Thirumalai R Ramalingam

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (47)439.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nematode infection up-regulates IL-4 and IL-13 and induces STAT6-dependent changes in gut function that promote worm clearance. IL-4 and IL-13 activate the type 2 IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) that contains the IL-13Rα1 and the IL-4Rα chains. We used mice deficient in IL-13Rα1 (IL-13Rα1-/-) to examine the contribution of IL-13 acting at the type 2 IL-4R to immune and functional responses to a primary (Hb1) and secondary (Hb2) infection with the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides bakeri. There were differences between strains in the IL-4 and IL-13 expression response to Hb1, but not Hb2 infection. Following Hb2 infection, deficient mice had impaired worm expulsion and higher worm fecundity despite normal production of Th2-derived cytokines. The upregulation of IL-25 and IL-13Rα2 in Hb1 and Hb2 infected WT mice was absent in IL-13Rα1-/- mice. Goblet cell numbers and Relmβ expression were attenuated significantly in IL-13Rα1-/- mice following Hb2 infections. IL-13Rα1 contributes to the development of alternatively activated macrophages, but the type 1 IL-4R is also important. Hb1 had no effects on smooth muscle function or epithelial permeability in either strain, while the enhanced mucosal permeability and changes in smooth muscle function and morphology observed in response to Hb2 infection in WT mice were absent in IL-13Rα1-/- mice. Notably, the contribution of claudin-2, which has been linked to IL-13, does not mediate the increased mucosal permeability following Hb2. These results show that activation of IL-13Rα1 is critical for key aspects of the immune and functional responses to Hb2 infection that facilitate expulsion.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Infection and Immunity
  • Article: ID: 43

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cytokine
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    ABSTRACT: IL-25 or IL-17E is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. We investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on hepatic lipid accumulation. IL-25 expression was examined in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of liver from patients or in the livers from mice. Mouse model of steatosis was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). Extent of steatosis as well as expression of cytokines, key enzymes for lipid metabolic pathways, markers for Kupffer cells/macrophages, and lipid droplet (LD) proteins, were analyzed. Our results show that hepatic steatosis in mice was accompanied by increased LD proteins, but decreased IL-25 in the liver. Decreased hepatic IL-25 was also observed in patients with fatty liver. Administration of IL-25 to HFD-fed wild-type mice led to a significant improvement in hepatic steatosis. This effect was associated with increased expression of IL-13, development of alternatively activated Kupffer cells/macrophages, and decreased expression of LD proteins in the liver. In contrast, administration of IL-25 to HFD-fed mice deficient in STAT6 or IL-13 had no effects. In addition, stimulation of primary hepatocytes with IL-13, but not IL-25, resulted in downregulation of LD proteins. Finally, mice deficient in IL-25 had exacerbated hepatic lipid accumulation when fed the HFD. These data demonstrate that dysregulated IL-25 expression contributes to lipid accumulation, whereas exogenous IL-25 protects against hepatic steatosis through IL-13 activation of STAT6. IL-25 and IL-13 are potential therapeutic agents for hepatic steatosis and associated pathologies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that asthma is a heterogeneous disorder regulated by distinct molecular mechanisms. In a cross-sectional study of asthmatics of varying severity (n = 51), endobronchial tissue gene expression analysis revealed three major patient clusters: TH2-high, TH17-high, and TH2/17-low. TH2-high and TH17-high patterns were mutually exclusive in individual patient samples, and their gene signatures were inversely correlated and differentially regulated by interleukin-13 (IL-13) and IL-17A. To understand this dichotomous pattern of T helper 2 (TH2) and TH17 signatures, we investigated the potential of type 2 cytokine suppression in promoting TH17 responses in a preclinical model of allergen-induced asthma. Neutralization of IL-4 and/or IL-13 resulted in increased TH17 cells and neutrophilic inflammation in the lung. However, neutralization of IL-13 and IL-17 protected mice from eosinophilia, mucus hyperplasia, and airway hyperreactivity and abolished the neutrophilic inflammation, suggesting that combination therapies targeting both pathways may maximize therapeutic efficacy across a patient population comprising both TH2 and TH17 endotypes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Science translational medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of macrophages in type 2-driven inflammation and fibrosis remain unclear. Here, using CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice and three models of interleukin 13 (IL-13)-dependent inflammation, fibrosis, and immunity, we show that CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages are required for the maintenance of type 2 immunity within affected tissues but not secondary lymphoid organs. Direct depletion of macrophages during the maintenance or resolution phases of secondary Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation caused a profound decrease in inflammation, fibrosis, and type 2 gene expression. Additional studies with CD11c-DTR and CD11b/CD11c-DTR double-transgenic mice suggested that macrophages but not dendritic cells were critical. Mechanistically, macrophage depletion impaired effector CD4(+) T helper type 2 (Th2) cell homing and activation within the inflamed lung. Depletion of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages similarly reduced house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation and suppressed IL-13-dependent immunity to the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Consequently, therapeutic strategies targeting macrophages offer a novel approach to ameliorate established type 2 inflammatory diseases.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 29 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.34.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Mucosal Immunology
  • Trisha Pasricha · Thirumalai R. Ramalingam · Thomas A. Wynn

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages coexpress both the interleukin (IL)-2Rγ chain (γc) and IL-13Rα1. These receptor chains can heterodimerize with IL-4Rα to form type I or type II IL-4 receptor complexes, respectively. We used macrophages derived from Il2rg and Il13ra1 knockout (KO) mice to evaluate the requirements for these receptor chains for induction of the alternative macrophage activation (AMA) pathway by IL-4 and IL-13. Absence of γc significantly decreased activation of STAT6 by IL-4 but not IL-13. However, although activation of STAT6 by IL-4 was markedly reduced in γc KO macrophages, it was not abolished, indicating that IL-4 can still signal through type II IL-4 receptors via the IL-13Rα1 chain. IL-13 failed to activate STAT6 in macrophages derived from Il13ra1 KO mice; however, these cells remained fully responsive to IL-4. The inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to signal in Il13ra1(-/-) macrophages correlated with the inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to induce expression of genes such as Arg1, Retnla and Ccl11 that are characteristically expressed by alternatively activated macrophages. In addition, IL-13 but not IL-4 failed to induce membrane fusion and giant cell formation by Il13ra1 KO macrophages. These findings demonstrate that the IL-13Rα1 chain is essential for induction of the AMA pathway by IL-13 but not IL-4. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Innate Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote type 2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Several previous studies reported inconsistent results on the role of exogenous IL-25 in development of colonic inflammation and none were performed in animals with a genetic deletion of IL-25. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis using mice deficient in IL-25. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad libitum either for seven days (acute) or for three cycles of seven days with DSS followed by 14 days without DSS (chronic) to induce colitis, respectively. The loss of body weight, appearance of diarrhea and bloody stools, and shortening of colon length were significantly less pronounced in IL-25(-/-) mice compared to WT mice after exposure to acute DSS. Histological examination showed that DSS-treated IL-25(-/-) mice had only mild inflammation in the colon, while severe inflammation developed in DSS-treated WT mice. A significant up-regulation of IL-33 was observed in acute DSS-treated WT but not in the IL-25(-/-) mice. There was significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon of acute DSS-treated IL-25(-/-) compared to WT mice. IL-25(-/-) mice were also partially protected from chronic DSS challenge especially during the first 2 cycles of DSS exposure. In contrast to IL-25(-/-) mice, IL-13(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. Finally, stimulation of T84 colonic epithelial cells with IL-25 up-regulated the expression of IL-33 and several pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data indicate that endogenous IL-25 acts as a pro-inflammatory factor in DSS-induced colitis, which is unlikely to be mediated by IL-13 but possibly the induction of IL-33 and other pro-inflammatory mediators from colonic epithelial cells. The present study suggests that IL-25 may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in at least a subgroup of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Cell and Bioscience
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary Chronic injury and inflammation lead to irreversible fibrosis in a range of diseases and infections. Macrophages alternatively activated by the immune system are capable of regulating inflammation and fibrosis, but our understanding of the source and function of these cells is incomplete. Mice genetically engineered to specifically prevent macrophages from becoming alternatively activated have been used to study the cells' role following infection with the parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. To our surprise, we found these mice prevent alternative activation only in macrophages that have had time to mature and some, perhaps more nascent, macrophages can become alternatively activated following exposure to S. mansoni eggs. We detected lower expression of Lyz2 gene in these cells, leading to less expression of the enzyme excising the receptor gene necessary for alternative activation. Following S. mansoni infection, the livers of these mice have similar levels of fibrosis but significantly more inflammation compared to controls. We conclude that during schistosomiasis, distinct populations of alternatively activated macrophages control inflammation and fibrosis: macrophages expressing low levels of Lyz2 express Arg1 and thus are sufficient to control fibrosis, while more mature Lyz2-expressing macrophages are required for downmodulation of egg-induced inflammation in chronic schistosomiasis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS Pathogens

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

  • No preview · Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology
  • Vahe Badalyan · Robert W. Thompson · Thomas A. Wynn · Thirumalai R. Ramalingam

    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: How the immune system adapts to malnutrition to sustain immunity at barrier surfaces, such as the intestine, remains unclear. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with profound defects in adaptive immunity. Here, we found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are severely diminished in vitamin A–deficient settings, which results in compromised immunity to acute bacterial infection. However, vitamin A deprivation paradoxically resulted in dramatic expansion of interleukin-13 (IL-13)–producing ILC2s and resistance to nematode infection in mice, which revealed that ILCs are primary sensors of dietary stress. Further, these data indicate that, during malnutrition, a switch to innate type 2 immunity may represent a powerful adaptation of the immune system to promote host survival in the face of ongoing barrier challenges.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine member of the IL-1 family. The biological activities of IL-33 are associated with promotion of Th2 and inhibition of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Exogenous IL-33 induces a typical "type 2" immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, yet the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) to be fully elucidated. In addition, the role of IL-33 in the regulation of gastrointestinal function is not known. The current study investigated IL-33-dependent intestinal immunity and function in mice. Exogenous IL-33 induced a polarized type 2 cytokine response in the intestine that was entirely MyD88-dependent, but STAT6- and IL-13-independent. Mice injected with recombinant IL-33 exhibited intestinal smooth muscle hypercontractility, decreased epithelial responses to acetylcholine and glucose, and increased mucosal permeability. IL-33 effects on the intestinal epithelial function were STAT6-dependent, and both IL-4 and IL-13 appeared to play a role. The effects on smooth muscle function, however, were attributable to both STAT6-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In addition, IL-13 induction of insulin-like growth factor-1 was implicated in IL-33-induced smooth muscle hypertrophy. Finally, alternative activation of macrophages induced by IL-33 revealed a novel pathway that is IL-4-, IL-13-, and STAT6-independent. Thus, manipulating IL-33 or related signaling pathways represents a potential therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases associated with dysregulated intestinal function.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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    Thomas A Wynn · Thirumalai R Ramalingam
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrosis is a pathological feature of most chronic inflammatory diseases. Fibrosis, or scarring, is defined by the accumulation of excess extracellular matrix components. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process eventually leads to organ malfunction and death. Fibrosis affects nearly every tissue in the body. Here we discuss how key components of the innate and adaptive immune response contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. We also describe how cell-intrinsic changes in important structural cells can perpetuate the fibrotic response by regulating the differentiation, recruitment, proliferation and activation of extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts. Finally, we highlight some of the key mechanisms and pathways of fibrosis that are being targeted as potential therapies for a variety of important human diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Nature medicine

  • No preview · Article · May 2012 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive fibrosis contributes to the morbidity of several chronic diseases; it typically develops slowly, so the mechanisms that control its progression and resolution have been difficult to model. The proteins interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13Rα2 regulate hepatic fibrosis following infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We examined whether these mediators interact to slow the progression of hepatic fibrosis in mice with schistosomiasis. IL-10(-/-), IL-12/23(p40)(-/-), and IL-13Rα2(-/-) mice were crossed to generate triple knockout (TKO) mice. We studied these mice to determine whether the simultaneous deletion of these 3 negative regulators of the immune response accelerated mortality from liver fibrosis following infection with S mansoni. Induction of inflammation by S mansoni, liver fibrosis, and mortality increased greatly in TKO mice compared with wild-type mice; 100% of the TKO mice died by 10 weeks after infection. Morbidity and mortality were associated with the development of portal hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, thrombocytopenia, esophageal and gastric varices, anemia, and increased levels of liver enzymes, all features of advanced liver disease. IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13Rα2 reduced the production and activity of the profibrotic cytokine IL-13. A neutralizing antibody against IL-13 reduced the morbidity and mortality of the TKO mice following S mansoni infection. IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13Rα2 act cooperatively to suppress liver fibrosis in mice following infection with S mansoni. This model rapidly reproduces many of the complications observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis, so it might be used to evaluate the efficacy of antifibrotic reagents being developed for schistosomiasis or other fibrotic diseases associated with a T-helper 2 cell-mediated immune response.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Gastroenterology
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    Thomas A Wynn · Thirumalai R Ramalingam

    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Nature medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play key roles in wound repair and fibrosis by regulating extracellular matrix turnover. Macrophages can process matrix components themselves, but also recruit and alter the functions of other cell types that directly build or degrade extracellular matrix. Classically activated macrophages (CAM, also called M1) tend to promote tissue injury while alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, also called M2) are often linked with the mechanisms of wound repair and fibrosis. However, rather than promoting collagen deposition, recent studies suggest that arginase-1-expressing AAM suppress chronic inflammation and fibrosis by inhibiting antigen-specific T cell responses. This unit describes methods to measure arginase activity in macrophages and whole tissues as well as assays to quantify the T cell suppressive activity of AAMs. Modified hydroxyproline and soluble collagen assays that can be used to quantify collagen levels in tissues and brochoalveolar lavage fluid are also described. The protocols in this unit should provide the investigator with all the necessary information required to measure arginase activity and to correlate the observed activity with the progression and resolution of fibrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.]

Publication Stats

2k Citations
439.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2015
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2014
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Naval Medical Research Center
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • National Institutes of Health
      베서스다, Maryland, United States