[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human histone H3.5 is a non-allelic H3 variant evolutionally derived from H3.3. The H3.5 mRNA is highly expressed in human testis. However, the function of H3.5 has remained poorly understood.
We found that the H3.5 nucleosome is less stable than the H3.3 nucleosome. The crystal structure of the H3.5 nucleosome showed that the H3.5-specific Leu103 residue, which corresponds to the H3.3 Phe104 residue, reduces the hydrophobic interaction with histone H4. Mutational analyses revealed that the H3.5-specific Leu103 residue is responsible for the instability of the H3.5 nucleosome, both in vitro and in living cells. The H3.5 protein was present in human seminiferous tubules, but little to none was found in mature sperm. A chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing analysis revealed that H3.5 accumulated around transcription start sites (TSSs) in testicular cells.
We performed comprehensive studies of H3.5, and found the instability of the H3.5 nucleosome and the accumulation of H3.5 protein around TSSs in human testis. The unstable H3.5 nucleosome may function in the chromatin dynamics around the TSSs, during spermatogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · Epigenetics & Chromatin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) binds both the (H3-H4)2 tetramer and two H2A-H2B dimers, mediating their sequential deposition on DNA. NAP1 contains a C-terminal acidic domain (CTAD) and a core domain that promotes dimer formation. Here, we have investigated the roles of the core domain and CTAD of human NAP1 in binding to H2A-H2B and H3-H4 by isothermal calorimetry and native mass spectrometry and compared them with the roles of yeast NAP1. We show that the hNAP1 and yNAP1 dimers bind H2A-H2B by two different modes: a strong endothermic interaction and a weak exothermic interaction. A mutant hNAP1, but not yNAP1, dimer lacking CTAD loses the exothermic interaction and shows greatly reduced H2A-H2B binding activity. The isolated CTAD of hNAP1 binds H2A-H2B only exothermically with relatively stronger binding as compared with the exothermic interaction observed for the full-length hNAP1 dimer. Thus, the two CTADs in the hNAP1 dimer seem to provide binding assistance for the strong endothermic interaction of the core domain with H2A-H2B. By contrast, in the relatively weaker binding of hNAP1 to H3-H4 as compared with yNAP1, CTAD of hNAP1 has no significant role. To our knowledge, this is the first distinct role identified for the hNAP1 CTAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is induced in genomic DNA by ultraviolet (UV) light. In mammals, this photolesion is primarily induced within nucleosomal DNA, and repaired exclusively by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. However, the mechanism by which the CPD is accommodated within the nucleosome has remained unknown. We now report the crystal structure of a nucleosome containing CPDs. In the nucleosome, the CPD induces only limited local backbone distortion, and the affected bases are accommodated within the duplex. Interestingly, one of the affected thymine bases is located within 3.0 Å from the undamaged complementary adenine base, suggesting the formation of complementary hydrogen bonds in the nucleosome. We also found that UV-DDB, which binds the CPD at the initial stage of the NER pathway, also efficiently binds to the nucleosomal CPD. These results provide important structural and biochemical information for understanding how the CPD is accommodated and recognized in chromatin.
No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linker histones bind to nucleosomes and compact poly-nucleosomes into a higher-order chromatin configuration. Somatic and germ cell-specific linker histone subtypes have been identified, and may have distinct functions. In the present study, we reconstituted poly-nucleosomes containing human histones H1.2 and H1T, as representative somatic and germ cell-specific linker histones, respectively, and found that H1T forms less compacted chromatin, as compared to H1.2. An in vitro homologous-pairing assay revealed that H1T weakly inhibited RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing in chromatin, although the somatic H1 subtypes, H1.0, H1.1, H1.2, H1.3, H1.4, and H1.5, substantially suppressed it. An in vivo recombination assay revealed that H1T overproduction minimally affected the recombination frequency, but significant suppression was observed when H1.2 was overproduced in human cells. These results suggested that the testis-specific linker histone, H1T, possesses a specific function to produce the chromatin architecture required for proper chromosome regulation, such as homologous recombination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crotonylation of histones is an important post-translational modification, and epigenetically functions in the regulation of genomic DNA activity. The histone modifications in the structured "histone-fold" domains are considered to have an especially important impact on the nucleosome structure and dynamics. In the present study, we reconstituted the human nucleosome containing histone H3.2 crotonylated at the Lys122 residue, and determined its crystal structure at 2.56 Å resolution. We found that the crotonylation of the H3 Lys122 residue does not affect the overall nucleosome structure, but locally impedes the formation of the water-mediated hydrogen bond with the DNA backbone. Consistently, thermal stability assays revealed that the H3 Lys122 crotonylation, as well as the H3 Lys122 acetylation, clearly reduced the histone-DNA association.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRPF1 (bromodomain PHD finger 1) is a core subunit of the MOZ histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex, critical for normal
developmental programs and implicated in acute leukemias. BRPF1 contains a unique assembly of zinc fingers, termed a PZP domain,
the physiological role of which remains unclear. Here, we elucidate the structure-function relationship of this novel epigenetic
reader and detail the biological and mechanistic consequences of its interaction with nucleosomes. PZP has a globular architecture
and forms a 2:1 stoichiometry complex with the nucleosome, bivalently interacting with histone H3 and DNA. This binding impacts
the nucleosome dynamics, shifting the DNA unwrapping/rewrapping equilibrium toward the unwrapped state and increasing DNA
accessibility. We demonstrate that the DNA-binding function of the BRPF1 PZP domain is required for the MOZ-BRPF1-ING5-hEaf6
HAT complex to be recruited to chromatin and to acetylate nucleosomal histones. Our findings reveal a novel link between chromatin
dynamics and MOZ-mediated acetylation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UV-DDB, an initiation factor for the nucleotide excision repair pathway, recognizes 6-4PP lesions through a base flipping mechanism. As genomic DNA is almost entirely accommodated within nucleosomes, the flipping of the 6-4PP bases is supposed to be extremely difficult if the lesion occurs in a nucleosome, especially on the strand directly contacting the histone surface. Here we report that UV-DDB binds efficiently to nucleosomal 6-4PPs that are rotationally positioned on the solvent accessible or occluded surface. We determined the crystal structures of nucleosomes containing 6-4PPs in these rotational positions, and found that the 6-4PP DNA regions were flexibly disordered, especially in the strand exposed to the solvent. This characteristic of 6-4PP may facilitate UV-DDB binding to the damaged nucleosome. We present the first atomic-resolution pictures of the detrimental DNA cross-links of neighboring pyrimidine bases within the nucleosome, and provide the mechanistic framework for lesion recognition by UV-DDB in chromatin.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation occurs on CpG sites and is important to form pericentric heterochromatin domains. The satellite 2 sequence, containing seven CpG sites, is located in the pericentric region of human chromosome 1 and is highly methylated in normal cells. In contrast, the satellite 2 region is reportedly hypomethylated in cancer cells, suggesting that the methylation status may affect the chromatin structure around the pericentric regions in tumours. In this study, we mapped the nucleosome positioning on the satellite 2 sequence in vitro and found that DNA methylation modestly affects the distribution of the nucleosome positioning. The micrococcal nuclease assay revealed that the DNA end flexibility of the nucleosomes changes, depending on the DNA methylation status. However, the structures and thermal stabilities of the nucleosomes are unaffected by DNA methyl-ation. These findings provide new information to understand how DNA methylation functions in regulating pericentric heterochromatin formation and maintenance in normal and malignant cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in the coherent x-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. The apparatus allows us to collect diffraction data for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K and provides an experimental environment to easily transfer frozen-hydrated specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage for x-ray exposure. Since 2012, the apparatus has been used in the single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline biological cells and cellular components with dimensions from micrometer to submicrometer using x-ray free electron lasers at SACLA. Here we report on the performance of the KOTOBUKI-1 diffraction apparatus and some structure analyses of biological cells and cellular components. Based on the present results, we also discuss the future developments of diffraction apparatus for more efficient data collection.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Physics B Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RizA is an L-amino-acid ligase from
that participates in the biosynthesis of rhizocticin, an oligopeptide antibiotic. The substrate-free form of RizA has been crystallized and the structure was solved at 2.8 Å resolution. The amino-acid-binding site appears to be capable of accommodating multiple amino acids, consistent with previous biochemical studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solution structures of nucleosomes containing a human histone variant, H2A.Z.1, were measured by small-angle X-ray and neutron scatterings (SAXS and SANS). SAXS revealed that the outer shape, reflecting the DNA shape, of the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome is almost the same as that of the canonical H2A nucleosome. In contrast, SANS employing a contrast variation technique revealed that the histone octamer of the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome is smaller than that of the canonical nucleosome. The DNA within the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome was more susceptible to micrococcal nuclease than that within the canonical nucleosome. These results suggested that the DNA is loosely wrapped around the histone core in the H2A.Z.1 nucleosome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dynamics of nucleosomes containing either canonical H3 or its centromere-specific variant CENP-A were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations showed that the histone cores were structurally stable during simulation periods of 100 ns and 50 ns, while DNA was highly flexible at the entry and exit regions and partially dissociated from the histone core. In particular, approximately 20-25 bp of DNA at the entry and exit regions of the CENP-A nucleosome exhibited larger fluctuations than DNA at the entry and exit regions of the H3 nucleosome. Our detailed analysis clarified that this difference in dynamics was attributable to a difference in two basic amino acids in the αN helix; two arginine (Arg) residues in H3 were substituted by lysine (Lys) residues at the corresponding sites in CENP-A. The difference in the ability to form hydrogen bonds with DNA of these two residues regulated the flexibility of nucleosomal DNA at the entry and exit regions. Our exonuclease III assay consistently revealed that replacement of these two Arg residues in the H3 nucleosome by Lys enhanced endonuclease susceptibility, suggesting that the DNA ends of the CENP-A nucleosome are more flexible than those of the H3 nucleosome. This difference in the dynamics between the two types of nucleosomes may be important for forming higher order structures in different phases.