K M Coggeshall

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

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Publications (104)499.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess disease features in Sle1.Yaa mice with genetic interleukin-6 (IL-6) deficiency.Methods Sera and tissues were collected from C57BL/6 (B6), Sle1.Yaa, and Sle1.Yaa.IL-6−/− mice and analyzed for various features of disease. Using serum samples, autoantibody specificities were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence, cytokine production was analyzed by Luminex and ELISA, and levels of blood urea nitrogen were determined by ELISA. Renal, lung, and salivary gland tissue sections were evaluated for pathologic changes. Lymphocyte phenotypes, including CD4+ T cell cytokine production, and those of follicular and extrafollicular T helper subsets, germinal center B cells, and plasma cells, were determined using flow cytometry.ResultsIL-6 deficiency not only ameliorated autoantibody production and renal disease in this model, but also effectively reduced inflammation of lungs and salivary glands. Furthermore, IL-6 deficiency abrogated differentiation of Th1 and extrafollicular T helper cells, germinal center B cells, and plasma cells in the spleen and eliminated renal T cells with IL-17, interferon-γ, and IL-21 production potential.Conclusion Our findings highlight IL-6-mediated T cell aberrations in Yaa-driven autoimmunity and support the concept of therapeutic IL-6/IL-6 receptor blockade in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome by impairing the production of autoantibodies and lymphocytic infiltration of the kidneys, lungs, and salivary glands.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    Florea Lupu · Ravi S Keshari · John D Lambris · K Mark Coggeshall
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a potent activator of the hemostatic and complement systems. While local activation of these proteolytic cascades contributes to the host defense, their uncontrolled systemic activation has major tissue damaging effects that lead to multiple organ failure and death. We have extensively studied the activation of complement and coagulation cascades in experimental sepsis using baboons challenged with live bacteria, such as Gram-negative Escherichia coli or Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis, or with the bacterial product peptidoglycan. We observed that these challenges rapidly induce disseminated intravascular coagulation and robust complement activation. We applied a potent C3 convertase inhibitor, compstatin, which prevented sepsis-induced complement activation, reduced thrombocytopenia, decreased the coagulopathic responses, and preserving the endothelial anticoagulant properties. Overall, our work demonstrates that live bacteria and bacterial products activate the complement and coagulation cascades, and that blocking formation of complement activation products, especially during the organ failure stage of severe sepsis could be a potentially important therapeutic strategy.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Thrombosis Research
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    ABSTRACT: The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer-a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an FcγR-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we describe the capacity of Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan (BaPGN) to trigger an antimicrobial response in human white blood cells (WBCs). Analysis of freshly isolated human blood cells found that monocytes and neutrophils, but not B and T cells, were highly responsive to BaPGN and produced a variety of cytokines and chemokines. This BaPGN-induced response was suppressed by anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), with the most pronounced effect on human monocytes, and this corresponded with the higher levels of anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) in these cells than in neutrophils. The supernatant from BaPGN-treated cells altered the growth of B. anthracis Sterne, and this effect was blocked by LT, but not by ET. An FtsX mutant of B. anthracis known to be resistant to the antimicrobial effects of interferon-inducible Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR)-negative CXC chemokines was not affected by the BaPGN-induced antimicrobial effects. Collectively, these findings describe a system in which BaPGN triggers expression of antimicrobial factors in human WBCs and reveal a distinctive role, not shared with ET, in LT's capacity to suppress this response.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalation anthrax is often described as a toxin-mediated disease. However, the toxaemia model does not account for the high mortality of inhalation anthrax relative to other forms of the disease or for the pathology present in inhalation anthrax. Patients with inhalation anthrax consistently show extreme bacteraemia and, in contrast to animals challenged with toxin, signs of sepsis. Rather than toxaemia, we propose that death in inhalation anthrax results from an overwhelming bacteraemia that leads to severe sepsis. According to our model, the central role of anthrax toxin is to permit the vegetative bacteria to escape immune detection. Other forms of B. anthracis infection have lower mortality because their overt symptoms early in the course of disease cause patients to seek medical care at a time when the infection and its sequelae can still be reversed by antibiotics. Thus, the sepsis model explains key features of inhalation anthrax and may offer a more complete understanding of disease pathology for researchers as well as those involved in the care of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet activation frequently accompanies sepsis and contributes to the sepsis-associated vascular leakage and coagulation dysfunction. Our previous work has implicated peptidoglycan (PGN) as an agent causing systemic inflammation in Gram-positive sepsis. We used flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy to define the effects of peptidoglycan on the activation of human platelets. PGN induced platelet aggregation, expression of the activated form of integrin αIIbβ3, and exposure of phosphatidylserine. These changes were dependent on IgG and were attenuated by the FcγRIIa-blocking antibody IV.3, suggesting they are mediated by PGN-anti-PGN immune complexes signaling through FcγRIIa. Phosphatidylserine exposure was not blocked by IV.3 but was sensitive to inhibitors of complement activation. Peptidoglycan was a potent activator of the complement cascade in human plasma and caused deposition of C5b-9 on the platelet surface. Platelets with exposed phosphatidylserine had greatly accelerated prothrombinase activity. We conclude that peptidoglycan derived from Gram-positive bacteria is a potent platelet agonist when complexed with anti-peptidoglycan antibody and could contribute to the coagulation dysfunction accompanying Gram-positive infections.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Gram-positive bacteria are an important public health problem, but it is unclear how they cause systemic inflammation in sepsis. Our previous work showed that peptidoglycan (PGN) induced proinflammatory cytokines in human cells by binding to an unknown extracellular receptor, followed by phagocytosis leading to the generation of NOD ligands. In this study, we used flow cytometry to identify host factors that supported PGN binding to immune cells. PGN binding required plasma, and plasma from all tested healthy donors contained IgG recognizing PGN. Plasma depleted of IgG or of anti-PGN Abs did not support PGN binding or PGN-triggered cytokine production. Adding back intact but not F(ab')₂ IgG restored binding and cytokine production. Transfection of HEK293 cells with FcγRIIA enabled PGN binding and phagocytosis. These data establish a key role for anti-PGN IgG and FcγRs in supporting inflammation to a major structural element of Gram-positive bacteria and suggest that anti-PGN IgG contributes to human pathology in Gram-positive sepsis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2012

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  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2011
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    Janaki K Iyer · K Mark Coggeshall
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    ABSTRACT: The cell wall of bacteria induces proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes and neutrophils in human blood. The nature of the stimulating component of bacterial cell walls is not well understood. We have previously shown polymeric peptidoglycan (PGN) has this activity, and the cytokine response requires PGN internalization and trafficking to lysosomes. In this study, we demonstrate that peptidoglycan monomers such as muramyl dipeptide and soluble peptidoglycan fail to induce robust cytokine production in immune cells, although they activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins in transfected cell models. We further show that lysosomal extracts from immune cells degrade intact peptidoglycan into simpler products and that the lysosomal digestion products activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins. We conclude that naive innate immune cells recognize PGN in its polymeric form rather than monomers such as muramyl dipeptide and require PGN lysosomal hydrolysis to respond. These findings offer new opportunities in the treatment of sepsis, especially sepsis arising from Gram-positive organisms.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The activation and fusion of macrophages and of osteoclasts require the adaptor molecule DNAX-activating protein of 12 kD (DAP12), which contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) is the main DAP12-associated receptor in osteoclasts and, similar to DAP12 deficiency, loss of TREM2 in humans leads to Nasu-Hakola disease, which is characterized by bone cysts and dementia. Furthermore, in vitro experiments have shown that deficiency in DAP12 or TREM2 leads to impaired osteoclast development and the formation of mononuclear osteoclasts. Here, we demonstrate that the ligation of TREM2 activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3; induced the mobilization of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and the reorganization of actin; and prevented apoptosis. The signaling adaptor molecule DAP10 played a key role in the TREM2- and DAP12-dependent recruitment of PI3K to the signaling complex. Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP1) inhibited TREM2- and DAP12-induced signaling by binding to DAP12 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and preventing the recruitment of PI3K to DAP12. These results demonstrate a previously uncharacterized interaction of SHIP1 with DAP12 that functionally limits TREM2- and DAP12-dependent signaling and identify a mechanism through which SHIP1 regulates key ITAM-containing receptors by directly blocking the binding and activation of PI3K.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Science Signaling
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    ABSTRACT: Adenovirus (Ad) type 7 can cause severe infection, including pneumonia, in military recruits and children. The initial inflammation is a neutrophilic interstitial infiltration with neutrophilic alveolitis. Subsequently, monocytes become evident and, finally, there is a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate. We have established that Ad7 infection of epithelial cells stimulates release of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin (IL)-8, and have extended these studies to a human lung tissue model. Here, we studied cytokine responses to Ad7 in human alveolar macrophages (HAM) and our human lung tissue model. Both ELISA and RNase-protection assay (RPA) data demonstrated that, upon Ad7 infection, IP-10 and MIP-1alpha/beta are released from HAM. IP-10 and MIP-1alpha/beta protein levels were induced 2- and 3-fold, respectively, in HAM 24 h after Ad7 infection. We then investigated induction of specific cytokines in human lung tissue by RPA and ELISA. The results showed that IL-8 and IL-6 were induced 8 h after infection and, by 24 h, levels of IL-8, IL-6, MIP-1alpha/beta and MCP-1 were all increased. IP-10, a monocyte and lymphocyte chemokine, was also induced 30-fold, but only 24 h after infection. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed that IL-8 was only released from the epithelial cells of lung slices and not from macrophages. IP-10 was secreted from both macrophages and epithelial cells. Moreover, full induction of IP-10 is likely to require participation and cooperation of both epithelial cells and macrophages in intact lung. Understanding the cytokine and chemokine induction during Ad7 infection may lead to novel ways to modulate the response to this pathogen.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Journal of General Virology
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    ABSTRACT: During advanced stages of inhalation anthrax, Bacillus anthracis accumulates at high levels in the bloodstream of the infected host. This bacteremia leads to sepsis during late-stage anthrax; however, the mechanisms through which B. anthracis-derived factors contribute to the pathology of infected hosts are poorly defined. Peptidoglycan, a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can provoke symptoms of sepsis in animal models. We have previously shown that peptidoglycan of B. anthracis can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by cells in human blood. Here, we show that biologically active peptidoglycan is shed from an active culture of encapsulated B. anthracis strain Ames in blood. Peptidoglycan is able to bind to surfaces of responding cells, and internalization of peptidoglycan is required for the production of inflammatory cytokines. We also show that the peptidoglycan traffics to lysosomes, and lysosomal function is required for cytokine production. We conclude that peptidoglycan of B. anthracis is initially bound by an unknown extracellular receptor, is phagocytosed, and traffics to lysosomes, where it is degraded to a product recognized by an intracellular receptor. Binding of the peptidoglycan product to the intracellular receptor causes a proinflammatory response. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which B. anthracis triggers sepsis during a critical stage of anthrax disease.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Infection and immunity
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    Kenichiro Maeda · Harshini Mehta · Douglas A Drevets · K Mark Coggeshall
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    ABSTRACT: Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP(-/-)) animals display an age-related increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6), a decrease in B lymphopoiesis, and an elevation in myelopoiesis. We investigated the origin of the IL-6 production and show that it is largely produced by peritoneal and splenic macrophages. IL-6 production by these macrophages is not a direct result of the loss of SHIP: IL-6 production is not spontaneous, is absent from bone marrow-derived macrophages, declines with prolonged culture of macrophages, and requires a stimulus present in vivo. The IL-6-rich peritoneal cavity of SHIP(-/-) mice shows more than 700-fold more immunoglobulin G (IgG) than wild-type, approximately 20% of which is aggregated or in an immune complex and contains B220(+) cells that secrete IgG. The SHIP-deficient peritoneal macrophages show evidence of IgG receptor stimulation. Animals lacking both the signal-transducing gamma-chain of IgG receptors and SHIP or Ig and SHIP produce less IL-6. The data indicate a feed-forward process in which peripheral macrophages, responding through IgG receptors to secreted IgG, produce IL-6, to support further B-cell production of IgG. Because of the proinflammatory phenotype of SHIP(-/-) animals, these findings emphasize the importance of IL-6-neutralizing strategies in autoimmune and proinflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: In inflamed venules, neutrophils rolling on E-selectin induce integrin alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent slow rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by activating Src family kinases (SFKs), DAP12 and Fc receptor-gamma (FcRgamma), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and p38. E-selectin signaling cooperates with chemokine signaling to recruit neutrophils into tissues. Previous studies identified P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) as the essential E-selectin ligand and Fgr as the only SFK that initiate signaling to slow rolling. In contrast, we found that E-selectin engagement of PSGL-1 or CD44 triggered slow rolling through a common, lipid raft-dependent pathway that used the SFKs Hck and Lyn as well as Fgr. We identified the Tec kinase Bruton tyrosine kinase as a key signaling intermediate between Syk and p38. E-selectin engagement of PSGL-1 was dependent on its cytoplasmic domain to activate SFKs and slow rolling. Although recruiting phosphoinositide-3-kinase to the PSGL-1 cytoplasmic domain was reported to activate integrins, E-selectin-mediated slow rolling did not require phosphoinositide-3-kinase. Studies in mice confirmed the physiologic significance of these events for neutrophil slow rolling and recruitment during inflammation. Thus, E-selectin triggers common signals through distinct neutrophil glycoproteins to induce alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent slow rolling.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: We studied cytokine responses to influenza virus PR8 (H1N1) and Oklahoma/309/06 (OK/06, H3N2) in a novel human lung tissue model. Exposure of the model to influenza virus rapidly activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling (MAPK) pathways ERK, p38 and JNK. In addition, RNase protection assay demonstrated the induction of several cytokine and chemokine mRNAs by virus. This finding was reflected at the translational level as IL-6, MCP-1, MIP-1α/β, IL-8 and IP-10 proteins were induced as determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry for IP-10 and MIP-1α revealed that alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages were the source of these two cytokines. Taken together, both PR8 and OK/06 cause similar induction of cytokines in human lung, although OK/06 is less effective at inducing the chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. This human organ culture model should thus provide a relevant platform to study the biological responses of human lung to influenza virus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Virology
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    ABSTRACT: The etiologic agent of inhalational anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, produces virulence toxins that are important in the disease pathogenesis. Current studies suggest that mouse and human macrophages are susceptible to immunosuppressive effects of one of the virulence toxins, lethal toxin (LT). Thus a paradigm has emerged that holds that the alveolar macrophage (AM) does not play a significant role in the innate immune response to B. anthracis or defend against the pathogen as it is disabled by LT. This is inconsistent with animal models and autopsy studies that show minimal disease at the alveolar surface. We examined whether AM are immunosuppressed by LT. We found that human AM were relatively resistant to LT-mediated innate immune cytokine suppression, MEK cleavage, and induction of apoptosis as compared with mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. Mouse AM and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were also relatively resistant to LT-mediated apoptosis despite intermediate sensitivity to MEK cleavage. The binding component of LT, protective Ag, does not attach to human AM, although it did bind to mouse AM, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Human AM do not produce significant amounts of the protective Ag receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (TEM8/ANTXR1) and anthrax toxin receptor 2 (CMG2/ANTXR2). Thus, mature and differentiated AM are relatively resistant to the effects of LT as compared with mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. AM resistance to LT may enhance clearance of the pathogen from the alveolar surface and explain why this surface is relatively free of B. anthracis in animal models and autopsy studies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
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    Shikha Malhotra · Susan Kovats · Weiguo Zhang · K Mark Coggeshall
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    ABSTRACT: The signal transduction events supporting B cell antigen receptor (BCR) endocytosis are not well understood. We have identified a pathway supporting BCR internalization that begins with tyrosine phosphorylation of the adapter protein LAB. Phosphorylated LAB recruits a complex of Grb2-dynamin and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav. Vav is required for activation of the small GTPases Rac1 and Rac2. All these proteins contribute to (and dynamin, Vav, and Rac1/2 are required for) BCR endocytosis and presentation of antigen to T cells. This is the first description of a sequential signal transduction pathway from BCR to internalization and antigen presentation.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Stats

5k Citations
499.08 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2014
    • Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
      • Immunobiology and Cancer Program
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2004-2013
    • Oklahoma City University
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2001-2012
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • • Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 1994-2002
    • The Ohio State University
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 1997
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Neonatology
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1996
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Physiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1994-1995
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      • Division of Cell Biology
      لا هویا, California, United States
  • 1992
    • McGill University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1989
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1985
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Immunology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • National Jewish Health
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States