- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intense innate immunological activities occurring at the enteric mucosal surface involve interactions between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. Our previous studies have indicated that Peyer's patch lymphocytes may modulate intestinal epithelial barrier and ion transport function in homeostasis and host defense via cell-cell contact as well as cytokine signaling. The present study was undertaken using the established co-culture system of Caco-2 epithelial cells with lymphocytes of Peyer's patch to investigate the expression of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokines and cytokine receptors in the co-culture system after challenge with Shigella F2a-12 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The human colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2 was co-cultured with freshly isolated lymphocytes from the murine Peyer's patch either in the mixed or separated (isolated but permeable compartments) co-culture configuration, and was challenged with Shigella F2a-12 LPS for 8 h. The level of mRNA expressions of human interleukin-8 (hIL-8), human interleukin-8 receptor (hIL-8R), mouse interleukin-8 receptor (mIL-8R), mouse interleukin-6 (mIL-6), mouse interleukin-6 receptor (mIL-6R) and human interleukin-6 receptor (hIL-6R) was examined by semi-quantitative PCR. In both co-culture groups, hIL-8 expression of Caco-2 cells was decreased, and hIL-8R expression was increased compared to the Caco-2 alone group. Upon LPS challenge, hIL-8 expression from the Caco-2 cells of both co-culture groups was higher than in the Caco-2 control group. The increased hIL-8 expression of Caco-2 cells in the separated co-culture group is correlated with a decreased hIL-8R expression and an increased mIL-8R expression. In the mixed co-culture group, the increased expression of hIL-8 was associated with the upregulated hIL-8R expression on Caco-2 cells and downregulated mIL-8R on murine Peyer's patch lymphocytes (PPL). mIL-6 expression from mouse PPL was also upregulated by LPS in mixed co-culture. However, upon the treatment with LPS, hIL-6R expression of Caco-2 cells was decreased in the mixed co-culture, but increased in separated co-culture. The data suggest that release of hIL-8 from epithelial cells may act on lymphocytes through a paracrine pathway, but it may also act on the epithelial cells themselves via an autocrine pathway. The data also suggest that the release of mIL-6 from Peyer's patch lymphocytes affects epithelial cells in a paracrine fashion.
Dataset: Supplementary Material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer metastasis remains the most poorly understood process in cancer biology. It involves the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by a series of ‘tumour-associated’ proteases. Here we report the identification of a novel protease suppressor, NYD-SP8, which is located on human chromosome 19q13.2. NYD-SP8 encodes a 27 kD GPI-anchored cell surface protein, which shows structural homology to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that NYD-SP8 binds to uPA/uPAR complexes and interfere with active uPA production. Overexpression of NYD-SP8 results in reducing activities of the three major classes of proteases known to be involved in ECM degradation, including uPA, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsin B, leading to suppression of both in vitro and in vivo cancer cell invasion and metastasis. These data demonstrate an important role of NYD-SP8 in regulating ECM degradation, providing a novel mechanism that modulates urokinase signalling in the suppression of cancer progression.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) remains one of the most life-threatening and potentially fatal complications of assisted reproduction treatments, arising from excessive stimulation of the ovaries by exogenous gonadotropins administrated during in vitro fertilization procedures, which is characterized by massive fluid shift and accumulation in the peritoneal cavity and other organs, including the lungs and the reproductive tract. The pathogenesis of OHSS remains obscure, and no definitive treatments are currently available. Using RT-PCR, Western blot, and electrophysiological techniques we show that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in many epithelia, is involved in the pathogenesis of OHSS. Upon ovarian hyperstimulation, rats develop OHSS symptoms, with up-regulated CFTR expression and enhanced CFTR channel activity, which can also be mimicked by administration of estrogen, but not progesterone, alone in ovariectomized rats. Administration of progesterone that suppresses CFTR expression or antiserum against CFTR to OHSS animals results in alleviation of the symptoms. Furthermore, ovarian hyperstimulation does not induce detectable OHSS symptoms in CFTR mutant mice. These findings confirm a critical role of CFTR in the pathogenesis of OHSS and may provide grounds for better assisted reproduction treatment strategy to reduce the risk of OHSS and improve in vitro fertilization outcome.