[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH), manifesting as MH crisis during and/or after general anesthesia, is a potentially fatal disorder in response to volatile anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants. Though typical features of MH episode can provide clues for clinical diagnosis, MH susceptibility is confirmed by in vitro caffeine-halothane contracture test (CHCT) in western countries. It is traditionally thought that MH has less incidence and fewer typical characteristics in Chinese population than their western counterparts because of the different genetic background. In this study, we investigated the clinical features of MH in Chinese cases and applied the clinical grading scale and CHCT for diagnosis of MH.
A cluster of three patients with MH, from January 2005 to December 2007, were included in the study. Common clinical presentations and the results of some lab examinations were reported in detail. The method of the clinical grading scale of diagnosis of MH was applied to estimate the qualitative likelihood of MH and predict MH susceptibility. Muscle fibers of femoral quadriceps of the patients were collected and CHCT was performed to confirm the diagnosis of MH.
The clinical grading scales of diagnosis of the disease for these cases were all ranked grade D6, suggesting almost diagnosed ones. And the results of caffeine test were positive correspondingly, indicating that the patients should be diagnosed as MH susceptibility (MHS) according to diagnostic criteria of the North America MH group, which were already confirmed by clinical presentations and biochemical results.
These Chinese cases manifest as MH crisis. The clinical grading scale of diagnosis of MH may provide clues for clinical diagnosis. CHCT can also be used in confirming diagnosis of MH in Chinese cases though they have different genetic background from their western counterparts.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the residual paralysis after a single intubating dose of rocuronium and its effect of residual paralysis after a single dose of rocuronium on the postoperative pulmonary function of patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgeries.
Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I - II patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgeries were randomly divided into rocuronium (R) group (n = 30) and rocuronium + neostigmine (R + N) group (n = 30).All patients received midazolam (0.02 mg/kg), fentanyl (1 microg/kg), propofol(1.5-2 mg/kg), and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) to facilitate tracheal intubation and no more relaxant thereafter. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen (N(2)O:O(2) = 1:1). At the end of the procedure, neuromuscular blockade was not reversed in R group, while antagonism was accomplished with neostigmine (0.04 mg/kg) and atropine (0.02 mg/kg) in R + N group. Immediately after tracheal extubation and on arrival in the PACU, the train-of-four (TOF) ratio at the adductor pollicis of all patients were measured using acceleromyography. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of all patients were measured using spirometry before surgery, after administration of midazolam and fentanyl, immediately after tracheal extubation, on arrival in the PACU, and after the TOF ratio recovered to 1.0. The TOF ratio and pulmonary function between two groups were compared.
Immediately after tracheal extubation and on arrival in the PACU, the mean TOF ratio in R group was significantly lower than that in R + N group (P < 0.05). The mean time to achieve TOF ratio of 0.9 and 1.0 in R group was significantly longer than in R + N group (P < 0.05). Immediately after tracheal extubation and on arrival in the PACU, FVC, FEV(1), and PEFR were significantly lower in R group than in R + N group (P < 0.05). FVC, FEV(1), and PEFR after administration of midazolam and fentanyl and after TOF ratio recovered to 1.0 were significantly lower than the baseline values in all patients (P < 0.01).
After a single intubating dose of rocuronium, residual paralysis exists in the majority of patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgeries. The pulmonary function is impaired after the surgery, even after recovery of TOF ratio to 1.0.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of melatonin on voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium channels.
Hippocampus neurons were obtained from newborn Wistar rat and cultured. Primary cultured for 7 to 12 days of new-born Wistar rat were selected as objectives. Patch clamp whole-cell recording technique was used on the hippocampus neurons cultured for 7 to 12 day. to record the delayed rectifier potassium current to analyze the basic electrophysiological characteristics. The effects of melatonin of the concentrations of 1 nmol/L, 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 mol/L, 10 mol/L, 100 mol/L, and 1 mmol/L on the amplitudes and kinetics of delayed rectifier potassium currents were investigated.
With different voltage protocols and specific blockers of potassium channel (4-AP and TEA) a delayed rectifier potassium current that activated and inactivated slowly and had the outward rectifying characteristics (Ik) from the outward potassium currents in cultured new-born hippocampus neurons was separated. The effect of melatonin on the delayed rectifier channel was rapid, reversible and voltage-dependent Melatonin had no effect on the kinetic characteristics of the I -V curve. Melatonin increased the potassium current concentration-dependently. 1 - 100 nmol/L melatonin increased the amplitude of potassium current gradually; the effects of 1 - 100 micromol/L melatonin on the potassium current increased concentration-dependently, while the action of 1 mmol/L melatonin decreased.
Melatonin reversibly increases the rectifier delayed potassium currents of the cultured hippocampus neurons of new-born rat. This may be involved in some aspects of physiological and pathological significance of potassium currents.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the application of caffeine-halothane contracture test (CHCT) in the confirmation of malignant hyperthermia (MH).
One patient who underwent radical gastrectomy presented with clinical manifestations of MH during routine intravenous-inhalation anesthesia process. Isoflurane inhalation and the operation were ceased immediately and emergency management approaches such as physical cooling therapy were taken. Meanwhile, the levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), serum myoglobin, and urinary myoglobin were examined and rectus abdominis was taken and then CHCT was performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Total genome was extracted from the patient and then exons 2-18, 39-46, and 90-104 of ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene were screened to detect mutations using DNA sequencing technique.
The patient was diagnosed as MH episode by clinical characteristics and postoperatively continuous elevation of the levels of CK, serum myoglobin, and urinary myoglobin (30 times higher than normal level). Despite halothane test was negative, the diagnosis of MH was verified by the positive result of caffeine test. DNA sequencing of RYR1 gene of the patient revealed c. 6724C > T (p. T 2 206M).
CHCT can be used to confirm the diagnosis of MH.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high incidence of neuropsychologic deficits after cardiac surgery, including cognitive dysfunction and mood status, has significantly influenced the prognosis, outcome of treatment and long-term quality of life of patients. With a circadian secretion pattern, melatonin and cortisol are capable of modulating the human physiological processes and neuropsychological status, whereas disorder of their secretion pattern may lead to many diseases. However, it is unclear whether neuroendocrine variations are related to the neuropsychologic status in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Forty male patients scheduled for CABG with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (n = 20) or off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) (n = 20) were studied. Blood samples were taken intraoperatively at specific time-points and every 3 hours within the first postoperative 24 hours to determine plasma concentrations of melatonin and cortisol. A neuropsychologic test battery including depression and anxiety was administered preoperatively and 7 to 10 days postoperatively. Statistical methods included the nonparametric analysis, multiple linear regression and cosinor analysis.
The patients in the CPB group exhibited more severe neuropsychologic deficits and more anxious than those in the OPCAB group after surgery. In both groups, patients were more depressed postoperatively than preoperatively and recovered 3 months after surgery. Depression and anxiety were correlated with some factors of cognitive dysfunctions. In the postoperative 24 hours, 2 patients in the CPB group, and 6 patients in the OPCAB group showed a circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion. As for cortisol secretion, there were 3 patients in the CPB group and 7 in the OPCAB group respectively. Parameters of circadian rhythm of melatonin in the CPB group and those of secretion rhythm of cortisol in both groups were correlated with depression and some neuropsychologic tests.
The incidence of neuropsychological deficits was higher in patients receiving CABG with CPB than in those without CPB. The status of mood may contribute to the perioperative cognitive dysfunctions. The disordered circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in patients undergoing CABG with CPB and the disordered cortisol secretion may correlate directly or indirectly through mood with neuropsychological deficits.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia has rarely been reported in China. We report the first case of malignant hyperthermia, verified by caffeine-halothane contracture test and genetic testing, in a Chinese patient.
Preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Anesthesia and analgesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the anesthetic management features of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma.
Twelve patients scheduled for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma under general anesthesia were allocated into group 1, while another 12 patients who received transabdominal adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma under general anesthesia were selected as group 2. The hemodynamic changes and the postoperative recovery profiles between the two groups were compared.
Hemodynamic fluctuation occurred during carbon dioxide insufflation and tumor manipulation in group 1. However, there were no differences between the two groups. Duration of post operative recovery and hospital stay as well as requirement of analgesics in group 1 were significantly lower than those in group 2 (P < 0.05).
Hemodynamic fluctuation still exists during laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromacytoma. However, patients undergoing such surgical procedure recover faster as compared with open surgery.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between the circadian rhythm of perioperative cortisol secretion and neuropsychological states in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
Forty male patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) under hypothermic cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) or off-pump were enrolled in this study. They were allocated into CPB group or off-pump group with 20 patients in each group. Blood samples were withdrawn during surgery at specific time-points and every 3 h for 24 h in the immediate postoperative period. Plasma cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay. All subjects were investigated preoperatively as well as 7 to 10 d and 3 months postoperatively with a comprehensive neuropsychologic assessment, while depression and anxiety were assessed by Self-Rating Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory respectively.
During postoperative 24 h, three patients in the CPB group and 7 patients in the off-pump group were demonstrating a circadian secretion pattern, while they were disturbed in the remaining patients in both groups. Postoperative depression scores of patients in both groups were significantly higher than preoperative values. Postoperative anxiety scores of patients in the CPB group were significantly higher than those in the off-pump group. The CABG with CPB patients showed a significant deficit in the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-R and the Stroop colour word interference test. The disturbed cortisol circadian secretion in the CPB group correlated with depression and the Stroop colour word interference test, whereas in the off-pump group it correlated with depression, Digit Span subtest (forward), symbol digit modalities test and the Stroop colour word interference test. Degree of depression correlated with some items of cognitive dysfunctions.
