[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report patient-reported outcomes and complications associated with contemporary periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) surgery in treating symptomatic acetabular dysplasia and compare these outcomes with total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with similar demographic details. Two consecutive cohorts included patients between aged 18 to 40 years who had undergone either PAO (100 hips; 24 male, 76 female) or THA (55 hips; 18 male, 37 female). At a mean follow-up of 5.9 years (2 to 13), there was significant improvement in the modified Harris hip pain (p < 0.001, PAO and p < 0.001, THA), function (p < 0.001, PAO and p = 0.001, THA), and total scores (p < 0.001, PAO and p < 0.001, THA) within each cohort. There were no significant differences in the clinical outcome scores between the groups. Complication rates were low and similar in each cohort (p = 0.68). Similar to THA, contemporary PAO surgery is a clinically effective procedure that improves function and activity levels, provides pain relief and is associated with an acceptable complication rate.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Bone and Joint Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) has shown safety and efficacy in reducing blood loss associated with various surgical procedures. However, to our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the effect of TXA on blood loss and transfusion requirements associated with periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Questions/purposes The main purpose of this study is to determine whether TXA reduces blood loss and transfusion use in patients undergoing PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Our secondary purpose was to compare the frequency of symptomatic thromboembolic events between patients undergoing surgery with and without TXA. Methods A consecutive series of 100 periacetabular osteotomies performed by one surgeon was reviewed to compare the groups immediately before and after implementation of routine use of tranexamic acid (two retrospective cohorts). TXA dosing followed an established protocol with a standard dose of 1 g infused intravenously during 10 minutes before skin incision and an additional 1 g intravenously at wound closure. Outcome measures include total estimated blood loss perioperatively and transfusion requirements. Total estimated blood loss was calculated using a formula built from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data regarding surgical blood loss. Results The mean perioperative total estimated blood loss was less in the patients receiving TXA compared with blood loss in patients who did not receive TXA (706 mL versus 1021 mL; p Conclusions TXA reduces estimated blood loss and the frequency of transfusions in patients undergoing PAO for treatment of symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Future prospective studies should confirm our findings to determine whether patients undergoing PAO should receive routine perioperative TXA. Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients who undergo periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia experience decreased pain and improved function, yet some experience inadequate clinical improvement. The etiologies of treatment failure have not been completely defined, and sex-dependent disease characteristics that may be associated with less pain relief are not understood.
We sought to determine whether there were clinically important sex-specific differences between male and female patients undergoing PAO for acetabular dysplasia in terms of (1) clinical parameters (anthropomorphic traits and hip scores), (2) radiographic findings, and (3) intraoperative findings at the time of PAO, in particular findings potentially associated with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) such as chondromalacia at the head-neck junction, impingement trough, or reduced head-neck offset.
Between 2007 and 2012 we treated 245 patients (270 hips) with a PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Of those, 16 patients (16 hips; 6%) had insufficient documentation for review in the medical record and another 49 patients (51 hips; 19%) met prespecified exclusion criteria, leaving 180 patients (203 hips; 75%) for analysis in this retrospective study. One hundred thirty-nine patients were females and 41 were males. Clinical data including patient demographics, physical examination, patient self-reported outcome scores, radiographic morphologic features, and intraoperative findings were collected prospectively as part of an institutional registry. Statistical analysis was performed with univariate and multivariate analyses.
Mean age was similar among sexes; however, BMI was greater in males compared with females (26 versus 24 kg/m(2); p = 0.002). Males had less hip ROM including internal rotation at 90° flexion (14° ± 13.8° versus 25° ± 16.2°; p = 0.001). Males had higher preoperative UCLA (7 ± 2, versus 6 ± 2; p = 0.02) and Harris hip scores (63 ± 15 versus 58 ± 16; p = 0.04). Radiographically, a crossover sign (88% versus 39%; p < 0.001) and posterior wall sign (92% versus 63%; p < 0.001) were more common in males. Males had greater alpha angles on the frog lateral (63° ± 15.3° versus 58° ± 16°; p = 0.04) and Dunn radiograph views (64° ± 15.5° versus 56° ± 14.8°; p = 0.02). The incidence of femoral head-neck chondromalacia (62% versus 82%; p = 0.03) and an impingement trough observed at surgery was greater in males (35% versus 17%; p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed differences between the sexes for reduced internal rotation in flexion, a higher Dunn alpha angle, increased incidence of a crossover sign, and a lower anterior center-edge angle.
There are sex-dependent, disease characteristic differences in patients with symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Most notably, male patients have a greater prevalence of clinical, radiographic, and intraarticular findings consistent with concurrent FAI and instability and potentially a heightened risk of secondary FAI after PAO, however postoperative and long-term followup are needed to confirm these findings and it remains unclear which patients need surgical correction of the impingement and instability. Preoperative evaluation of acetabular dysplasia in males should at least include careful attention to factors associated with symptomatic FAI; however, further studies are needed to determine when surgical correction is needed.
Level III, therapeutic study.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with symptomatic residual Perthes-like deformities may present with a combination of structural abnormalities including a large aspheric femoral head, short and wide femoral neck, high greater trochanter, and acetabular dysplasia. Sometimes, the hip is further compromised by concurrent symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) (proximal femoral deformities) and structural instability (acetabular dysplasia).
We therefore sought to characterize (1) the intraoperative findings; (2) radiographic correction; and (3) early patient-reported outcomes, complications, and failures of treating complex Perthes-like hip deformities with combined surgical dislocation and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO).
We performed 694 hip preservation procedures between November 2006 and August 2010. Of these, 46 had residual Perthes-like hip deformities, defined as proximal deformity consistent with residual Perthes and a history of Perthes disease or treatment of pediatric hip dysplasia. Of these, we report on 16 patients (16 hips) with residual Perthes-like hip deformities and associated acetabular dysplasia (structural instability, defined as radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia with intraoperative confirmation of instability). These 16 patients were treated with a combined surgical hip dislocation to comprehensively address intraarticular and extraarticular sources of FAI and PAO to address structural instability and were analyzed at a minimum 24-month followup (median, 40 months; range, 24-78 months). No patients in this series were lost to followup. Ten patients' hips had previous surgical treatment, including six with previous osteotomy. Operative findings were extracted from standardized prospectively collected intraoperative data collection forms. Radiographic correction was evaluated with established methods (lateral center-edge angle, anterior center-edge angle, acetabular inclination, center-to-trochanter distance) and clinical outcomes were measured with the modified Harris hip score (mHHS) as well as by prospectively recorded data on patient complications and followup.
Acetabular labrochondral abnormalities included labral hypertrophy in all hips and labral and/or articular cartilage lesions requiring treatment in 13 hips. Radiographic analysis demonstrated consistent radiographic correction. The median preoperative mHHS improved from 64 to 92 at a median followup of 40 months (p < 0.001). Fourteen patients (14 hips) had a good or excellent clinical result. Two patients (two hips) were classified as failures based on mHHS less than 70 (n = 1) or conversion to total hip arthroplasty (n = 1).
Combined surgical hip dislocation and PAO provides major deformity correction in Perthes-like hip deformities with associated acetabular dysplasia. Early clinical results suggest this technique is safe and effective. Long-term studies are needed to determine if improved long-term outcomes are associated with comprehensive deformity correction.
Level IV, therapeutic study.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to determine and categorize all complications associated with the periacetabular osteotomy performed by experienced surgeons. Methods: We prospectively analyzed perioperative complications in 205 consecutive unilateral periacetabular osteotomies performed at seven institutions by ten surgeons. All perioperative complications were recorded at an average of ten weeks and one year after surgery in standardized fashion using a validated complication grading scheme applied to hip preservation procedures. The mean patient age was 25.4 years. There were 143 female and sixty-two male patients. The most common diagnosis was developmental acetabular dysplasia, and concomitant procedures most commonly included femoral osteochondroplasty (58%) or hip arthroscopy (20%), which could include labral repair or resection. Results: Major complications (grade III or IV) occurred in twelve patients (5.9%). Seven complications were evident at the ten-week visit and five at the one-year visit. Nine of the complications required a second surgical intervention, including repair for acetabular migration or implant adjustment (four patients), incision and drainage for a deep infection (two patients), and heterotopic bone resection, contralateral peroneal nerve decompression, and posterior column fixation (one patient each). Three thromboembolic complications were managed medically. There were no vascular injuries, permanent nerve palsies, intra-articular osteotomies and/or fractures, or acetabular osteonecrosis. The most common grade-I or II complication was asymptomatic heterotopic ossification. Conclusions: For surgeons experienced with the periacetabular osteotomy, it is a safe procedure but is associated with a 5.9% risk of grade-III or IV complications beyond the learning curve. The majority of these complications are resolved without permanent disability. COPYRIGHT
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is frequently used to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia in the adolescent age group. Despite encouraging results, factors predictive of the development of postoperative complications remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether obesity is a risk factor for complications following PAO in adolescents.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of pediatric orthopedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Some patients opt to undergo conversion to a THA for continued pain or progression of hip arthritis after periacetabular osteotomy. Whether patients are at greater risk for postoperative complications, revision THA, poor clinical outcomes, or compromised radiographic results after periacetabular osteotomy is debatable.
When compared with a matched cohort of patients who underwent THAs for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) without previous periacetabular osteotomy, we asked whether a THA after a periacetabular osteotomy has (1) a higher complication rate, (2) a higher likelihood of resulting in revision THA, (3) comparable improvements in Harris hip score, and (4) comparable radiographic results.
Patients and Methods
A multicenter retrospective review of 562 patients undergoing 645 periacetabular osteotomies was performed. Twenty-three hips in 22 patients underwent a THA after periacetabular osteotomy. The patients were matched for age, sex, and BMI with 23 hips in 23 patients with DDH undergoing THA without a history of periacetabular osteotomy. Minimum followup for both groups of patients was 2 years (mean, 10 ± 4 years and 6 ± 4 years, respectively). Comparisons were made to answer the study questions based on a retrospective review from prospectively maintained registries of clinical and radiographic information at two participating centers.
With the numbers available, there was no difference in complication or revision rates between the two groups (p = 0.489 and 1.000, respectively); however, a post hoc power analysis showed our study was underpowered to detect a difference in the rate of postoperative complications or revision THA. There was marked improvement in Harris hip score with THA after periacetabular osteotomy (p
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Modern treatment of hip dysplasia has focused on the correction of the structural deformity with the periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), which addresses the deformity by redirecting the acetabulum into an improved mechanical position. Hip arthroscopy has allowed an increased awareness of the intra-articular pathology associated with acetabular dysplasia. The combination of hip arthroscopy with periacetabular osteotomy allows for treatment of both intra-articular and structural abnormalities associated with hip dysplasia. However, there is limited information regarding this combined approach for treating symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to report the early clinical and radiographic outcomes of combining hip arthroscopy with PAO compared to PAO alone.
We retrospectively reviewed 48 hips (46 patients) who underwent hip arthroscopy combined with periacetabular osteotomy (HS-PAO) and compared them to a control group of 62 hips (54 patients) who underwent PAO alone. The minimum clinical follow-up of the HS-PAO group was 12 months (mean, 31.4 months; range, 12-79 months), which was not significantly different from the control group (mean, 28.7 months; range, 12-71 months; p = 0.39). Pre-operative and post-operative standardized radiographs were analyzed for findings of acetabular dysplasia, including lateral center-edge angle (LCEA), acetabular inclination, anterior-center edge angle (ACEA), and Tönnis osteoarthritis grade. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the UCLA activity score, modified Harris hip score (mHHS), short form-12 (SF-12), and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Perioperative complications were graded and compared between the two groups.
The mean age of the patients in the HS-PAO group was 28.0 years (range, 12 to 47 years), which was not significantly different from the control group (p = 0.35). Forty-four hips (91.7%) were in female patients, and 58% were right-sided. There was significant change in the mean LCEA (15.1° vs. 29.7°; p < 0.0001), acetabular inclination (15.0° vs. 2.8°; p < 0.0001), and ACEA (16.5° vs. 33.7°; p <0.0001). The preoperative UCLA, mHHS, and SF-12 scores were not significantly different between groups. The HS-PAO group had a significantly higher pre-operative total WOMAC score (40.6 vs. 30.8; p = 0.03). The HS-PAO and control groups both saw significant improvement in the mHHS (23.5 vs. 21.3), SF-12 physical (7.5 vs. 9.1) scores, which were not significantly different from each other (all p-values > 0.3). The PAO-HS group, however, experienced a 0.9 improvement in the UCLA score, which was significantly different from the control group (-0.2; p = 0.03). The PAO-HS group also experienced a significantly greater improvement in the total WOMAC score (27.0 vs. 17.8; p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the complication between the groups. Within the PAO-HS group, there were 16 lateral femoral cutaneous nerve palsies (33.3%) that resolved with outpatient management. There was 1 posterior column fracture that was treated nonoperatively.
At short-term follow-up, hip arthroscopy with PAO shows equal to improved clinical outcomes with similar radiographic changes when compared to PAO alone without an increase in major complications. Patients that underwent hip arthroscopy combined with PAO also experienced a larger increase in activity level when compared to PAO alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periacetabular osteotomy is a well-described surgical intervention for symptomatic acetabular deformities in skeletally mature patients. Data regarding return to athletic activity or sport after this procedure are still limited.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The American Journal of Sports Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The periacetabular osteotomy has become a common procedure for treating symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Like other major hip procedures, there is concern regarding the risk of associated venous thromboembolic disease. Nevertheless, there is limited information regarding the need for screening, and optimal prophylactic measures have not been established.
We sought to determine the frequency of thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and symptomatic pulmonary embolism [PE]) associated with the periacetabular osteotomy in in patients receiving aspirin and mechanical compression prophylaxis.
We performed a retrospective review of 134 adult patients (149 hips) treated with the periacetabular osteotomy during an 8-year period. During this period, 136 (91%) of the hips treated with a periacetabular osteotomy were screened within 1 week for DVT, whereas 13 (9%) could not be evaluated for various reasons. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 30 years (range, 18-60 years), and no patients were lost to followup during the 4 to 6 months after surgery. The same thromboembolic prophylactic regimen was used for all patients. This consisted of 325 mg aspirin twice a day and compression stockings for 6 weeks and lower extremity pneumatic compression devices while hospitalized. Screening bilateral lower extremity ultrasonography was performed within 1 week (mean, 4 days) of the procedure to detect asymptomatic DVTs.
Of the 134 patients, two patients (two hips) with negative postoperative screening ultrasounds presented at 14 and 38 days postoperatively with clinical symptoms of DVT. Repeat ultrasound confirmed this diagnosis in both cases. There were no symptoms of PE. Screening venous ultrasonography did not identify any DVTs during the early postoperative period before discharge. These two patients were treated with 3 to 6 months of warfarin anticoagulation. Neither patient had persistent symptoms related to the DVT.
These data indicate that the risk of symptomatic DVT associated with periacetabular osteotomy is low (1%) with use of aspirin and mechanical compression prophylaxis. Furthermore, routine postoperative screening did not detect any patients with an asymptomatic DVT.
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To look at the rates of compartment syndrome (CS) occurs after intramedullary (IM) nailing of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures.
Methods: In this retrospective case series, we reviewed the charts of all patients treated operatively for radius and ulnar shaft fractures from 2000-2009 at our institution and identified 113 patients who underwent IM fixation of both bone forearm fractures. There were 74 closed fractures and 39 open fractures including 31 grade I fractures, seven grade II fractures, one grade IIIA fracture. We compared patients who did and did not develop CS to identify variables associated with post-operative CS. Indications for IM fixation included inability to obtain an acceptable reduction, loss of reduction, or the presence of an open fracture. If the IM nail could not be passed easily across the fracture site, a small open approach was used to aid reduction.
Results: CS occurred in three of 113 patients (2.7%). CS occurred in 3 of 39 (7.7%) of the open fractures compared to none of 74 closed fractures (p=0.039), including 45 closed fractures that were treated within 24 hours of injury. An open reduction was performed in all of the open fractures and 38 (51.4%) of the closed fractures. Increased operative time was associated with developing CS post-operatively (168 vs 77 min, p<0.001). CS occurred within the first 24 post-operative hours in all three cases. Each patient required three subsequent operations until final wound coverage or closure.
Conclusion: CS was an uncommon complication following IM fixation of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures in this retrospective case series. Open fractures and longer operative times were associated with developing CS after surgery. Prior literature has reported as increased risk of CS in patients treated with IM nailing within 24 hours of injury, but this was not corroborated in our study. None of 45 patients who underwent IM nailing of closed fractures within 24 hours of injury developed CS, however 51% of these patients required a small open approach to aid reduction and nail passage. No closed fracture treated with IM fixation in this series developed CS, compared with up to 10% in other series. We believe that utilizing a small open approach for reduction of one or both bones, thereby avoiding the soft tissue trauma of multiple attempts to reduce the fracture and pass the nail, leads to decreased soft tissue trauma and a lower rate of CS. We recommend a low threshold for converting to open reduction in cases where closed reduction is difficult.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limb lengthening by callotasis as described by Ilizarov has become the standard method of lower extremity lengthening. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail to allow early removal of the external fixator has also become common in adults but few studies have addressed the efficacy in children.
A retrospective review of 37 consecutive children who had undergone femoral lengthening with external fixator over an intramedullary nail was performed. Charts were reviewed for demographics, surgical details, and complications. Radiographs were examined to determine magnitude of lengthening and to calculate lengthening index.
The average age of the 37 patients was 11.6 years (range, 8.1 to 17.0). The amount of lengthening averaged 7.0 cm (range, 3.0 to 11.4 cm), which represented a mean 20.4% increase in length. The mean time in the fixator was 81 days. The lengthening index was 1.21 days/mm. Thirteen patients developed major complications (37.8%) including 4 limbs that failed to lengthen initially, 3 fractures (1 before fixator removal and 3 after fixator removal), 2 nail failures, 4 deep infections, and 2 joint subluxations requiring operative care. The 3 fractures after fixator removal were treated with exchange nailing as were the 2 intramedullary nail failures. Four patients (10.8%) developed deep infections requiring irrigation, debridement, and IV antibiotics. One patient developed a late hip subluxation, which was treated with a shelf osteotomy but resulted in pain and limitation of motion. One patient developed knee subluxation during lengthening requiring operative intervention. The technique was successful in obtaining a good result with a functional lengthened femur without unresolved problems in 94% of the patients despite a significant rate of major complications, particularly in those with a congenital etiology. Only 2 of the 37 patients ultimately had results that were ultimately compromised by complications.
Femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail with the aid of an external fixator has shown to be an effective method for correcting limb length discrepancy. The technique has a high complication rate similar to other methods of lengthening.
Level IV-Case Series.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of pediatric orthopedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problematic femoroacetabular impingement frequently is seen following Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) in young children and following slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in older children and adolescents. Although symptoms may be mild in adolescents and young adults, chondral damage following LCPD and SCFE deformity is cumulative and irreversible, which has led to a recent emphasis on the consideration of early treatment. The surgical dislocation approach and improved MRI and three-dimensional CT have revealed common patterns of deformity and structural damage. The surgical dislocation approach is a superb diagnostic tool unmatched in assessing complex dynamic impingement patterns, and it allows direct treatment of deformity through recontouring of the head and neck and, in unhealed SCFE, epiphyseal realignment. The contemporary hip-preserving management of deformity following LCPD and SCFE is changing rapidly, necessitating careful evaluation of new treatment methods.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There exist varying reports in the literature regarding the incidence of compartment syndrome (CS) after intramedullary (IM) fixation of pediatric forearm fractures. A retrospective review of the experience with this treatment modality at our institution was performed to elucidate the rate of postoperative CS and identify risk factors for developing this complication.
In this retrospective case series, we reviewed the charts of all patients treated operatively for isolated radius and ulnar shaft fractures from 2000 to 2009 at our institution and identified 113 patients who underwent IM fixation of both-bone forearm fractures. There were 74 closed fractures and 39 open fractures including 31 grade I fractures, 7 grade II fractures, and 1 grade IIIA fracture. If the IM nail could not be passed easily across the fracture site, a small open approach was used to aid reduction.
CS occurred in 3 of 113 patients (2.7%). CS occurred in 3 of 39 (7.7%) of the open fractures compared with none of 74 closed fractures (P=0.039), including 45 closed fractures that were treated within 24 hours of injury. An open reduction was performed in all of the open fractures and 38 (51.4%) of the closed fractures. Increased operative time was associated with developing CS postoperatively (168 vs. 77 min, P<0.001). CS occurred within the first 24 postoperative hours in all 3 cases.
CS was an uncommon complication after IM fixation of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures in this retrospective case series. Open fractures and longer operative times were associated with developing CS after surgery. None of 45 patients who underwent IM nailing of closed fractures within 24 hours of injury developed CS; however, 51.4% of these patients required a small open approach to aid reduction and nail passage. We believe that utilizing a small open approach for reduction of one or both bones, thereby avoiding the soft-tissue trauma of multiple attempts to reduce the fracture and pass the nail, leads to decreased soft-tissue trauma and a lower rate of CS. We recommend a low threshold for converting to open reduction in cases where closed reduction is difficult.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of pediatric orthopedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors’ current experience in the surgical treatment strategy of stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis deformities was reviewed. From this, a treatment algorithm was developed that could be utilized as a guide in the evaluation and treatment of future patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The clinical parameters of patients’ histories of symptoms, physical examinations, and radiographic assessments of slip severity were used in formulating the algorithm. The intent was to prepare a comprehensive algorithm providing necessary alternate treatment pathways for the variable slip deformity in accordance with the surgical experience/expertise of the treating surgeon.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is associated with hip pain, functional limitations, and secondary osteoarthritis. There is limited information from large patient cohorts defining the specific population affected by FAI. Establishing a large cohort will facilitate the identification of ‘‘at-risk’’ patients and will provide a population for ongoing clinical research initiatives. The authors have therefore established a multicenter, prospective, longitudinal cohort of patients undergoing surgery for symptomatic FAI.
Purpose: To report the clinical epidemiology, disease characteristics, and contemporary surgical treatment trends in North America for patients with symptomatic FAI. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Upon approval of the institutional review boards at 8 institutions, 12 surgeons enrolled consecutive patients undergoing surgical intervention for symptomatic FAI. Patient demographics, physical examination data, radiographic data, diagnoses, operative data, and standardized patient-reported outcome measures were collected. The first 1130 cases are summarized in this study.
Results: A total of 1076 consecutive patients (1130 hips) were enrolled; 55% (n = 622) were female, and 45% (n = 508) were male, with an average age of 28.4 years and average body mass index (BMI) of 25.1. Demographics revealed that 88% of patients who were predominantly treated for FAI were white, 19% reported a family history of hip surgery, 47.6% of hips had a diagnosis of cam FAI, 44.5% had combined cam/pincer FAI, and 7.9% had pincer FAI. Preoperative clinical scores (pain, function, activity
level, and overall health) indicated a major dysfunction related to the hip. Surgical interventions were arthroscopic surgery (50.4%), surgical dislocation (34.4%), reverse periacetabular osteotomy (9.4%), limited open osteochondroplasty with arthroscopic surgery (5.8%), and limited open by itself (1.5%). More than 90% of the hips were noted to have labral and articular cartilage abnormalities at surgery; femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty was performed in 91.6% of the surgical procedures, acetabular rim osteoplasty in 36.7%, labral repair in 47.8%, labral debridement in 16.3%, and acetabular chondroplasty in 40.1%.
Conclusion: This multicenter, prospective, longitudinal cohort is one of the largest FAI cohorts to date. In this cohort, FAI occurred predominantly in young, white patients with a normal BMI, and there were more female than male patients. The disease pattern of cam FAI was most common. Contemporary treatment was predominantly arthroscopic followed by surgical hip dislocation.
Keywords: FAI; hip arthroscopic surgery; surgical hip dislocation; epidemiology
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The American Journal of Sports Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coxa profunda is commonly viewed as a radiographic parameter that is indicative of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement, and this finding can impact diagnostic and surgical decision-making. Validation of coxa profunda as a measure of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement has not been rigorously analyzed. Our hypothesis was that coxa profunda is a very common radiographic finding in females and is not a finding that is specifically associated with pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement.
A retrospective review was performed to determine the prevalence of coxa profunda in four groups of hips: those with acetabular dysplasia (fifty-eight hips), femoroacetabular impingement (fifty hips), symptomatic residual Legg-Calvé-Perthes deformities (sixteen hips), and asymptomatic hips (thirty-three). Coxa profunda was present when the floor of the acetabular fossa touched or was medial to the ilioischial line. The association between coxa profunda and hip disorder diagnosis, lateral center-edge angle, acetabular inclination, patient age, and sex was analyzed.
Coxa profunda was seen in 55% of the 157 hips and was slightly less common in the hips with acetabular dysplasia or residual Legg-Calvé-Perthes deformities (41% and 31%, respectively). Coxa profunda was evident in 76% of the thirty-three asymptomatic hips compared with 64% of the fifty hips with femoroacetabular impingement. Coxa profunda was more common in females than males (70% compared with 24%; p < 0.001). Acetabular overcoverage (a lateral center-edge angle of >40° or acetabular inclination of <0°) was seen in only 22% of hips with coxa profunda.
Coxa profunda should be considered a normal radiographic finding, at least in females. Coxa profunda is a nonspecific radiographic finding, seen in a variety of hip disorders and asymptomatic hips. The presence of coxa profunda is neither necessary nor sufficient to support a diagnosis of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement.
Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery