[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are used in various settings as a first-line screen of patient specimens. During the initial outbreak of the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 virus, the Nebraska Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) adopted a testing algorithm, attempting to maximize the usefulness of RIDTs. However, it became apparent that a high percentage of the positive specimens received from off-site facilities were negative for influenza viruses by the confirmatory test, the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP) molecular assay.
To explore the cause of discrepancies between RIDTs results obtained from on-site facility testing versus confirmatory testing performed at NPHL.
Specimens (n=336) tested with RIDTs at off-site facilities and screened for high-probability of containing H1N1 were sent to the NPHL for confirmatory testing by RVP.
Of 336 specimens analyzed, 104 were negative for influenza A or B by both RIDT and RVP; 127 were positive by both tests; 102 were positive by RIDT only; and 3 were positive by RVP only. Using the RVP assay as the gold standard, overall RIDT characteristics in this screened population were: sensitivity=97.7% (95%CI: 92.5, 99.3); specificity=48.1% (95%CI: 40.4, 55.8); positive predictive value=54.3% (95%CI: 47.0, 61.4); and negative predicative value=97.1% (95%CI: 90.6, 99.1).
The results show that the confirmation of RIDT-positive results varied widely by testing site. Possible explanations for the discrepancies in performance characteristics include testing a narrowly defined sample population, test facility characteristics, facility work load, and seasonal timing.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium intracellulare (MIT) was diagnosed postmortem by culture and supporting histopathology in seven birds from a flock of little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) at the Henry Doorly Zoo (HDZ). These birds represented 20% of the deaths in the population over a 4 yr period. Clinical signs in affected birds included severe respiratory distress characterized by open-mouth breathing with chronic debilitation. On exam, plaques were noted in the larynx, trachea, and soft tissue of the caudal oropharynx. Index cases were identified on necropsy in two birds on loan to another institution in 2003. Following a case confirmed antemortem at the HDZ, a three-drug protocol of rifampin (15 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.), ethambutol (15 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.), and clarithromycin (10 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.) was started on this bird in 2004 and extended to the entire flock in 2005. Gastric wash, fecal samples, and throat plaques were obtained antemortem on five birds within the flock, selected because of the presence of oral plaques, and tested by culture followed by a polymerase chain reaction assay. MIT was detected in gastric washes from four birds and in throat plaques from all five. Three more birds died during treatment. After the seventh bird died, antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed in July 2007 indicated that the MIT was now resistant to most antibiotics tested, including rifampin and ethambutol. The treatment regimen was changed to minocycline (10 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (10 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.). Oral plaques were not seen on monthly rechecks of the flock through November 2008. The proposed mechanism of transmission is exposure to wild birds but the source has not been determined. These cases of avian mycobacteriosis caused by MIT are the first known cases reported in little blue penguins.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes a case of Mycobacterium chimaera infection in a patient with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where the organism was identified by using molecular methods. M. chimaera was identified from fresh lung tissue and from an instrument-negative mycobacterial growth indicator tube broth culture. The utility of using sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region for the rapid identification of a slow-growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium spp. where conventional culture methods were not successful was shown.