Perioperative secretion rhythm of cortisol in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB or off-pump was disturbed. The disordered cortisol may correlate directly or indirectly through mood with neuropsychological deficits.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the effectiveness of using cell saver (CS) during surgery on blood sparing and its impact on patient's hematology and coagulation function.
One-hundred and thirty-eight patients undergoing elective surgery were recruited for intraoperative blood salvage using CS. Blood routine, blood chemistry and coagulation function were measured before surgery, after infusion of salvaged blood and postoperative day 1, respectively.
In total, 112,056 ml of packed red blood cells were collected, with a mean value of 812 ml per patient. The percentage of autologous blood transfusion volume to the total blood transfusion volume was from 48% to 89%. Allogenic blood transfusion rate was from 5% to 100%. Compared with the values before surgery, the hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, plasma total protein and fibrinogen concentration decreased significantly after the transfusion of salvaged blood and the first postoperative day (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while the prothrombin time was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05).
The use of CS during surgery can, to a certain extent, reduce the requirement of allogenic blood. However, reinfusion of large amount of salvaged blood may affect coagulation function.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the performance of target-controlled infusion (TCI) have been studied extensively, the accuracy and safety of a TCI system that targets the effect site remains to be demonstrated. This study was to investigate the relations of TCI of propofol to its concentrations in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), the effect-site concentrations and bispectral index (BIS).
Twelve mongrel dogs were used for investigations. The target effect-site concentration was set at 3 microg/ml and the infusion was lasted for 15 minutes. CSF and blood samples were then collected and propofol concentrations were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. BIS and hemodynamic data were monitored continuously.
The predicted plasma concentrations were generally overestimated. Median performance error (MDPE) and absolute median performance error (MDAPE) were -10.0% and 29.9% respectively. Propofol CSF concentrations were much lower than its effect-site concentrations. Changes in BIS were consistent with propofol concentrations in CSF, both of which changed direction at 5 minutes while the effect-site concentrations relatively lagged behind. Better correlation (r(2) = 0.9195) was found between BIS and CSF concentrations, when compared with that between BIS and effect-site concentrations (r(2) = 0.554).
With 1% enflurane inhaled, the inconsistency of drug effect to the effect-site concentrations may result from inaccuracy of pharmacokinetic parameters. CSF may show effect-site concentrations more accurately than plasma when using target effect-site concentration infusion.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the circadian rhythm of perioperative melatonin secretion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
Forty male patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or off-pump were allocated into two groups of 20 patients: CPB group and off-pump group. Blood samples were withdrawn from all patients immediately before the induction of anesthesia (baseline), 10 min after the induction of anesthesia, 10 min after heparinization, 30 min after commencement of CPB (or 2h after skin incision), before reversal of heparin with protamine, at the end of surgery, and. every 3 hours after operation until the twenty-fourth hour. The plasma concentration of melatonin was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The plasma melatonin concentrations during and after CPB were higher than the baseline value in the CPB group. There were no differences in the melatonin concentrations in the off-pump group. In the CPB group the melatonin concentrations after induction, during CPB, and after CPB were 7.2 +/- 3.4, 10.5 +/- 5.2, and 9.5 +/- 4.0 respectively, all significantly higher than those in the off-pump (5.5 +/- 2.5, 6.3 +/- 2.0, and 5.7 +/- 2.1 respectively, all P < 0.05). During the twenty-four hours after operation, two patients in the CPB group and six patients in the off-pump group showed circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion.
The perioperative circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB or off-pump is disturbed, however relatively more patients under off-pump group regain secretion rhythm of melatonin in the immediate postoperative period. CPB may be one of the reasons for perioperative melatonin circadian secretion disturbance.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of remifentanil with fentanyl used for intraoperative anesthesia.
Fifty-four patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy or total hysterectomy were randomly assigned to remifentanil group or fentanyl group with 27 cases in each group. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg) and either remifentanil (2 micrograms/kg) or fentanyl (2.5 micrograms/kg), and was maintained with inhalation of nitrous oxide in oxygen (2:1) and a continuous infusion of either remifentanil (0.2 microgram.kg-1.min-1) or fentanyl (0.03 microgram.kg-1.min-1). Depth of anesthesia, hemodynamic changes, recovery profile of anesthesia, postoperative analgesia and adverse reactions were observed.
The number of patients exhibited light depth of anesthesia during tracheal intubation and maintenance in the remifentanil group was significantly fewer than that in the fentanyl group (P < 0.05). Hemodynamic changes during intubation, skin incision, maintenance of anesthesia and extubation in the remifentanil group were significantly smaller than those in the fentanyl group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The time to opening eyes on command and the time for extubation after surgery were comparable between the two groups. More patients in the remifentanil group required bolus injection of morphine for postoperative pain relief than those in the fentanyl group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the aspect of adverse reactions.
The anesthetic and analgesic effects of remifentanil are more potent than those of fentanyl. Remifentanil can offer superior intraoperative hemodynamic stability compared with fentanyl without compromising recovery from anesthesia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects on blood sparing and risk of hematogenous tumor dissemination of the use of blood salvage machine in oncologic surgeries.
The clinical data of 13 patients, 6 with malignant tumors and 7 with benign tumors, who received the use of blood salvage machine during oncologic surgeries based on informed consent, were analyzed.
In total 42,575 ml of packed red blood cells were collected during surgery with a mean value of 3 275 ml (400 - 1500 ml) per patient. The average amount of allogenic transfusion per patient was 1 530 ml (0 - 8,000 ml). The number of blood salvage machine use in oncologic surgeries accounted for 8.6% (13/152) of the total number of blood salvage machine use in surgeries in that period. The perioperative mortality rate of the oncologic surgeries with the use of blood salvage machine was 7.7% (1/13). The post-operative metastasis rate of liver and lung was 15.4% (2/13).
The use of blood salvage machine during oncologic surgeries improves the blood sparing effect. However, it cannot be used routinely, since it may result in hematogenous tumor cell dissemination.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate perioperative patterns of melatonin and cortisol secretion rhyme in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
Eleven male patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol (3 mg.kg-1.h-1) and supplemented with fentanyl (15 micrograms/kg). Blood samples were taken during surgery at specific time-points and every 3 h in the immediate postoperative period and postoperative day 2 and day 3. Plasma melatonin and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively.
During surgery, plasma melatonin levels were below the minimum sensitivity level but low levels, without circadian variation, were measured during the immediate postoperative period. During postoperative day 2 and day 3, circadian secretion patterns of melatonin were present in 10 patients and showed an inverse correlation with light intensity exposed (r = -0.480, P = 0.01). Plasma cortisol levels in the immediate postoperative period were significantly higher than those before induction of anesthesia (P < 0.01). During postoperative day 2 and day 3, only 3 patients regained circadian secretion of cortisol.
It is concluded that melatonin and cortisol secretion are disrupted during cardiac surgery and in the immediate postoperative period.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch solution (HES) administered as replacement for estimated blood losses (EBL) during cytoreductive surgery for ovarian carcinoma on splanchnic oxygenation.
Cytoreductive surgery was operated upon forty-two patients with ovarian carcinoma. As soon as the EBL was higher than 10% but less than 20% of the estimated blood volume, the patients were randomly assigned to receive a volume of lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) equal to three times the EBL (LRS group, n = 22) or a volume of 6% HES equal to the EBL (HES group, n = 20). Tissue oxygenation was assessed indirectly by measuring the tonometric parameters of stomach, including difference between gastric intramucosal PsCO(2) and arterial PaCO(2) (Ps-aCO(2) gap), gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and arterial lactate acid concentration 30 min after induction of anesthesia (baseline value), 1 h and 2 h after skin incision, and at the end of surgery.
At the end of surgery, the Ps-aCO(2) gap was 8.7 mm Hg +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the HES group, significantly lower than that in the LRS group (18.74 mm Hg +/- 4.4 mm Hg, P < 0.01), while the pHi in the HES group was 7.30 +/- 0.05, significantly higher than that in the LRS group (7.21 +/- 0.07, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in arterial lactate acid concentration between the two groups.
In patients undergoing major surgery, volume resuscitation with medium molecular weight HES improves the splanchnic blood flow and tissue oxygenation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To summarize experience of perioperative anesthetic management for patients undergone excision of pheochromocytoma and complicated with catecholamine cardiomyopathy.
Perioperative anesthetic management for surgical treatment of three cases of pheochromocytoma complicated with catecholamine cardiomyopathy was described and discussed according to literature reports.
The catecholamine cardiomyopathy of the three cases presented with left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive cardiac failure and acute myocardial infarction. After removal of the pheochromocytoma under general anesthesia, a prolonged hypotension occurred in all of the three cases. In order to maintain stable hemodynamics, large dose of catecholamine was required after surgery. All of the three patients were survived and discharged.
It is suggested that myocardial dysfunction may be another important factor for the prolonged hypotension after removal of the tumor. Meticulous preoperative assessment of heart function is of primary importance for the management of anaesthesia during surgical procedures.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae