[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodide Organification defects (IOD) represent 10% of cases of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) being the main genes affected that of TPO (thyroid peroxidase) and DUOX2 (dual oxidasa 2). From a patient with clinical and biochemical criteria suggestive with CH associated with IOD, TPO and DUOX2 genes were analyzed by means of PCR-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis and sequencing. A novel heterozygous compound to the mutations c.2335-1G>C (paternal mutation, intron 17) and c.3264_3267delCAGC (maternal mutation, exon 24) was identified in the DUOX2 gene. Ex-vivo splicing assays and subsequent RT-PCR and sequencing analyses were performed on mRNA isolated from the HeLa cells transfected with wild-type and mutant pSPL3 expression vectors. The wild-type and c.2335-1G>C mutant alleles result in the complete inclusion or exclusion of exon 18, or in the activation of an exonic cryptic 5' ss with the consequent deletion of 169 bp at the end of this exon. However, we observed only a band of the expected size in normal thyroid tissue by RT-PCR. Additionally, the c.2335-1G>C mutation activates an unusual cryptic donor splice site in intron 17, located at position -14 of the authentic intron 17/exon 18 junction site, with an insertion of the last 14 nucleotides of the intron 17 in mutant transcripts with complete and partial inclusion of exon 18. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutation, predicted with the bioinformatics NNSplice, Fsplice, SPL, SPLM and MaxEntScan programs were investigated and evaluated in relation with the experimental evidence. These analyses confirm that c.2335-1G>C mutant allele would result in the abolition of the authentic splice acceptor site. The results suggest the coexistence in our patient of four putative truncated proteins of 786, 805, 806 and 1105 amino acids, with conservation of peroxidase-like domain and loss of gp91(phox)/NOX2-like domain. In conclusion a novel heterozygous compound was identified being responsible of IOD. Cryptic splicing sites have been characterized in DUOX2 gene for the first time. The use of molecular biology techniques is a valuable tool for understanding the molecular pathophysiology of this type of thyroid defects.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency (TBG-PD) is an endocrine defect with a prevalence of 1:4 000 in newborns. Due to the presence of a single TBG gene on the X chromosome, most familial TBG defects follow an X-linked inheritance pattern. Abnormal T4 binding to T4-binding prealbumin (TTR) is a rare cause of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, which is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance. The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize new mutations in the Serpina7 and TTR genes in a complete family with typical TBG-PD. All patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluation. Sequencing of DNA, population screening by (SSCP) analysis, and bioinformatics studies were performed. Molecular studies revealed a novel p.A64D mutation in the exon 1 of Serpina7 gene associated with the previously reported p.A109T mutation in the exon 4 of TTR gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a TBG-PD by a mutation in Serpina7 that was coincident with a mutation in TTR gene that increased affinity of TTR for T4. This work contributes to elucidate the molecular basis of the defects of thyroid hormone transport in serum and the improvement of the diagnosis avoiding unnecessary therapy.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Hormone and Metabolic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objetive of this study was to perform genetic analysis in three brothers of Turkish origin born from consanguineus parents and affected by congenital hypothyroidism, goiter and low levels of serum TG. The combination of sequencing of DNA, PCR mapping, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), inverse-PCR (I-PCR), multiplex PCR and bioinformatics analysis were used in order to detect TG mutations. We demonstrated that the three affected siblings are homozygous for a DNA inversion of 16,962 bp in the TG gene associated with two deleted regions at both sides of the inversion limits. The inversion region includes the first 9 bp of exon 48, 1,015 bp of intron 47, 191 bp of exon 47, 1,523 bp of intron 46, 135 bp of exon 46 and the last 14,089 bp of intron 45. The proximal deletion corresponds to 27 bp of TG intron 45, while the distal deletion spans the last 230 bp of TG exon 48 and the first 588 bp of intergenic region downstream TG end. The parents were heterozygous carriers of the complex rearrangement. In conclusion, a novel large imperfect DNA inversion within the TG gene was identified by the strategy of I-PCR. This aberration was not detectable by normal sequencing of the exons and exon/intron boundaries. Remarkably, the finding represents the first description of a TG deficiency disease caused by a DNA inversion.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thyroglobulin (TG) gene is organized in 48 exons, spanning over 270 kb on human chromosome 8q24. Up to now, 62 inactivating mutations in the TG gene have been identified in patients with congenital goiter and endemic or non-endemic simple goiter. The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize new mutations in the TG gene. We report 13 patients from 7 unrelated families with goiter, hypothyroidism and low levels of serum TG. All patients underwent clinical, biochemical and imaging evaluation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, endonuclease restriction analysis, sequencing of DNA, genotyping, population screening, and bioinformatics studies were performed. Molecular analyses revealed seven novel inactivating TG mutations: c.378C>A [p.Y107X], c.2359C>T [p.R768X], c.2736delG [p.R893fsX946], c.3842G>A [p.C1262Y], c.5466delA [p.K1803fsX1833], c.6000C>G [p.C1981W] and c.6605C>G [p.P2183R] and three previously reported mutations: c.886C>T [p.R277X], c.6701C>A [p.A2215D] and c.7006C>T [p.R2317X]. Six patients from two families were homozygous for p.R277X mutation, four were compound heterozygous mutations (p.Y107X/p.C1262Y, p.R893fsX946/p.A2215D, p.K1803fsX1832/p.R2317X), one carried three identified mutations (p.R277X/p.C1981W-p.P2183R) together with a hypothetical micro deletion and the remaining two siblings from another family with typical phenotype had a single p.R768X mutated allele. In conclusion, our results confirm the genetic heterogeneity of TG defects and the pathophysiological importance of altered TG folding as a consequency of truncated TG proteins and missense mutations located in ACHE-like domain or that replace cysteine.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To search for molecular changes in two Argentinian sisters with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.
Subjects: Both patients had 46 XX karyotype, with sexual infantilism, primary amenorrhea, and hypertension. Other member of the first degree family did not have this deficiency.
Hormonal results: The patients showed high levels of gonadotrophins and progesterone along with very low cortisol and androgen levels. Basal levels of corticosterone were very high, but aldosterone was normal. Both steroids had a high response after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation, with no changes in 17-hydroxyl progesterone and cortisol levels. Progesterone, corticosterone, and aldosterone decreased with the dexamethasone test, without modifications in 17-hydroxyl progesterone and cortisol levels. A corticosterone/ aldosterone ratio was calculated from the results of the stimulation test; the ratios were similar in both patients. On administration of the ACTH test, both parents and one sister (S2) showed a marked response in corticosterone levels, their corticosterone/aldosterone ratios were also similar to each other and similar to the patients.
Molecular results: Molecular studies in the cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) gene showed that exon 8 had a 4 bp duplication at codon 480 (CATC) in the two patients and their mother and in exon 1, a C to T transition at codon 96 was identified, changing CGG into TGG in the two patients, S2, and their father.
Conclusions: Both patients were shown to be compound heterozygous, carrying different alleles in exon 1 and exon 8, inherited from their father and mother, respectively. The molecular results obtained on S2 confirmed the heterozygosity suggested by the stimulated hormonal test and corticosterone/aldosterone ratio.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Molecular Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodide organification defect (IOD) is characterized by a reduced ability of the thyroid gland to retain iodide resulting in hypothyroidism. Mutations in thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene appear to be the most common cause of IOD and are commonly inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The TPO gene is located on the chromosome 2p25. It comprises 17 exons, covers approximately 150 kb of genomic DNA and codes 933 amino acids. OBJETIVES: In this study, we characterize the clinical and molecular basis of seven patients from four unrelated families with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) because of IOD.
All patients underwent clinical, biochemical and imaging evaluation. The promoter and the complete coding regions of the human TPO along with the flanking intronic regions were analysed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Segregation analysis of mutations was carried out, and the effect of the novel missense identified mutations was investigated by 'in silico' studies.
All subjects had congenital and persistent primary hypothyroidism. Three novel mutations: c.796C>T [p.Q266X], c.1784G>A [p.R595K] and c.2000G>A [p.G667D] and a previously reported mutation: c.1186_1187insGGCC [p.R396fsX472] have been identified. Four patients were compound heterozygous for p.R396fsX472/p.R595K mutations, two patients were homozygous for p.R595K, and the remaining patient was a compound heterozygous for p.Q266X/p.G667D.
Our findings confirm the genetic heterogeneity of TPO defects and the importance of the implementation of molecular studies to determinate the aetiology of the CH with dyshormonogenesis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroglobulin (TG) is a homodimeric glycoprotein synthesized by the thyroid gland. To date, 52 mutations of the TG gene have been identified in humans. The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize new mutations in the TG gene. We report a French patient with congenital hypothyroidism, mild enlarged thyroid gland and low levels of serum TG. Sequencing of DNA, genotyping, expression of chimeric minigenes as well as bioinformatics analysis were performed. DNA sequencing identified the presence of compound heterozygous mutations in the TG gene: the paternal mutation consists of a c.3788-3789insT or c.3788dupT, whereas the maternal mutation consists of g.IVS19+3_+4delAT. Minigene analysis of the g.IVS19+3_+4delAT mutant showed that the exon 19 is skipped during pre-mRNA splicing or partially included by use of cryptic 5' splice site located to 100 nucleotides downstream of the wild type exon-intron junction. The c.3788-3789insT mutation results in a putative truncated protein of 1245 amino acids, whereas g.IVS19+3_4delAT mutation originates two putative truncated proteins of 1330 and 1349 amino acids. In conclusion, we show that the g.IVS19+3_+4delAT mutation promotes the activation of a cryptic donor splice site in the exon 19 of the TG gene. These results open up new perspectives in the knowledge of the mechanism of splicing for the TG pre-mRNA.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is characterized by elevated levels of thyroid hormones, normal or slightly increased
TSH levels respondent to TRH, resistance to thyroid hormone administration, and variable clinical expression. To describe
the diverse clinical and biochemical findings of six children from five unrelated families with molecular diagnosis of RTH
(0.5–12.7 years) and their follow-up (3–20 years). All RTH patients and 4 affected parents’ harbored mutations in exons 9
or 10 of the thyroid receptor β gene: p.M313T (de novo), pN331D, p.L341P, p.L346F, and p.P453L. At consultation 5/6 had goiter,
4/6 tachycardia, and 3/5 learning disabilities. Median hormone levels were: T4 257.4 nmol/l (NR: 77.2–180.2); FreeT4 39.9 pmol/(NR:10.3–28.3); T3 4.28 nmol/l (NR:1.23–3.39) TSH 2.8 mUI/l (NR: 0.5–5) always responsive to TRH. TSH levels remained detectable after supraphysiologic
T3 administration while SHBG levels showed a paradoxical decrease in 4/6. Thyroid antibodies, initially present in two subjects,
became positive in other two during follow-up. All patients grew normally and presented variable symptoms that were treated
according to need. Two patients developed psychiatric disorders. Only one of the four affected parents exhibited clinical
signs of RTH (tachycardia and depression). Parent’s thyroid profile showed similar TSH and T3 levels but lower T4 and FT4 than their children. RTH has a distinctive biochemical profile with highly variable clinical manifestations and outcomes.
Its recognition and molecular characterization avoid misleading diagnosis. Treatment has to be instituted according to each
subject’s own clinical requirements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is characterized by elevated levels of thyroid hormones, normal or slightly increased TSH levels respondent to TRH, resistance to thyroid hormone administration, and variable clinical expression. To describe the diverse clinical and biochemical findings of six children from five unrelated families with molecular diagnosis of RTH (0.5-12.7 years) and their follow-up (3-20 years). All RTH patients and 4 affected parents' harbored mutations in exons 9 or 10 of the thyroid receptor β gene: p.M313T (de novo), pN331D, p.L341P, p.L346F, and p.P453L. At consultation 5/6 had goiter, 4/6 tachycardia, and 3/5 learning disabilities. Median hormone levels were: T(4) 257.4 nmol/l (NR: 77.2-180.2); FreeT(4) 39.9 pmol/(NR:10.3-28.3); T(3) 4.28 nmol/l (NR:1.23-3.39) TSH 2.8 mUI/l (NR: 0.5-5) always responsive to TRH. TSH levels remained detectable after supraphysiologic T(3) administration while SHBG levels showed a paradoxical decrease in 4/6. Thyroid antibodies, initially present in two subjects, became positive in other two during follow-up. All patients grew normally and presented variable symptoms that were treated according to need. Two patients developed psychiatric disorders. Only one of the four affected parents exhibited clinical signs of RTH (tachycardia and depression). Parent's thyroid profile showed similar TSH and T(3) levels but lower T(4) and FT(4) than their children. RTH has a distinctive biochemical profile with highly variable clinical manifestations and outcomes. Its recognition and molecular characterization avoid misleading diagnosis. Treatment has to be instituted according to each subject's own clinical requirements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human thyroglobulin (TG) gene is a single copy gene, 270 kb long, that maps on chromosome 8q24.2-8q24.3 and contains an 8.5-kb coding sequence divided into 48 exons. TG is exclusively synthesized in the thyroid gland and represents a highly specialized homodimeric glycoprotein for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Mutations in the TG gene lead to permanent congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of low TG level and also normal perchlorate discharge test in a goitrous individual suggest a TG gene defect. Until now, 52 mutations have been identified and characterized in the human TG gene with functional impact such as structural changes in the protein that alter the normal protein folding, assembly and biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. 11 of the mutations affect splicing sites, 11 produce premature stop codons, 23 lead to amino acid changes, 6 deletions (5 single and 1 involving a large number of nucleotides) and 1 single nucleotide insertion. TG mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and affected individuals are either homozygous or compound heterozygous. The p.R277X, p.C1058R, p.C1977S, p.R1511X, p.A2215D and p.R2223H mutations are the most frequently identified TG mutations. This mini-review focuses on genetic and clinical aspects of TG gene defects.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Hormone Research in Paediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the genetic defect of a patient with dyshormonogenetic congenital hypothyroidisms (CH) with total iodide organification defect (TIOD). A male child diagnosed with CH during neonatal screening. Laboratory tests confirmed the permanent and severe CH with TIOD (99% perchlorate release). The coding sequence of TPO, DUOX2, and DUOXA2 genes and 2957 base pairs (bp) of the TPO promoter were sequenced. Molecular analysis of patient's DNA identified the heterozygous duplication GGCC (c.1186_1187insGGCC) in exon 8 of the TPO gene. No additional mutation was detected either in the TPO gene, TPO promoter, DUOX2 or DUOXA2 genes. We have described a patient with a clear TIOD causing severe goitrous CH due to a monoallelic TPO mutation. A plausible explanation for the association between an autosomal recessive disorder with a single TPO-mutated allele is the presence of monoallelic TPO expression.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings of a cohort of Argentinean patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and goiter studied to characterize iodide organification and thyroglobulin (TG) defects. 20 CH patients (16 unrelated) were grouped according to serum TG levels and a perchlorate discharge test (PDT) in: group 1 (G1): nine patients with high TG and PDT > 10% who were studied for tiroperoxidase (TPO), dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2), and dual oxidase A2 (DUOXA2) defects and group 2 (G2): 11 patients with low TG and PDT < 10% studied for TG defects. Goiter characteristics, outcome, and TT₄ and TT₃ levels without treatment were compared between groups. 6/9 G1 patients harbored mutations in TPO gene and 3/9 in DUOX2 gene. In G2, mutations of TG gene were found in 3/11 homozygous, 5/11 compound heterozygous, and 3/11 heterozygous patients. Goiter was only evidenced by thyroid scan in the neonatal period in both groups; was moderately enlarged in patients diagnosed during infancy. In the late detected patients, goiter was big and nodular in G1 while diffuse and moderate in G2. Early detected patients grew and developed normally while those diagnosed late were severely mentally retarded in G1 and only mildly retarded in G2. Thyroid hormone levels of G1 were significantly lower than those of G2 P < 0.01. Molecular approach to characterize defects in organification and TG defects was optimized by TG measurements and PDT. Clinical and biochemical differences based on molecular findings will allow further investigations on genotype-phenotype relationships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a multifactorial disorder that involves a putative association with thyroid autoantigen-specific and immune regulatory genes, as well as environmental factors. The thyroglobulin gene is the main identified thyroid autoantigen-specific gene associated to autoimmune thyroiditis. The aim of this work was to test for evidence of allelic association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and thyroglobulin polymorphism markers in Argentinian patients. We studied six polymorphisms distributed throughout all the thyroglobulin gene: four microsatellites (Tgms1, Tgms2, TGrI29, and TGrI30), one insertion/deletion polymorphism (IndelTG-IVS18), and one exonic single nucleotide polymorphism (c.7589G>A) in 100 AT patients and 100 healthy control subjects. No differences in allele and genotype frequencies distribution were observed between autoimmune thyroiditis cases and controls for Tgms1, Tgms2, TGrI30, IndelTG-IVS18, and c.7589G>A. However, when we analyzed autoimmune thyroiditis patients with the TGrI29 microsatellite we found a significant association between the 197-bp allele and autoimmune thyroiditis (33.50% vs. 19.00% in control group) (P = 0.001). In addition, a significant major prevalence of the 197/201-bp genotype has been also seen in autoimmune thyroiditis subjects (59% vs. 24% in control group, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, our work showed the association between the thyroglobulin gene and autoimmune thyroiditis in Argentinian population and supports the described evidence of thyroglobulin as a thyroid-specific gene linked to AITD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroglobulin (TG) gene mutations cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with goiter. A founder effect has been proposed for some frequent mutations. Mutated proteins have a defect in intracellular transport causing intracellular retention with ultrastructural changes that resemble an endoplasmic reticulum storage disease.
To reveal new aspects of thyroglobulin pathophysiology through clinical, cellular, molecular, and genetic studies in a family presenting with CH due to TG mutations from Galicia, an iodine-deficient area of Spain.
The included clinical evaluation of family members, DNA sequencing for TG gene mutation and haplotyping analysis, ultrastructural analysis of thyroid tissue specimens from affected subjects, analysis of effects of mutations found on TG gene transcription, and in vitro studies of cellular production and secretion of mutated proteins.
Locations included primary care and university hospitals.
Family members with CH, mental retardation, and goiter were compound heterozygous for c.886C-->T (p.R277X) and g.IVS35+1delG. For c.886C-->T, a founder effect cannot be excluded, and its transcription was hardly detectable. g.IVS35+1delG caused an in-frame deletion in exon 35 and produced a protein that, although synthesized, could not be secreted. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes consistent with an endoplasmic reticulum storage disease.
The shorter thyroglobulin resulting from the novel g.IVS35+1delG was retained within the endoplasmic reticulum of thyrocytes, and together with p.R227X caused severe hypothyroidism with goiter. p.R277X, the most commonly described TG mutation, is caused by a TG exon-7 highly mutation-prone region, and the possibility that some cases were introduced to South America from Galicia cannot be excluded.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroglobulin (TG) defects due to TG gene mutations have an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000 newborns. This dyshormonogenesis displays a wide phenotype variation and is characterized usually by: the presence of congenital goiter or goiter appearing shortly after birth, high (131)I uptake, negative perchlorate discharge test, low serum TG and elevated serum TSH with simultaneous low serum T(4) and low, normal or high serum T(3). Mutations in TG gene have been also reported associated with endemic and euthyroid nonendemic simple goiter. TG gene defects are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and affected individuals are either homozygous or compound heterozygous for mutations. Up to now, 50 mutations have been identified and characterized in the human TG: 23 missense mutations, 10 nonsense mutations, 5 single and 1 large nucleotide deletions, 1 single nucleotide insertion and 10 splice site mutations. The functional consequences of this mutations could be structural changes in the protein molecule that alter the normal protein folding, assembly and biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, leading to a marked reduction in the ability to export the protein from the endoplasmic reticulum.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autoimmune thyroid disease is a complex disorder caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, which are believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Identification of the susceptibility genes has found that unique and diverse genetic factors are in association with Graves' disease and autoimmune thyroiditis. The thyroglobulin gene is an identified thyroid-specific gene associated to autoimmune thyroid disease and, principally, with autoimmune thyroiditis. The aim of this work was to test for evidence of allelic association between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroglobulin polymorphism markers. We studied six polymorphisms distributed throughout all the thyroglobulin gene: four microsatellites (Tgms1, Tgms2, TGrI29 and TGrI30), one insertion/deletion (Indel) polymorphism (IndelTG-IVS18) and one exonic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c.7589G>A) in 122 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis compared with 100 non-related normal subjects. No differences in allele and genotype distribution were observed between autoimmune thyroiditis cases and controls for Tgms1, Tgms2, TGrI30, IndelTG-IVS18 and c.7589G>A. However, when we analyzed the patients with the TGrI29 microsatellite we found a significant association between the 199-bp allele and AT (33.7% vs. 24.5% in control group) (P = 0.0372). In addition, a higher prevalence of the 201-bp allele has been observed in control subjects (47.5% vs. 38.1% in patients group), although not statistically significant (P = 0.0536). Our work shows the association between the thyroglobulin gene and autoimmune thyroiditis and reinforce that thyroglobulin is a thyroid-specific susceptibility gene for this disease.