Daniel E Speiser

University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (275)1646.11 Total impact

  • C. Robert-Tissot · D. E. Speiser
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-presentation of tumor antigens represents a key pathway in antitumor immune responses that can be exploited to synergize not only with the already prominent “checkpoint blockade,” but also with newer attempts to use T-cell stimulatory monoclonal antibodies in immunotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer Discovery
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous CD8 T-cell responses occur in growing tumors but are usually poorly effective. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive these responses is of major interest as they could be exploited to generate a more efficacious antitumor immunity. As such, stimulator of IFN genes (STING), an adaptor molecule involved in cytosolic DNA sensing, is required for the induction of antitumor CD8 T responses in mouse models of cancer. Here, we find that enforced activation of STING by intratumoral injection of cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP (cGAMP), potently enhanced antitumor CD8 T responses leading to growth control of injected and contralateral tumors in mouse models of melanoma and colon cancer. The ability of cGAMP to trigger antitumor immunity was further enhanced by the blockade of both PD1 and CTLA4. The STING-dependent antitumor immunity, either induced spontaneously in growing tumors or induced by intratumoral cGAMP injection was dependent on type I IFNs produced in the tumor microenvironment. In response to cGAMP injection, both in the mouse melanoma model and an ex vivo model of cultured human melanoma explants, the principal source of type I IFN was not dendritic cells, but instead endothelial cells. Similarly, endothelial cells but not dendritic cells were found to be the principal source of spontaneously induced type I IFNs in growing tumors. These data identify an unexpected role of the tumor vasculature in the initiation of CD8 T-cell antitumor immunity and demonstrate that tumor endothelial cells can be targeted for immunotherapy of melanoma.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T cells recognize, via their T cell receptors (TCRs), small antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells and infected or malignant cells. The efficiency of T cell triggering critically depends on TCR binding to cognate pMHC, i.e., the TCR–pMHC structural avidity. The binding and kinetic attributes of this interaction are key parameters for protective T cell-mediated immunity, with stronger TCR–pMHC interactions conferring superior T cell activation and responsiveness than weaker ones. However, high-avidity TCRs are not always available, particularly among self/tumor antigen-specific T cells, most of which are eliminated by central and peripheral deletion mechanisms. Consequently, systematic assessment of T cell avidity can greatly help distinguishing protective from non-protective T cells. Here, we review novel strategies to assess TCR–pMHC interaction kinetics, enabling the identification of the functionally most-relevant T cells. We also discuss the significance of these technologies in determining which cells within a naturally occurring polyclonal tumor-specific T cell response would offer the best clinical benefit for use in adoptive therapies, with or without T cell engineering.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
  • N. Wald · N. Bordry · P.G. Foukas · D.E. Speiser · E. Goormaghtigh
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    ABSTRACT: While early stages of melanoma are usually cured by surgery, metastatic melanomas are difficult to treat because the widely available options have low response rates. Careful and precise diagnosis and staging are essential to determine patient's risk and to select appropriate treatments. Fortunately, the recent progress in immunotherapy is very encouraging. In this context, it is important to characterize the intratumoral infiltration of immune cells in each patient, which is however not done routinely due to the lack of standardized methods. In this study, we used Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) imaging combined with multivariate statistical analyses to investigate non-metastatic and metastatic lymph nodes from melanoma patients. Our results show that the different cell types have different infrared spectral features allowing automated identification of these cell types. High recognition rates were obtained using a supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model. Melanoma cells were recognized with 87.1% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity, showing that FTIR spectroscopy has similar detection power as immunohistochemistry. Besides, FTIR imaging could also distinguish lymphocyte subpopulations (B and T cells). Finally, we investigated the changes in lymphocytes due to the presence of metastases. Interestingly, specific features of spectra of lymphocytes present in metastatic or tumor-free lymph nodes could be evidenced by PCA. A PLS-DA model was capable of predicting whether lymphocytes originated from invaded or non-invaded lymph nodes. These data demonstrate that FITR imaging is capable to distinguish known and also novel biological features in human tissues, with potential practical relevance for histopathological diagnosis and biomarker assessment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cancer vaccines aim to generate and maintain anti-tumor immune responses. We designed a phase I/IIa clinical trial to test a vaccine formulation composed of Montanide ISA-51 (Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant), LAG-3Ig (IMP321, a non-Toll like Receptor agonist with adjuvant properties) and five synthetic peptides derived from tumor-associated antigens (four short 9/10-mers targeting CD8 T-cells, and one longer 15-mer targeting CD4 T-cells). Primary endpoints were safety and T-cell responses. Experimental design: Sixteen metastatic melanoma patients received serial vaccinations. Up to 9 injections were subcutaneously administered in 3 cycles, each with 3 vaccinations every 3 weeks, with 6-14 weeks interval between cycles. Blood samples were collected at baseline, one week after the 3rd, 6th and 9th vaccination, and 6 months after the last vaccination. Circulating T-cells were monitored by tetramer staining directly ex vivo, and by combinatorial tetramer and cytokine staining on in vitro stimulated cells. Results: Side effects were mild to moderate, comparable to vaccines with Montanide alone. Specific CD8 T-cell responses to at least one peptide formulated in the vaccine preparation were found in 13 of 16 patients. However, two of the four short peptides of the vaccine formulation did not elicit CD8 T-cell responses. Specific CD4 T-cell responses were found in all 16 patients. Conclusions: We conclude that vaccination with IMP321 is a promising and safe strategy for inducing sustained immune responses, encouraging further development for cancer vaccines as components of combination therapies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
  • Noémie Wald · Daniel E. Speiser · Pu Yan · Erik Goormaghtigh

    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository with accession number GSE65804.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Genomics Data

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: T cells infiltrating neoplasms express surface molecules typical of chronically virus-stimulated T cells, often termed "exhausted" T cells. We compared the transcriptome of "exhausted" CD8 T cells infiltrating autochthonous melanomas to those of naïve and acutely stimulated CD8 T cells. Despite strong similarities between transcriptional signatures of tumor- and virus-induced exhausted CD8 T cells, notable differences appeared. Among transcriptional regulators, Nr4a2 and Maf were highly overexpressed in tumor-exhausted T cells and significantly upregulated in CD8 T cells from human melanoma metastases. Transduction of murine tumor-specific CD8 T cells to express Maf partially reproduced the transcriptional program associated with tumor-induced exhaustion. Upon adoptive transfer, the transduced cells showed normal homeostasis but failed to accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and developed defective anti-tumor effector responses. We further identified TGFβ and IL-6 as main inducers of Maf expression in CD8 T cells and showed that Maf-deleted tumor-specific CD8 T cells were much more potent to restrain tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, the melanoma microenvironment contributes to skewing of CD8 T cell differentiation programs, in part by TGFβ/IL-6-mediated induction of Maf. © 2015 The Authors.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The EMBO Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The immune system has the potential to protect from malignant diseases for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, spontaneous immune responses are often inefficient. Significant effort is required to develop reliable, broadly applicable immunotherapies for cancer patients. A major innovation was transplantation with hematopoietic stem cells from genetically distinct donors for patients with hematologic malignancies. In this setting, donor T cells induce long-term remission by keeping cancer cells in check through powerful allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia effects. More recently, a long awaited breakthrough for patients with solid tissue cancers was achieved, by means of therapeutic blockade of T cell inhibitory receptors. In untreated cancer patients, T cells are dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell "exhaustion". Nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, indicating that many T cells are not entirely and irreversibly exhausted but can be mobilized to become highly functional. Novel antibody therapies that block inhibitory receptors can lead to strong activation of anti-tumor T cells, mediating clinically significant anti-cancer immunity for many years. Here we review these new treatments and the current knowledge on tumor antigen-specific T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitory receptors (iRs) are frequently associated with “T cell exhaustion”. However, the expression of iRs is also dependent on T cell differentiation and activation. Therapeutic blockade of various iRs, also referred to as "checkpoint blockade", is showing unprecendented results in the treatment of cancer patients. Consequently, the clinical potential in this field is broad, calling for increased research efforts and rapid refinements in the understanding of iR function. In this review we provide an overview on the significance of iR expression for the interpretation of T cell functionality. We summarize how iRs have been strongly associated with "T cell exhaustion" and illustrate the parallel evidence on the importance of T cell differentiation and activation for the expression of iRs. The differentiation subsets of CD8 T cells (naïve, effector and memory cells) show broad and inherent differences in iR expression, while activation leads to strong upregulation of iRs. Therefore, changes in iR expression during an immune response are often concomitant with T cell differentiation and activation. Sustained expression of iRs in chronic infection and in the tumor microenvironment likely reflects a specialized T cell differentiation. In these situations of prolonged antigen exposure and chronic inflammation, T cells are “downtuned” in order to limit tissue damage. Furthermore, we review the novel “checkpoint blockade” treatments and the potential of iRs as biomarkers. Finally, we provide recommendations for the immune monitoring of patients to interpret iR expression data combined with parameters of activation and differentiation of T cells.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: In immune intervention trials, the comprehensive investigation of immunogenicity or T-cell epitope-mapping is challenging especially when a large set of epitopes needs to be screened and limited sample material is available. To this end, T-cell responses are often monitored using peptide pools. Here, we assessed the magnitude and sensitivity of detection of antigen-specific CD8 and CD4 T-cells using a single peptide alone or mixed into large pools. Interestingly the magnitude of ex-vivo anti-viral and anti-tumor T cell-responses was identical irrespective of the presence and number of irrelevant peptides, in different functional assays with PBMCs from healthy donors and cancer patients. Moreover, the presence of up to 300 irrelevant peptides did not affect the threshold of responsiveness of antigen-specific CD8 T-cells to single cognate peptides. These data demonstrate the relevance of using very large peptide pools for the sensitive and specific immune-monitoring of epitope-specific T-cells in natural or immune-modulated context.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · OncoImmunology
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental models demonstrated that therapeutic induction of CD8 T cell responses may offer protection against tumors or infectious diseases providing that T cells have sufficiently high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity for efficient Ag recognition and consequently strong immune functions. However, comprehensive characterization of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity in clinically relevant situations has remained elusive. In this study, using the novel NTA-His tag-containing multimer technology, we quantified the TCR:pMHC dissociation rates (koff) of tumor-specific vaccine-induced CD8 T cell clones (n = 139) derived from seven melanoma patients vaccinated with IFA, CpG, and the native/EAA or analog/ELA Melan-A(MART-1) 26-35 peptide, binding with low or high affinity to MHC, respectively. We observed substantial correlations between koff and Ca(2+) mobilization (p = 0.016) and target cell recognition (p < 0.0001), with the latter independently of the T cell differentiation state. Our strategy was successful in demonstrating that the type of peptide impacted on TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity, as tumor-reactive T cell clones derived from patients vaccinated with the low-affinity (native) peptide expressed slower koff rates than those derived from patients vaccinated with the high-affinity (analog) peptide (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed that the low-affinity peptide promoted the selective differentiation of tumor-specific T cells bearing TCRs with high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity (p < 0.0001). Altogether, TCR:pMHC interaction kinetics correlated strongly with T cell functions. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity assessment by NTA-His tag-containing multimers of naturally occurring polyclonal T cell responses, which represents a strong asset for the development of immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The 29th annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) was held November 7-9, 2014 in National Harbor, MD and was organized by Dr. Arthur A. Hurwitz (National Cancer Institute), Dr. Kim A. Margolin (Stanford University), Dr. Daniel E. Speiser (Ludwig Center for Cancer Research, University of Lausanne) and Dr. Walter J. Urba (Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center). This meeting included over 1,600 registered participants from 28 separate countries, making it the largest SITC meeting held to date. It highlighted significant worldwide progress in the development and application of cancer immunology to the practice of clinical oncology, including advances in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy, utilizing several immunological pathways and mechanisms for a variety of oncologic conditions. Presentations and posters demonstrated that many concepts that had been pursued preclinically in the past are now being translated into clinical practice, with clear benefits for patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancing immune responses with immune-modulatory monoclonal antibodies directed to inhibitory immune receptors is a promising modality in cancer therapy. Clinical efficacy has been demonstrated with antibodies blocking inhibitory immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) or PD-1/PD-L1. Treatment with ipilimumab, a fully human CTLA-4-specific mAb, showed durable clinical efficacy in metastatic melanoma; its mechanism of action is, however, only partially understood. This is a study of 29 patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma treated with ipilimumab. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and matched melanoma metastases from 15 patients responding and 14 not responding to ipilimumab by multicolor flow cytometry, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, and immunohistochemistry. PBMCs and matched tumor biopsies were collected 24 h before (i.e., baseline) and up to 4 wk after ipilimumab. Our findings show, to our knowledge for the first time, that ipilimumab can engage ex vivo FcγRIIIA (CD16)-expressing, nonclassical monocytes resulting in ADCC-mediated lysis of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In contrast, classical CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes are unable to do so. Moreover, we show that patients responding to ipilimumab display significantly higher baseline peripheral frequencies of nonclassical monocytes compared with nonresponder patients. In the tumor microenvironment, responders have higher CD68(+)/CD163(+) macrophage ratios at baseline and show decreased Treg infiltration after treatment. Together, our results suggest that anti-CTLA-4 therapy may target Tregs in vivo. Larger translational studies are, however, warranted to substantiate this mechanism of action of ipilimumab in patients.