[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Pectus excavatum (PE) is often regarded as a cosmetic disease, while its effect on cardiac function is under debate. Data regarding cardiac function before and after surgical correction of PE are limited. We aimed to assess the impact of surgical correction of PE on cardiac function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
CMR at 1.5 T was performed in 38 patients (mean age 21 ± 8.3; 31 men) before and after surgical correction to evaluate thoracic morphology, indices and its relation to three-dimensional left and right ventricular cardiac function.
Surgery was successful in all patients as shown by the Haller Index ratio of maximum transverse diameter of the chest wall and minimum sternovertebral distance [pre: 9.64 (95% CI 8.18-11.11) vs post: 3.0 (2.84-3.16), P < 0.0001]. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was reduced before surgery and improved significantly at the 1-year follow-up [pre: 45.7% (43.9-47.4%) vs 48.3% (46.9-49.5%), P = 0.0004]. Left ventricular ejection fraction was normal before surgery, but showed a further improvement after 1 year [pre: 61.0% (59.3-62.7%) vs 62.7% (61.3-64.2%), P = 0.0165]. Cardiac compression and the asymmetry index changed directly after surgery and were stable at the 1-year follow-up [3.93 (3.53-4.33) vs 2.08 (1.98-2.19) and 2.36 (2.12-2.59) vs 1.38 (1.33-1.44), respectively; P < 0.0001 for both]. None of the obtained thoracic indices were predictors of the improvement of cardiac function. A reduced preoperative RVEF was predictive of RVEF improvement.
PE is associated with reduced RVEF, which improves after surgical correction. CMR has the capability of offering additional information prior to surgical correction.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report investigates cardiac injury and arrest during a Nuss repair of severe pectus excavatum in a 16-year-old boy in 2006. The injuries of the right atrial auricle and the right ventricle were sutured, and the patient was resuscitated. Ultimately he died on the 11th day of progressive malignant cerebral edema and respiratory distress syndrome despite cerebral decompression and hypothermia. Typical morphologic features of cardiac injuries are demonstrated, and strategies to avoid inadvertent organ injury in pectus operations are discussed.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of nonparasitic splenic cysts (NPSCs) has not been clarified completely. The aim of this multinational and multicentre retrospective study was to further elucidate the origin of NPSCs.
From 1980 to 2006, 50 children and adolescents were surgically treated for NPSC at six paediatric surgical centres in four European countries. The initial histology report of 35 NPSCs, 22 epidermoid cysts, 11 pseudocysts or post-traumatic cysts and two mesothelial cysts was available. Additional re-evaluation, including immunohistochemistry, to detect cytokeratin, carcino-embrionic antigen and mesothelioma antibody in the inner surface of the cysts was carried out. Special attention was given to the possibility of preceding trauma to the splenic area and whether it played a role in the genesis of NPSC.
The pathological re-evaluation showed 30 epidermoid cysts, four mesothelial cysts and one pseudocyst. Immunohistology revealed eight epidermoid and two mesothelial linings of the cysts in those 11 patients in whom pseudocyst was diagnosed originally. No pseudocyst was documented in those patients who had a history of previous blunt abdominal trauma but was not proved by ultrasound and computed tomography scan.
In contrast with the prevailing belief, it has been demonstrated that NPSCs are congenital in origin, and there is no clinically proven evidence that trauma does play a role in their genesis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 2001 we minimized access (2.9-4.7 cm) for universally applicable endoscopic hybrid carinatum technique with two transsternal Willital bars in 173 endoscopic hybrid (EH) patients with very satisfactory results. In 2008-2009, endoscopic Nuss bar compression with endoscopic repair of costal flaring applied a new eight-hole stabilizer, which allows the use in pectus carinatum (PC) beyond adolescence including redos and combined deformities. This prospective study of 35 "endoscopic Berlin-Buch reversed Nuss" repairs intends to establish indications for this improved technique.
In February 2008 to February 2010, we used endoscopic Nuss bar compression by applying a bilateral new eight-hole stabilizer fixed to the bar without screws or wires, which allows unprecedented versatility and the use in pectus carinatum beyond adolescence. Thirty-five patients aged 17.05 ± 10.2 years (range: 11.3-33.1 years) were recorded prospectively and followed at 3 monthly intervals. We implanted a standard Nuss bar (11-14') into an endoscopically dissected submuscular presternal pocket correcting PC by sternal pressure. The bars were put under tension by traction via bilateral eight-hole stabilizers and three pericostal wire sutures on each side. Bars were removed after 2 years.
All 35 "reversed Nuss" pectus carinatum repairs, including 2 redos after Ravitch, were successful, with no conversion. So far there was no local or general complication and no seroma or bar dislocation. Thirty-one patients judged their result as excellent and 4 as good.
Although this is a very early experience, "reversed Nuss" is safe and effective and new technical improvements have expanded the range of applicability to older patients and suitable redos.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a failed epidural puncture for insertion of a catheter during chest wall correction by the minimally invasive procedure according to Nuss in a 16-year-old boy. After insertion of the catheter without any problem and establishment of a symmetrical thoracic analgesia and initiation of general anaesthesia, the catheter was surprisingly observed in the thoracic cavity upon insertion of the endoscopic camera. The catheter was then withdrawn under vision and the operation continued without any further incidents.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · ains · Anästhesiologie · Intensivmedizin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional cysts, ovarian torsion, and benign neoplasms are the most common ovarian masses among young adolescents. The laparoscopic approach to giant ovarian cysts in the pediatric population maybe difficult due the limited working space and the high risk of spillage. In this paper, we evaluate the role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adnexal disease occurring in young girls.
With the approval of the institutional review board, a retrospective chart review(2007-2003) of patients with adnexal disease was conducted.
Overall, 12 patients were evaluated with preoperative imaging, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and laboratory values. None resulted in malignant histology. All resections of ovarian cysts were performed laparoscopically. The outcome was uneventful in all patients.
Treatment is indicated if the diagnosis is in question, the cyst persists, in the case of ovarian torsion,or if the patient is symptomatic. Laparoscopy is becoming the favored approach by most pediatric surgeons for the treatment of ovarian cysts. All surgical procedures for ovarian cysts should spare functional ovary as much as is technically possible. Simple cysts can be fenestrated, but complex or functional cysts should be excised, with the preservation of the remaining ovary by careful dissection. The laparoscopic approach for adnexal masses can be performed in an acceptable manner, with comparable results to an open approach, plus the cosmetic advantages of minimally invasive surgery, which is an important aspect for the treated patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonparasitic splenic cysts (NPSCs) are uncommon in children. The aim of this multinational and multicentric study was to present the authors' experience as well as the changing trends in the management of NPSCs over the last 25 years.
From 1981 to 2005, 50 children or adolescents were surgically treated for NPSCs in 6 paediatric surgical centres in four European countries. The medical records of these 50 patients with NPSCs were reviewed retrospectively.
Twenty-six male and 24 female patients were operated on. Age at surgery ranged from 1 to 17 years (mean 11.9). Seventeen patients were symptomatic. Six total (4 open and 2 laparoscopic) and 26 partial (22 open and 4 laparoscopic) splenectomies were performed. Laparoscopic fenestration or deroofing and open cystectomy was carried out in 9 patients, respectively. Histological findings revealed the lesion to be an epidermoid cyst (n = 28), a pseudocyst (n = 15) or a mesothelial cyst (n = 2). In 5 patients haemangioma or lymphangioma was the pathological diagnosis. At a mean follow-up of 2.9 years, residual cysts were found in 8 laparoscopically treated patients, 4 of whom required re-do laparoscopy or open surgery.
Over the last two decades, the surgical treatment of NPSCs has changed from a formerly customary total splenectomy to spleen-conserving procedures, such as total cystectomy with or without partial splenectomy or partial cystectomy. These therapeutic modalities can be performed laparoscopically, if technically possible. Fenestration or deroofing of the cyst resulted in a high recurrence rate (7/9).
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study establishes a minimal access hybrid technique for pectus carinatum repair. Based on 132 conventional repairs (1984-2000) and our own endoscopic technique for correcting prominent costal arches, the conventional carinatum repair was adapted to an endoscopic-assisted technique.
Inserting two submuscular trocars and inflating CO2, the entire ventral thoracic wall was dissected endoscopically detaching pectoral muscles from ribs and sternum. February 2001 to February 2004, we repaired 37 patients (32 male) of 16.8 +/- 4.3 years (12 to 36 years). Endoscopic-assisted rib resection and axial reanastomosis, transsternal struts, and sternotomies were performed semi-open from a 2.9 to 4.7 cm incision.
All were completed minimally invasively, one seroma was managed conservatively. Thirty-three patients rated their result as excellent, 4 as good with a follow-up of 29.1 +/- 9.5 months (range, 18 to 55 months). Twenty-one struts were removed with no recurrence.
Minimal access pectus carinatum repair is safe, effective, and offers high comfort for the patient. The results are at least as good as conventional repairs, but hospital stays could be halved. Encouraging results of this early experience warrant further evaluation by other centers.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: Recent reports in literature have emphasized the clinical perception of reduced pain, postoperative morbidity, and dysfunction associated with thoracoscopic approach compared with standard thoracotomy. The authors describe a thoracoscopic approach and technical details for diaphragmatic eventration repair in children. Patients and Methods: Ten patients, 4 girls and 6 boys, 1 teenager (14 years old) and 9 children (age range, 6 - 41 months; average, 17 months), were operated for a diaphragmatic eventration in 3 different pediatric surgery teams, according to the same technique. Symptoms were recurrent infection (7 cases), dyspnea on exertion (2 cases), and a rib deformity (1 case). An elective thoracoscopy was performed, patient in a lateral decubitus. A low carbon dioxide insufflation allowed a lung collapse. Reduction of the eventration was made progressively when folding and plicating the diaphragm. Plication of the diaphragm was done with an interrupted suture (6 cases) or a running suture (4 cases). The procedure finished either with an exsufflation (4 cases) or a drain (6 cases). Results: A conversion was necessary in 2 cases: 1 insufflation was not tolerated and 1 diaphragm, higher than the fifth space, reduced too much the operative field. Patients recovered between 2 and 4 days. Dyspnea disappeared immediately. Mean follow-up of 16 months could assess the clinical improvement in every patient. Discussion: Thoracoscopic conditions are quite different between a diaphragmatic hernia repair previously reported and an eventration. Concerning diaphragmatic hernias, reduction is easy, giving a large operative space for suturing the diaphragm. Concerning diaphragmatic eventrations, the lack of space remains important at the beginning of the procedure despite the insufflation into the pleural cavity. The operative ports must be high enough in the chest to allow a good mobility of the instruments. Chest drainage seems to be unnecessary.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elective endoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repairs have been reported. But endoscopic surgery was regarded unsuitable for emergency repair of diaphragmatic hernia in ventilated newborn children in bad general condition. We report a new method for inflation-assisted reduction and thoracoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia diaphragmatic in a vitally endangered neonate. From three 2.7 mm to 5 mm accesses warmed low-pressure, low-volume CO2 was inflated into the thorax at 100 ml/min and 2 mm mercury. This allowed spontaneous reduction of the thoracic viscera into the abdomen and diaphragmatic suture with minimal handling. The 65-min procedure was tolerated well without perioperative deterioration. The baby was weaned off the respirator and breast-fed within 2 days, mediastinal shift normalized in 6 days. In suitable infants thoracoscopic repair and inflation-assisted reduction of thoracic contents is a more physiological access to congenital diaphragmatic hernia than laparoscopy or laparotomy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Pediatric Surgery International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thoracoscopic Nuss funnel chest repair still has a significant complication rate. Bar dislocation, pneumothorax, pleural effusions, and pericarditis seem to be caused mechanical irritation by the bar. We intended to reduce these problems by further technical modification of the Nuss technique.
Of 157 prospectively followed modified Nuss repairs, the last 57 patients had the bars placed in an extrapleural position and fixed by 10 to 14 pericostal sutures under bilateral thoracoscopy.
Entirely, extrapleural bar position was feasible in 53 of 57 patients. Four patients had minor holes over one of the bars, predominantly on the left side of the thorax. Pleural effusions, pneumothorax, and pain were greatly reduced, so that we discontinued the so far routine use of bilateral pleural drainages.
Extrapleural bar position is feasible in more than 90% of modified Nuss repairs. It reduces pleural secretion and pain, and seems to reduce pneumothorax, pulmonary bar adhesions, and pericardial effusions. The technique is easy and safe, and reduced the incidence of most complications in this early experience of 57 adolescent patients, although no sportive restrictions were imposed at all.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite progress in modern imaging, some inflammatory masses are difficult to distinguish clinically from neoplastic processes. In such cases the pathology report has a great distinctive value, but even then the final diagnosis may be difficult to reach. Eight patients with abdominal tumors of inflammatory origin were treated in two institutions, the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the Medical University of Gdansk, Poland, and Helios Center of Pediatric Surgery in Berlin, Germany, during the last 10 years. Four tumors were located in the pelvis, two in the liver, and two in the colonic mesentery. Five of them were inflammatory pseudotumors (two subclassified as inflammatory fibrosarcoma), one had nonspecific inflammatory changes, one was diagnosed as idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, and one was diagnosed as bacillary angiomatosis. All patients underwent surgical tumor biopsy, excisional in four and incisional in four. All but two children underwent macroscopically complete tumor excision (four primarily, two secondarily). In one case the tumor resolved with antibiotherapy. Surgery in retroperitoneal masses was often extensive and associated with significant complications because of invasive tumor growth. In conclusion, intraabdominal inflammatory lesions may closely mimic neoplasia in children. Clinical doubts result in repeated biopsies, and for this reason excisional biopsy should be preferred. In some cases, when excisional biopsy is not feasible due to invasive growth of the tumor, delayed complete mass excision should follow, despite occasional significant morbidity. The etiology and exact nature of inflammatory pseudotumors are still obscure, and it is unknown whether they represent inflammatory lesions or true neoplasia.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Pediatric Surgery International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wandering spleen is an uncommon diagnosis, difficult to prove by standard investigations. The authors report a new method for laparoscopic splenopexy in children using a balloon-dilated retroperitoneal pouch.
From 3 accesses, the spleen is mobilized and displaced into a retroperitoneal pouch dilated to the double splenic volume. The pouch is dilated by a self-made balloon via a further intercostal access and narrowed by sutures incorporating the cranial and caudal edge of the gastrosplenic ligament.
The peritoneal pouch contracts around the retroperitoneal spleen resulting in a firm fixation of the organ. This technique was successful in a 9-year-old girl with a 5-year history of severe recurrent abdominal pain.
Laparoscopic retroperitoneal pouch splenopexy is a safe and effective procedure for symptomatic wandering spleen precluding the use of foreign materials in this age group.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In children, laparoscopic decapsulation of large congenital splenic cysts has occasionally been advocated, but substantial series focusing on its long-term success are still lacking. We report the follow-up experiences from two pediatric surgical centers.
The decision to proceed to surgery was based on patient symptoms and cyst size (>4 cm and/or progression), after strictly exclusion of a parasitic cause (by serology and CT scan). With the use of three ports (5-10-mm) and a Harmonic Scalpel, the epithelial portion of the cyst was radically excised. The remaining hilar epithelium was coagulated carefully. After discharge, the children were examined regularly by ultrasound to detect recurrences.
From 1998 until 2002, eight children (mean age, 11.1 years; range, 3.1-16.4) were treated for cysts ranging from 4 to 15 cm in diameter. All procedures were completed without significant intraoperative complications (no major bleeding, no conversions). The mean operating time was 75 min (range, 56-184). Postoperatively, one child developed a cystic remnant (2 cm), which remained unchanged during 30 months of observation. After a mean follow-up of 2.2 years (range, 13-38 months), none of the patients showed any evidence of recurrent growth, and all of them had healthy splenic remnants.
Partial laparoscopic decapsulation is an advantageous approach to large splenic cysts in children, because it is effective, preserves splenic tissue, and provides good medium-term results.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A left thoracotomy is the standard access for aortosternopexy in severe tracheomalacia. We report a modified technique for thoracoscopic aortopericardiosternopexy.
The thymus is mobilized, and the needle is passed through the sternum and back. In extensive or recurrent tracheomalacia, not only the ascending aorta but also the innominate artery and pericardial base are fixed to the sternum. The effect is monitored bronchoscopically.
This technique showed dramatic success in two children, one 4-year-old and a 2-year-old. In the younger child, the thoracoscopy was a redo procedure after a previous open aortosternopexy.
Thoracoscopic aortopericardiosternopexy is an effective procedure that does not impair postoperative respiration. It should therefore be considered for severe tracheomalacia or even redo operations.
No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortosternopexy from a left anterolateral thoracotomy is the procedure of choice in severe tracheomalacia. The authors report an alternative technique of modified thoracoscopic aortopericardiosternopexy.
Thoracoscopy under mild CO2 insufflation (insufflation pressures 4 to 6 mm Hg) provides excellent access without selective intubation. The importance of visualizing the phrenic nerve, mobilization of the thymus without disrupting its vascular supply, and intraoperative bronchoscopy is stressed. The technique of passing the needle through the sternum and back is shown. In long segment tracheomalacia, not only the ascending aorta, but also the innominate artery and base of the pericardium are fixed to the sternum, and the effect is monitored by intraoperative bronchoscopy.
This technique was dramatically successful in a 4-year-old boy with long segment tracheomalacia and as a redo procedure in a 2-year-old girl after failed open aortopexy.
Thoracoscopic aortopexy seems to be as effective as open aortopexy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery