Joseph D Spahn

National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (113)873.22 Total impact

  • Jonathan Malka · Joseph D. Spahn

    No preview · Article · Feb 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) level is used as an aid in the diagnosis and management of chronic asthma. Its role in acute asthma remains to be studied. To determine whether Feno levels are elevated in children with asthma exacerbations compared with baseline, and whether there is a difference in Feno levels based on PCR positive (+) (respiratory virus isolated by PCR analysis) versus PCR negative (-) (respiratory virus not isolated by PCR analysis) status. Children with a previous Feno level measurement while stable and who presented to an urgent care facility with an asthma exacerbation were enrolled. Feno levels, spirometry, and nasal swabs for viral PCR were obtained at the time of the exacerbation and following a course of prednisone. Data were available on 66 children. Linear mixed models were used to regress the outcomes of interest (FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity, forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity, and natural log Feno) on detected virus (yes/no), visit (baseline, exacerbation, follow-up), and the interaction between the detected virus and visit. Compared with baseline, higher Feno values and lower lung function were found at the time of an exacerbation. A respiratory virus was detected in 59% of the exacerbations. The interaction between PCR (+) and PCR (-) groups and visit on log Feno was marginally significant (P = .07). There was no difference in log Feno between the PCR (+) and PCR (-) groups at baseline, while higher log Feno was found in the PCR (-) group at the time of exacerbation and following prednisone (P = .05 and .001, respectively). Higher Feno concentration in PCR (-) exacerbations suggests an eosinophilic predominance in nonviral compared with viral exacerbations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 is thought to play a role in inflammation and tissue remodeling. In adults with severe asthma, YKL-40 is expressed in the airway and YKL-40 levels are elevated in the serum. Objective: To compare YKL-40 levels in children with severe persistent asthma with those in adults with severe persistent asthma and to determine whether YKL-40 levels correlate with increasing asthma severity in childhood asthma. Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 23 adults and 19 children with severe persistent asthma, 23 children with moderate persistent asthma, and 19 children with mild persistent asthma were enrolled. The following data were collected on each patient: spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, percutaneous skin testing results to aeroallergens, peripheral eosinophils, serum IgE levels, and serum YKL-40 levels. Results: Compared with adults, children with severe persistent asthma had significantly lower YKL-40 levels, higher values for forced vital capacity and forced expiration volume in 1 second, higher serum IgE levels, and higher exhaled nitric oxide levels. YKL-40 levels did not correlate with increasing asthma severity in the pediatric cohort. Conclusion: Severe persistent asthma in childhood is not associated with elevated YKL-40 levels, unlike in adults with severe persistent asthma. YKL-40 is not a useful biomarker for asthma severity in childhood asthma.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
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    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • Monica B Reddy · Jayna Doshi · Ronina Covar · Joseph D Spahn
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    ABSTRACT: Novel asthma pharmacotherapy has changed the management of severe childhood asthma. This study determined whether the introduction and use of second-generation inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs), long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs), and combination inhaled GC/LABA (iGC/LABA) products and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) have impacted children with severe asthma. A retrospective review of children (aged 6-18 years) referred to National Jewish Health for severe asthma between 2003 and 2007 (current cohort) was performed (n = 65); the results were compared with a published cohort from 1993 to 1997 (historic cohort; n = 164). When comparing the current cohort to the historic cohort, the percentage requiring chronic oral GC therapy (28% versus 51%; p = 0.001), average dose (3.7 ± 2.4 mg/dose versus 16.7 ± 1.4 mg/dose; p < 0.0001), and duration of oral GC use (17.8 ± 8.6 months versus 33.7 ± 3.5 months; p = 0.09) were less. Ninety-seven percent of the current cohort was on a second-generation iGC either alone or in combination with an LABA, 76% were on an LTRA, and 66% were on combination iGC/LABA product, while none of the historic cohort received these medications. In addition, the current cohort had a higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (84 ± 2.5% versus 76 ± 2% of predicted; p = 0.008), required less albuterol (33 ± 9 inhalations/week versus 71 ± 7 inhalations/week; p = 0.0007), had fewer intubations in the past (13% versus 21%; p = 0.13) and had fewer GC-induced adverse effects compared with the historic cohort. The current cohort required less chronic oral GCs, had better asthma control, and had fewer GC-induced adverse effects compared with the historic cohort studied 10 years ago. This is most likely because of the use of more effective medications for childhood asthma.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Background The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 is thought to play a role in inflammation and tissue remodeling. In adults with severe asthma, YKL-40 is expressed in the airway and YKL-40 levels are elevated in the serum. Objective To compare YKL-40 levels in children with severe persistent asthma with those in adults with severe persistent asthma and to determine whether YKL-40 levels correlate with increasing asthma severity in childhood asthma. Methods In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 23 adults and 19 children with severe persistent asthma, 23 children with moderate persistent asthma, and 19 children with mild persistent asthma were enrolled. The following data were collected on each patient: spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, percutaneous skin testing results to aeroallergens, peripheral eosinophils, serum IgE levels, and serum YKL-40 levels. Results Compared with adults, children with severe persistent asthma had significantly lower YKL-40 levels, higher values for forced vital capacity and forced expiration volume in 1 second, higher serum IgE levels, and higher exhaled nitric oxide levels. YKL-40 levels did not correlate with increasing asthma severity in the pediatric cohort. Conclusion Severe persistent asthma in childhood is not associated with elevated YKL-40 levels, unlike in adults with severe persistent asthma. YKL-40 is not a useful biomarker for asthma severity in childhood asthma.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Todd A. Mahr · Jonathan Malka · Joseph D. Spahn
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    ABSTRACT: The burden of pediatric asthma remains high with one-third of patients being under- or overtreated because of the unique challenges in the assessment and management of childhood asthma. Until recently, there has been no point of care tool for assessing the underlying airway inflammation (i.e., inflammometry) in asthma. Recently, fractional exhaled nitric oxide(FeNO) has emerged as an important biomarker for the assessment and management of asthma. Recent evidence indicates that FeNO identifies T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated airway inflammation with a high positive and negative predictive valuefor identifying corticosteroid responsive airway inflammation. This article examines the evidence for FeNO as a predictor of Th2-mediated inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsive airway inflammation and reviews recent studies evaluating the role of FeNO, whether helpful or not, in the assessment and management of pediatric asthma. FeNO is a reliable adjunct to traditionaltests in the assessment of suspected asthma. Importantly, it is useful for identifying and for excluding ICS-responsive airwayinflammation. Although individual study results have varied, collectively, asthma managed using FeNO is associated with lower exacerbation rates compared with clinical algorithms alone. Finally, FeNO may be useful in identifying patients at riskfor future impairment or loss of asthma control during reduction/cessation of ICS treatment. FeNO testing has an important role in the assessment of pediatric patients with suspected asthma and in the management of pediatric patients with establishedasthma. Additional studies will continue to define the exact role of FeNO testing in pediatric asthma.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Allergy and Asthma Proceedings

