addressing pain, stiffness and swelling, and function, performed at an acceptable level. Additional Sports/Knee and Foot and Ankle Modules proved to have internal and retest reliability of 0.80 or better, comparable with the values for well-established measures such as the Short Form-36 (SF-36). All of the new scales were moderately to strongly correlated with other measures of pain and function, such as physician ratings, the SF-36, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Seventy-one patients provided follow-up information for the analysis of sensitivity to change. The Lower Limb Core was found to contribute independently to the prediction of the transition score based on the patient and physician assessments of change. The AAOS Lower Limb Instruments for outcomes assessment are highly reliable and are correlated with other measures for similar constructs. They are also sensitive to change in patient status. The Lower Limb Core Scale may be used with attribution of pain either to the lower limb or to a specific joint or side without sacrificing reliability. Combined with the SF-36, the AAOS outcomes assessment instruments comprehensively and efficiently measure outcomes in orthopaedic patients with lower-limb conditions.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
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    Maura D Iversen · Holley M Eaton · Lawren H Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: To describe how patients and their rheumatologists discuss exercise, and to identify predictors of exercise prescriptions. Twenty-five rheumatologists and 132 patients with rheumatoid arthritis completed questionnaires and were audiotaped during a subsequent clinic visit. Chi-square and t-tests assessed associations between variables. Principal components analysis identified patterns of talk about exercise. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of an exercise prescription. Seventy of the 132 patients (53%) discussed exercise. Of these, 18 (26%) received an exercise prescription. Principal components analysis identified 3 patterns of talk about exercise. Aerobic exercise discussions contained more information about drawbacks, side effects, pain, and bargaining than did discussions about general exercises, and referral to physical therapy for exercise. Significant predictors of a prescription included rheumatologist-initiated discussion about exercise (odds ratio [OR] 4.6; P = 0.03); talk about exercise in improving function, exercise instructions, opinions about the usefulness of exercise (OR 3.1; P = 0.01); and discussions about non-exercise treatments (OR 1.6; P = 0.01). Exercise and referral to physical therapy for exercise are discussed differently and are 4 times more likely to occur when the rheumatologist initiates the discussion. These discussions strongly impact on the likelihood a patient receives an exercise prescription.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to develop an economical way of tracking disease activity for large groups of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in clinical studies. A Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) was developed to screen for possible disease activity using items from the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and tested for its measurement properties. The SLAQ was completed by 93 SLE patients just prior to a scheduled visit. At the visit, a rheumatologist, blinded to SLAQ results, examined the subject and completed a SLAM. Associations among SLAQ, and SLAM (omitting laboratory items) and between individual items from each instrument were assessed with Pearson correlations. Correlations between pairs of instruments were compared using Student's t-tests. The mean score across all 24 SLAQ items was 11.5 (range 0-33); mean SLAM without labs was 3.0 (range 0-13). The SLAQ had a moderately high correlation with SLAM-nolab (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). Correlations between patient-clinician matched pairs of items ranged from r = 0.06 to 0.71. Positive predictive values for the SLAQ ranged from 56 to 89% for detecting clinically significant disease activity. In studies of SLE, symptoms suggesting disease can be screened by self-report using the SLAQ and then verified by further evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Lupus
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and health related quality of life plus satisfaction 6 months after surgery. Methods. This prospective cohort study included patients undergoing primary total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients were evaluated with self-report questionnaires prior to surgery and 6 months post-surgery. Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and a satisfaction scale were used to evaluate outcomes at final followup. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the impact of expectations on outcomes. There were 102 patients with THA and 89 with TKA. Mean age was 66 years. All patients achieved significant improvements in their WOMAC and SF-36 scores following surgery. Patient expectations regarding surgery were not associated with their age, gender, index joint of surgery, marital status, or race. Expectations were not correlated with pre-operative functional health status. Expectation of complete pain relief after surgery was an independent predictor of better physical function and improvement in level of pain at 6 months post-surgery. Expectation of low risk of complications from TJA was an independent predictor of greater satisfaction. Patient expectations were important independent predictors of improved functional outcomes and satisfaction following TJA. Greater understanding of the relationship between expectations and outcomes may improve the process of care and outcomes of TJA.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · The Journal of Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: The measurement of the patient's experience with a condition or an illness is an important and quantifiable outcome and an example of action research. By making these concerns paramount, the goals and processes of health care can be redirected from anatomical and physiologic restoration to patient-oriented outcomes. At the same time, research can illuminate the complex mechanisms responsible. Critical, analytic synthesis and review of the research evaluating the ability of self-administered questionnaires to capture clinically meaningful changes. Responsiveness is differentiated from sensitivity, and statistical methods for evaluating sensitivity of instruments are referenced. Techniques for evaluating whether differences in instrument sensitivity could have occurred by chance are presented, and methods for assessing a clinically meaningful change are discussed. Responsiveness is the key psychometric property of an instrument if it is to be incorporated into daily practice. Improving responsiveness is a major research priority.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Medical Care
  • S C Bae · H Hashimoto · E W Karlson · M H Liang · L H Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: Health status and disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other chronic diseases are strongly associated with social support, which suggests that enhanced social support in medical care might improve SLE outcome. There has been little or no study on identifying patients for whom social support would be most beneficial. It would allow practitioners to enable social support more effectively as a complement to disease management. A retrospective cohort (200 patients with SLE from 5 centers), balanced by race and insurance status, was studied in a cross sectional design. Demographic, clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors and disease outcomes [Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR), SF-36] were measured. Using multivariate linear regression and ANOVA (outcome = SF-36 physical function, mental health), we examined the interaction between social support and patients' characteristics, including race, age, income, occupation, insurance, employment, education, and social network, and characteristics of the disease itself such as disease activity (SLAM) at diagnosis, damage (SLICC/ACR) at diagnosis, and comorbidity. In multivariate models, higher social support was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with better physical function when respondents were white, had income above poverty level, had Medicare or private insurance (vs Medicaid or no insurance), and had low disease activity at diagnosis. Social support was associated with better mental health, although there was no significant interaction between social support and other predictors of mental health. The data suggest that social support is beneficial for mental health for all groups, but has the greatest opportunity for influence among those already possessing social, economic, and health advantages.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · The Journal of Rheumatology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a standardized, practical, self-administered questionnaire to monitor pediatric patients with burns and to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive pediatric burn management treatments, a group of experts generated a set of items to measure relevant burn outcomes. Children between the ages of 5 and 18 years were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Both parent and adolescent responses were obtained from children 11 to 18 years old. The internal reliability of final scales ranged from 0.82 to 0.93 among parents and from 0.75 to 0.92 among adolescents. Mean differences between parent and adolescent were small; the greatest difference occurred in the appearance subscale. Parental scales showed evidence of validity and potential for sensitivity to change. In an effort to support the construct validity of the new scales, they were compared with the Child Health Questionnaire and related to each other in clinically sensible ways. These burn outcomes scales reliably and validly assess function in patients with burns, and the scales have been developed in such a way that they are likely to be sensitive to change over time.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: : To develop a standardized, practical, self-administered questionnaire to monitor pediatric patients with burns and to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive pediatric burn management treatments, a group of experts generated a set of items to measure relevant burn outcomes. Children between the ages of 5 and 18 years were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Both parent and adolescent responses were obtained from children 11 to 18 years old. The internal reliability of final scales ranged from 0.82 to 0.93 among parents and from 0.75 to 0.92 among adolescents. Mean differences between parent and adolescent were small; the greatest difference occurred in the appearance subscale. Parental scales showed evidence of validity and potential for sensitivity to change. In an effort to support the construct validity of the new scales, they were compared with the Child Health Questionnaire and related to each other in clinically sensible ways. These burn outcomes scales reliably and validly assess function in patients with burns, and the scales have been developed in such a way that they are likely to be sensitive to change over time. (J Burn Care Rehabil 2000;21:29-39) (C)2000The American Burn Association
    No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association
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    M D Iversen · A H Fossel · L H Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the features and role of exercise discussions between rheumatologists and patients. The goals of this study were to: 1) describe rheumatologists' and patients' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise and physical therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 2) describe frequency and length of exercise discussions; 3) determine the accuracy of recall for exercise discussions; and 4) assess the influence of attitudes regarding exercise on communication about exercise. Goals 1-3 were addressed with analysis of baseline questionnaires and audiotaped encounters. The influence of attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise on the frequency and length of exercise discussions was assessed prospectively. Patients and rheumatologists were enrolled from a large tertiary care institution. Clinical encounters were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and analyzed to identify specific characteristics of the exercise discussions. One hundred thirty-two patients and 25 rheumatologists participated in the study. Rheumatologists and patients discussed exercise in 53% of the encounters. Rheumatologists' beliefs regarding the usefulness of exercise for RA varied, with the least positive beliefs being reported for aerobic exercise. Exercise discussions were more likely to occur if the patient was currently exercising, odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.2-4.9), and when the rheumatologist believed aerobic exercises were useful in managing RA, OR = 1.4; 95% CI (1.1-1.9). Current exercise behavior was associated with patients' positive attitude toward exercise (chi 2 1 = 8.4; P = 0.004) and perceived social support for exercise (chi 2 1 = 4.5; P = 0.04). When rheumatologists initiated exercise discussions, there was nearly twice as much discussion (beta = -8.4; P = 0.001). Exercise talk was influenced by patients' and rheumatologists' beliefs and attitudes regarding the effectiveness of exercise and physical therapy in managing RA, patient experience with exercise, and by characteristics of the rheumatologist.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 1999 · Arthritis care and research: the official journal of the Arthritis Health Professions Association
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    Maura Daly Iversen · Anne Holly Fossel · Lawren Hugh Daltroy
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Little is known about the features and role of exercise discussions between rheumatologists and patients. The goals of this study were to: 1) describe rheumatologists' and patients' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise and physical therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 2) describe frequency and length of exercise discussions; 3) determine the accuracy of recall for exercise discussions; and 4) assess the influence of attitudes regarding exercise on communication about exercise. Methods. Goals 1–3 were addressed with analysis of baseline questionnaires and audiotaped encoun-ters. The influence of attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise on the frequency and length of exercise discussions was assessed prospectively. Patients and rheumatologists were enrolled from a large tertiary care institution. Clinical encounters were audio-taped, transcribed, coded, and analyzed to identify specific characteristics of the exercise discussions. Results. One hundred thirty-two patients and 25 rheumatologists participated in the study. Rheuma-tologists and patients discussed exercise in 53% of the encounters. Rheumatologists' beliefs regarding the usefulness of exercise for RA varied, with the least positive beliefs being reported for aerobic exer-cise. Exercise discussions were more likely to occur if the patient was currently exercising, odds ratio (OR) 5 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.2– 4.9), and when the rheumatologist believed aerobic exercises were useful in managing RA, OR 5 1.4; 95% CI (1.1–1.9). Current exercise behavior was associated with patients' positive attitude toward exercise (x
    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 1999

Publication Stats

5k Citations
353.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998-2004
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1988-2004
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1988-2003
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1997
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States