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient and persisting immune memory is essential for long-term protection from infectious and malignant diseases. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine is a live attenuated virus that mediates lifelong protection, with recent studies showing that the CD8(+) T cell response is particularly robust. Yet, limited data exist regarding the long-term CD8(+) T cell response, with no studies beyond 5 years after vaccination. We investigated 41 vaccinees, spanning 0.27 to 35 years after vaccination. YF-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily detected in almost all donors (38 of 41), with frequencies decreasing with time. As previously described, effector cells dominated the response early after vaccination. We detected a population of naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells that was stably maintained for more than 25 years and was capable of self-renewal ex vivo. In-depth analyses of markers and genome-wide mRNA profiling showed that naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinees (i) were distinct from genuine naïve cells in unvaccinated donors, (ii) resembled the recently described stem cell-like memory subset (Tscm), and (iii) among all differentiated subsets, had profiles closest to naïve cells. Our findings reveal that CD8(+) Tscm are efficiently induced by a vaccine in humans, persist for decades, and preserve a naïveness-like profile. These data support YF vaccination as an optimal mechanistic model for the study of long-lasting memory CD8(+) T cells in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Science translational medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas preclinical investigations and clinical studies have established that CD8(+) T cells can profoundly affect cancer progression, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Challenging the prevalent view that the beneficial effect of CD8(+) T cells in cancer is solely attributable to their cytotoxic activity, several reports have indicated that the ability of CD8(+) T cells to promote tumor regression is dependent on their cytokine secretion profile and their ability to self-renew. Evidence has also shown that the tumor microenvironment can disarm CD8(+) T cell immunity, leading to the emergence of dysfunctional CD8(+) T cells. The existence of different types of CD8(+) T cells in cancer calls for a more precise definition of the CD8(+) T cell immune phenotypes in cancer and the abandonment of the generic terms "pro-tumor" and "antitumor." Based on recent studies investigating the functions of CD8(+) T cells in cancer, we here propose some guidelines to precisely define the functional states of CD8(+) T cells in cancer.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · OncoImmunology
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    ABSTRACT: The avidity of the T cell receptor (TCR) for antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) on cells is a key parameter for cell-mediated immunity. Yet a fundamental feature of most tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is that this avidity is low. In this study, we addressed the need to identify and select tumor-specific CD8+ T cells of highest avidity, which are of the greatest interest for adoptive cell therapy in cancer patients. To identify these rare cells, we developed a peptide-MHC multimer technology, which uses reversible Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid histidine tags (NTAmers). NTAmers are highly stable but upon imidazole addition they decay rapidly to pMHC monomers, allowing flow cytometry-based measurements of monomeric TCR-pMHC dissociation rates of living CD8+ T cells on a wide avidity spectrum. We documented strong correlations between NTAmer kinetic results and those obtained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Using NTAmers that were deficient for CD8 binding to pMHC, we found that CD8 itself stabilized the TCR-pMHC complex, prolonging the dissociation half-life several-fold. Notably, our NTAmer technology accurately predicted the function of large panels of tumor-specific T cells that were isolated prospectively from cancer patients. Overall, our results demonstrated that NTAmers are effective tools to isolate rare high-avidity cytotoxic T cells from patients for use in adoptive therapies for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer Research
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,646.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • Department of Oncology
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 1998-2015
    • University of Lausanne
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 1996-2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Medical Biophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1999-2010
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      لا هویا, California, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Clinical Pharmacology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1996-1999
    • Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1993-1995
    • University of Geneva
      • Division of Immunology and Allergology
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
    • Kantonsspital Baselland Bruderholz
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1994
    • Cantonal Hospital of Schwyz
      Schwyz, Schwyz, Switzerland
  • 1989-1993
    • University of Zurich
      • • Institut für Experimentelle Immunologie
      • • Institute of Veterinary Pathology
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1990-1992
    • University Hospital Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland