[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene is upregulated in a majority of malignant tumours. A variable tandem repeat, MNS16A, has been reported to be of functional significance for hTERT expression. Published data on the clinical relevance of MNS16A variants in brain tumours have been contradictory. The present population-based study in the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom evaluated brain-tumour risk and survival in relation to MNS16A minisatellite variants in 648 glioma cases, 473 meningioma cases and 1,359 age, sex and geographically matched controls. By PCR-based genotyping all study subjects with fragments of 240 or 271 bp were judged as having short (S) alleles and subjects with 299 or 331 bp fragments as having long (L) alleles. Relative risk of glioma or meningioma was estimated with logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and country. Overall survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and equality of survival distributions using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard ratios. The MNS16A genotype was not associated with risk of occurrence of glioma, glioblastoma (GBM) or meningioma. For GBM there were median survivals of 15.3, 11.0 and 10.7 months for the LL, LS and SS genotypes, respectively; the hazard ratio for having the LS genotype compared with the LL was significantly increased HR 2.44 (1.56-3.82) and having the SS genotype versus the LL was nonsignificantly increased HR 1.46 (0.81-2.61). When comparing the LL versus having one of the potentially functional variants LS and SS, the HR was 2.10 (1.41-3.1). However, functionality was not supported as there was no trend towards increasing HR with number of S alleles. Collected data from our and previous studies regarding both risk and survival for the MNS16A genotypes are contradictory and warrant further investigations.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established the nationwide, population-based incidence of oligodendroglioma in Denmark during 59 years of monitoring and compared the overall survival of patients with oligodendroglial tumors during the periods 1943-1977 and 1978-2002. On the basis of reports in the Danish Cancer Registry, 1,304 cases of oligodendroglioma were included in the study. We calculated sex- and age-specific incidence rates in 5-year age intervals and for 5-year calendar periods. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. In the period 1943-2002, the incidence rate of oligodendroglioma was less than 1 case per 100,000 person-years, but varied somewhat when viewed across isolated periods. Comparison of the incidence rate before and after the introduction of CT scanning did not reveal a significant difference in the incidence rate. The median survival increased from 1.4 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.6) to 3.4 years (95% CI, 2.6-4.2) during the period of study. The overall incidence of oligodendroglioma showed a relatively stable pattern over nearly 60 years of monitoring. Overall survival improved significantly during the study period, which could partly be due to improved diagnostic methods and treatment options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female sex hormones have previously been suggested as possible risk factors for brain tumors, but published studies have reported conflicting results. We conducted a population-based case-control study of glioma (n=626) and meningioma (n=906) cases and randomly selected controls stratified on age and geographic region (n=1,774) in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for glioma and meningioma in relation to reproductive factors. A decreased glioma risk was associated with ever-pregnancy compared with never-pregnancy [OR, 0.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.6-1.0]. Meningioma risk among women ages <50 years was increased in relation to number of pregnancies leading to a live birth (OR, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8 for giving birth to 3 children compared with nulliparous women; P(trend) among parous women=0.01). This relation was not found for older women. Breast-feeding among parous women increased the glioma risk (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9 for breast-feeding 36 months or more compared with breast-feeding 3 months or less). Menopausal status and age at menopause were not associated with meningioma or glioma risk. Our findings imply that reproductive hormones may influence the occurrence of meningioma and glioma.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase 8 (CASP8) is a key regulator of apoptosis or programmed cell death, and hence a defence against cancer. The CASP8 polymorphism D302H has recently been shown to influence the risk of breast cancer. We tested the hypothesis that the CASP8 polymorphism D302H may influence risk of meningioma through analysis of five independent series of case patients and controls (n=631 and 637, respectively). Carrier status for 302H was not associated with a statistically significantly increased risk (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.87-1.53; P=0.31) making it unlikely that this variant contributes to the inherited risk of meningioma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of mobile telephones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for intracranial tumours. To evaluate the effect of mobile phones on risk of meningioma, we carried out an international, collaborative case-control study of 1209 meningioma cases and 3299 population-based controls.
Population-based cases were identified, mostly from hospitals, and controls from national population registers and general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained by personal interview. Regular mobile phone use (at least once a week for at least 6 months), duration of use, cumulative number and hours of use, and several other indicators of mobile phone use were assessed in relation to meningioma risk using conditional logistic regression with strata defined by age, sex, country and region.
Risk of meningioma among regular users of mobile phones was apparently lower than among never or non-regular users (odds ratio, OR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.65, 0.89). The risk was not increased in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative hours of use or cumulative number of calls. The findings were similar regardless of telephone network type (analogue/digital), age or sex.
Our results do not provide support for an association between mobile phone use and risk of meningioma.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folate metabolism plays an important role in carcinogenesis. To test the hypothesis that polymorphic variation in the folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) influences the risk of primary brain tumors, we genotyped 1,005 glioma cases, 631 meningioma cases, and 1,101 controls for the MTHFR C677A and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants. MTHFR C677T-A1298C diplotypes were associated with risk of meningioma (P = 0.002) and glioma (P = 0.02); risks were increased with genotypes associated with reduced MTHFR activity. The highest risk of meningioma was associated with heterozygosity for both MTHFR variants [odds ratio (OR), 2.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.42-3.12]. The corresponding OR for glioma was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.91-1.66). A significant association between risk of meningioma and homozygosity for MTRR 66G was also observed (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.02-1.94). Our findings provide support for the role of folate metabolism in the development of primary brain tumors. In particular, genotypes associated with increased 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate levels are associated with elevated risk.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase 8 (CASP8) is a key regulator of apoptosis or programmed cell death, and, hence, a defense against cancer. We tested the hypothesis that the CASP8 polymorphism D302H influences risk of glioma through analysis of five series of glioma case patients and controls (n = 1,005 and 1,011, respectively). Carrier status for the rare allele of D302H was associated with a 1.37-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.70; P = 0.004). The association of CASP8 D302H with glioma risk indicates the importance of inherited variation in the apoptosis pathway in susceptibility to this form of primary brain tumor.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much of the variation in inherited risk of glioma is likely to be explained by combinations of common low risk variants. The
established relationship between glioma risk and exposure to ionizing radiation led us to examine whether variants in the
DNA repair genes contribute to disease susceptibility. We evaluated 1127 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms
(SNPs) supplemented with 388 putative functional SNPs to capture most of the common variation in 136 DNA repair genes, in
five unique case–control series from four different countries (1013 cases, 1016 controls). We identified 16 SNPs associated
with glioma risk at the 1% significance level. The highest association observed across the five independent case–control datasets
involved rs243356, which maps to intron 3 of CHAF1A (trend odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval 1.14–1.54; P = 0.0002; false-positive report probability = 0.055, based on a prior probability of 0.01). Our results provide additional
support for the hypothesis that low penetrance variants contribute to the risk of developing glioma and suggest that a genetic
variant located in or around the CHAF1A gene contributes to disease risk.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting DNA repair capacity and modifying cancer susceptibility have been described. We evaluated the association of SNPs Arg194Trp, Arg280His, and Arg399Gln in the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Thr241Met in the X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) DNA repair genes with the risk of brain tumors. The Caucasian study population consisted of 701 glioma (including 320 glioblastoma) cases, 524 meningioma cases, and 1,560 controls in a prospective population-based case-control study conducted in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the UK. The studied SNPs were not significantly associated with the risk of brain tumors. The highest odds ratios (ORs) for the associations were observed between the homozygous variant genotype XRCC1 Gln399Gln and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.97-1.81), glioblastoma (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.98-2.24), and meningioma (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.96-1.86). However, in pair-wise comparisons a few SNP combinations were associated with the risk of brain tumors: Among others, carriers of both homozygous variant genotypes, i.e., XRCC1 Gln399Gln and XRCC3 Met241Met, were associated with a three-fold increased risk of glioma (OR = 3.18; 95% CI, 1.26-8.04) and meningioma (OR = 2.99; 95% CI, 1.16-7.72). In conclusion, no significant association with brain tumors was found for any of the polymorphisms, when examined one by one. Our results indicated possible associations between combinations of XRCC1 and XRCC3 SNPs and the risk of brain tumors.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningiomas account for up to 37% of all primary brain tumors. Genetic susceptibility to meningioma is well established, with the risk among relatives of meningioma patients being approximately threefold higher than that in the general population. A relationship between risk of meningioma and exposure to ionizing radiation is also well known and led us to examine whether variants in DNA repair genes contribute to disease susceptibility.
We analyzed 1127 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to capture most of the common variation in 136 DNA repair genes in five case-control series (631 case patients and 637 control subjects) from four countries in Europe. We also analyzed 388 putative functional SNPs in these genes for their association with meningioma. All statistical tests were two-sided.
The SNP rs4968451, which maps to intron 4 of the gene that encodes breast cancer susceptibility gene 1-interacting protein 1, was consistently associated with an increased risk of developing meningioma. Across the five studies, the association was highly statistically significant (trend odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 1.93; P(trend) = 8.95 x 10(-6); P = .009 after adjusting for multiple testing).
We have identified a novel association between rs4968451 and meningioma risk. Because approximately 28% of the European population are carriers of at-risk genotypes for rs4968451, the variant is likely to make a substantial contribution to the development of meningioma.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies found that allergies are inversely related to risk of glioma. In an earlier publication, using data from a Swedish case-control study, Schwartzbaum et al. report an inverse relation between risk of glioblastoma and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on two genes [interleukin (IL)-4Ralpha, IL-13] that are associated with allergies. In addition, recent studies suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) to resolve brain inflammation. To see whether previous Swedish results (110 cases, 430 controls) would be replicated, we estimated the association between glioblastoma and two IL-4Ralpha (rs1805015, rs1801275) and two IL-13 (rs20541, rs1800925) SNPs and their haplotypes and one COX-2 SNP (-765GC) using additional English, Danish, and Finnish data (217 cases, 1,171 controls). Among general population controls, we evaluated associations between these haplotypes, the COX-2 SNP, and self-reported allergies. Our data did not support our original observations relating individual IL-4Ralpha, IL-13, or COX-2 SNPs to glioblastoma risk. However, the T-G IL-4Ralpha haplotype was associated with glioblastoma risk (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-4.52) and there was a suggestion of an inverse relation between this haplotype and hayfever prevalence among controls (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-1.03). The lack of support for a link between four IL-4Ralpha and IL-13 SNPs and glioblastoma may reflect the absence of associations or may result from uncontrolled confounding by haplotypes related both to those that we examined and glioblastoma. Nonetheless, the association between the T-G IL-4Ralpha haplotype and glioblastoma risk may indicate a role of immune factors in glioblastoma development.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An inverse association between allergic conditions and glioma risk has been reported previously. In this large population-based
case-control study, the authors identified cases diagnosed with glioma or meningioma in Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden,
and southeast England between 2000 and 2004. Detailed information on self-reported physician-diagnosed allergic conditions
was collected from 1,527 glioma cases, 1,210 meningioma cases, and 3,309 randomly selected controls. Logistic regression showed
an odds ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.80) for glioma associated with a diagnosis of any of asthma, hay fever,
eczema, or other type of allergy. The risk estimates for glioma were around 0.65 for each allergic condition (asthma, eczema,
hay fever, and food allergy), and the 95% confidence intervals were equally consistent, at around 0.55, 0.80. The reduced
risks of glioma related to eczema, hay fever, and allergy overall, but not asthma, were confined to current rather than past
conditions. Meningioma risk was not associated with allergic conditions, except for eczema (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence
interval: 0.60, 0.91). Our results show a reduced risk for glioma associated primarily with current allergic conditions. If
this is etiologic, it has implications for the understanding of how allergic conditions might reduce the tumor risk.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · American Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Public concern has been expressed about the possible adverse health effects of mobile telephones, mainly related to intracranial tumors. We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and risk of glioma among 1,522 glioma patients and 3,301 controls. We found no evidence of increased risk of glioma related to regular mobile phone use (odds ratio, OR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.68, 0.91). No significant association was found across categories with duration of use, years since first use, cumulative number of calls or cumulative hours of use. When the linear trend was examined, the OR for cumulative hours of mobile phone use was 1.006 (1.002, 1.010) per 100 hr, but no such relationship was found for the years of use or the number of calls. We found no increased risks when analogue and digital phones were analyzed separately. For more than 10 years of mobile phone use reported on the side of the head where the tumor was located, an increased OR of borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.01, 1.92, p trend 0.04) was found, whereas similar use on the opposite side of the head resulted in an OR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.71, 1.37). Although our results overall do not indicate an increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use, the possible risk in the most heavily exposed part of the brain with long-term use needs to be explored further before firm conclusions can be drawn.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferases (GST) detoxify environmental and endogenous compounds and levels of two polymorphic GST proteins, GSTM3 and GSTP1, are high in the brain. Previous studies of GSTM3 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and adult brain tumor risk have produced inconsistent results, whereas the GSTM3 -63 variant is newly identified and, therefore, has not yet been studied in this context. We therefore examined associations between GSTM3 -63, GSTM3 *A/*B, GSTP1 105, and GSTP1 114 variants and adult brain tumor risk and the interaction of the effects of these same polymorphisms with cigarette smoking. In addition, the enzymes NQO1 and CYP1A1 alter susceptibility to oxidative brain damage. Because there is less previous evidence for a role of NQO1, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 variants, we restricted analysis of these variants to a small preliminary study.
We genotyped DNA collected for an international population-based case-control study of 725 glioma cases, 329 of which were glioblastoma cases, 546 meningioma cases and 1,612 controls. Study participants were residents of Sweden, southeast England, Denmark, and Finland.
We found no associations between the GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, CYP1A1, GSTM1, or GSTT1 polymorphisms and adult brain tumor risk with the possible exception of a weak association between the G-C (Val-Ala) GSTP1 105/114 haplotype and glioma [odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.54, 0.99], nor was there an interaction between the effects of the GSTM3 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking.
Overall, we observed no strong evidence for an association between GST or related enzyme polymorphisms and adult brain tumor risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · European Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) is a benign tumor of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Its recorded incidence is increasing but risk factors for this tumor have scarcely been investigated. We conducted a population-based case-control study of risk factors for acoustic neuroma in the UK and Nordic countries, including 563 cases and 2,703 controls. Tumor risk was analyzed in relation to medical history and cigarette smoking. Risk of acoustic neuroma was significantly raised in parous compared with nulliparous women (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6), but was not related to age at first birth or number of children. Risk was not associated with a history of allergic disease, past head injury, past diagnosis of a neoplasm or birth characteristics, but was significantly raised for past diagnosis of epilepsy (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3-4.9). Tumor risk was significantly reduced in subjects who had ever regularly smoked cigarettes (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), but the reduction applied only to current smokers (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4-0.6), not ex-smokers (OR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3). The reduced risk of acoustic neuroma in smokers and raised risk in parous women might relate to sex hormone levels, or smoking might suppress tumor growth, but effects of parity and smoking on timing of diagnosis of the tumor are also a potential explanation. The raised risk in relation to past diagnosis of epilepsy might be a surveillance artefact or imply that epilepsy and/or antiepileptic medication use predispose to acoustic neuroma. These findings need replication by other studies and possible mechanisms need to be clarified.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Denmark and Sweden during the late 1980s. This makes the Danish and Swedish populations
suitable for a study aimed at testing the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of parotid gland tumors.
In this population-based case-control study, the authors identified all cases aged 20–69 years diagnosed with parotid gland
tumor during 2000–2002 in Denmark and certain parts of Sweden. Controls were randomly selected from the study population base.
Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 60 cases of malignant parotid gland tumors (85% response rate),
112 benign pleomorphic adenomas (88% response rate), and 681 controls (70% response rate). For regular mobile phone use, regardless
of duration, the risk estimates for malignant and benign tumors were 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 1.3) and 0.9 (95%
confidence interval: 0.5, 1.5), respectively. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone
use. The risk estimate did not increase, regardless of type of phone and amount of use. The authors conclude that the data
do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of parotid gland tumors.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · American Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use.
Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls.
Correlations between recalled and actual phone use were moderate to high (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 across countries) and of the same order for number and duration of calls. The kappa statistic demonstrated fair to moderate agreement for both number and duration of calls (weighted kappa ranging from 0.20 to 0.60 across countries). On average, subjects underestimated the number of calls per month (geometric mean ratio of recalled to actual = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99), whereas duration of calls was overestimated (geometric mean ratio = 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56). The ratio of recalled to actual use increased with level of use, showing underestimation in light users and overestimation in heavy users. There was substantial heterogeneity in this ratio between countries. Inter-individual variation was also large, and increased with level of use.
Volunteer subjects recalled their recent phone use with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Occupational and environmental medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that the incidence of meningioma increased in several industrialized countries in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time trends in incidence of meningiomas in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, with emphasis on the age distribution and sex ratio. Information about cases of meningiomas in people aged 15-84 years was obtained from the cancer registries of these Nordic countries for the years 1968-1997, and estimates of person-years at risk were calculated from information provided by the national population registries. Age-specific incidence rates per 100,000 and incidence rate ratios were calculated for 3-year periods. The female:male ratios were also evaluated. The combined incidence among men increased from 1.4 to 1.9 per 100,000 during the follow-up period, the corresponding rates for women were 2.6 and 4.5. The female:male ratio increased over time for several age groups and was as high as 3.5:1 in the group aged 40-44 years in the latest follow-up period (1993-1997). In summary, our results provide some support for the idea that the introduction of computed tomography in the late 1970s has had an impact on the detection of cases in people aged 60 and over. The decrease in the rate or detection postmortem has affected the incidence time trend, but it also coincides with widespread use of new imaging technologies. The increasing trend shown for the female:male ratio in the group aged 35-59 years is consistent with the possibility that increasing use of hormones may affect the incidence of meningiomas in women.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · International Journal of Cancer