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • Joseph D. Spahn · Jonathan Malka · Todd A. Mahr · Paul M. Dorinsky

    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • Joseph D. Spahn
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that induced sputum can provide information regarding the cellular and molecular processes involved in asthma and other obstructive pulmonary diseases, and can aid in the diagnosis of asthma and in distinguishing asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients who present with evidence for fixed airflow obstruction. Sputum eosinophils are associated with both asthma severity and level of asthma control. By effectively treating sputum eosinophilia, the number of asthma exacerbations can be significantly reduced compared with managing asthma based on symptoms and lung function.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2011

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2010
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    ABSTRACT: For children who have uncontrolled asthma despite the use of low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), evidence to guide step-up therapy is lacking. We randomly assigned 182 children (6 to 17 years of age), who had uncontrolled asthma while receiving 100 microg of fluticasone twice daily, to receive each of three blinded step-up therapies in random order for 16 weeks: 250 microg of fluticasone twice daily (ICS step-up), 100 microg of fluticasone plus 50 microg of a long-acting beta-agonist twice daily (LABA step-up), or 100 microg of fluticasone twice daily plus 5 or 10 mg of a leukotriene-receptor antagonist daily (LTRA step-up). We used a triple-crossover design and a composite of three outcomes (exacerbations, asthma-control days, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second) to determine whether the frequency of a differential response to the step-up regimens was more than 25%. A differential response occurred in 161 of 165 patients who were evaluated (P<0.001). The response to LABA step-up therapy was most likely to be the best response, as compared with responses to LTRA step-up (relative probability, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.3; P=0.004) and ICS step-up (relative probability, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4; P=0.002). Higher scores on the Asthma Control Test before randomization (indicating better control at baseline) predicted a better response to LABA step-up (P=0.009). White race predicted a better response to LABA step-up, whereas black patients were least likely to have a best response to LTRA step-up (P=0.005). Nearly all the children had a differential response to each step-up therapy. LABA step-up was significantly more likely to provide the best response than either ICS or LTRA step-up. However, many children had a best response to ICS or LTRA step-up therapy, highlighting the need to regularly monitor and appropriately adjust each child's asthma therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00395304.)
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · New England Journal of Medicine
  • S. Monforte · J. Malka-Rais · J. D. Spahn

    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The course of mild to moderate persistent asthma in children is not clearly established. To determine the rate and predictors for remitting, periodic, and persistent asthma in adolescence. The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a 4.3-year randomized, double-masked, multicenter trial in children with mild to moderate persistent asthma that compared continuous therapy with either budesonide or nedocromil, each to placebo, followed by a 4-year observational follow-up period. Asthma activity during the observation period included remitting (no asthma activity in the last year), persistent (asthma activity in every quarter), and periodic asthma (neither remitting nor persistent). Asthma was identified as remitting in 6%, periodic in 39%, and persistent in 55% of the 909 participants, with no effect noted from earlier anti-inflammatory treatment during the CAMP trial. Within all 3 asthma activity categories, improvements in airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, and asthma morbidity were observed over time. Features at entry into CAMP associated with remitting versus persistent asthma were lack of allergen sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens (odds ratio [OR], 3.23; P < .001), milder asthma (OR, 2.01; P = .03), older age (OR, 1.23; P = .01), less airway hyperresponsiveness (higher log methacholine FEV(1) PC(20) (OR, 1.39; P = .03), higher prebronchodilator FEV(1) percent predicted (OR, 1.05; P = .02), and lower forced vital capacity percent predicted (OR, 0.96; P = .04). Remission of asthma in adolescence is infrequent and not affected by 4 years of anti-inflammatory controller therapy. Factors such as sensitization and exposure, low lung function, and airway greater hyperresponsiveness decrease the likelihood of remitting asthma.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
  • J. Malka-Rais · M. E. Krawiec · J. D. Spahn

    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • R.A. Covar · J.D. Spahn

    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma exacerbations occur year-round; however, peak asthma-related events occur in the fall and are frequently associated with viral respiratory infections. To compare the rates of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in the fall (September, October, November) between users and nonusers of fluticasone propionate plus salmeterol in a single inhaler (FSC) in the preceding summer. This was a retrospective, observational study using health care claims from a large managed care database. Patients age 4 to 55 years with both a medical claim for asthma and a pharmacy claim for FSC were categorized into 3 age groups: children (4-11 years), adolescents (12-18 years), and adults (19-55 years). There were 201,973 observations of FSC dispensings and 184,143 observations without FSC. Across all age groups, summertime dispensings of FSC were associated with a significantly lower (P < .001) risk of an asthma-related ED visit (4-11 years: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.54, 95% CI, 0.49-0.60; 12-18 years: OR, 0.59, 95% CI, 0.54-0.64; 19-55 years: OR, 0.53, 95% CI, 0.51-0.55) or hospitalization (4-11 years: OR, 0.43, 95% CI, 0.35-0.54; 12-18 years: OR, 0.49, 95% CI, 0.40-0.60; 19-55 years: OR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.57-0.65) in the subsequent fall. This protective effect persisted even for patients with fall dispensings of FSC. The risk of oral corticosteroid dispensing in the fall was also significantly reduced in all age groups. Summertime dispensings of FSC were associated with a decreased risk of serious asthma-related outcomes in the subsequent fall. Continuous use of FSC before seasonal viral exposure may decrease seasonally related exacerbations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
  • S. Monforte · J. Malka-Rais · J. D. Spahn

    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Publication Stats

4k Citations
873.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2014
    • National Jewish Health
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1996-2014
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002-2008
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1999-2006
    • National Research Center (CO, USA)
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2005
    • Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center
      Brooklyn, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Children's Hospital of Wisconsin
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States