Joseph Alroy

Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (204)721.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We describe the ninth variant of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) or Batten disease, due to defects in a putative new gene, CLN9. We therefore refer to the new variant as CLN9-deficient. Two Serbian sisters and two German brothers are described. Their clinical history is characteristic for juvenile NCL. They show similar gene expression patterns. The existence of this variant is supported by the presence of curvilinear inclusions, fingerprint profiles, and granular osmiophilic deposits in neurons, lymphocytes, and conjunctival cells. Enzyme screening and sequencing of the coding regions of other NCL genes was negative. CLN9-deficient cells have a distinctive phenotype. They have rounded cell bodies, have prominent nucleoli, attach poorly to the culture dish, and are sensitive to apoptosis but have increased growth rates. Gene expression of proteins involved in cell adhesion and apoptosis is altered in these cells. Sphingolipid metabolism is also perturbed. They have decreased levels of ceramide, sphingomyelin, lactosylceramide, ceramide trihexoside, and globoside and increased activity of serine palmitoyl transferase.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Annals of Neurology
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    A S Tischler · J F Powers · J Alroy
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    ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors of adrenal chromaffin cells. They are rare in all species except rats but occur with increased frequency in several human familial tumor syndromes. Concurrence of pheochromocytoma with other tumors sometimes parallels these human syndromes in rats, bovines, horses and dogs but a shared genetic basis for human and spontaneously occurring animal pheochromocytomas has thus far not been established. Pheochromocytomas are inducible in rats by a variety of non-genotoxic substances that may act indirectly by stimulating chromaffin cell proliferation. They are not known to be similarly inducible in other species but arise with increased frequency in transgenic and knockout mice that to varying degrees recapitulate human tumor syndromes. Preliminary evidence suggests that homologous somatic genetic changes might contribute to pheochromocytoma development in humans and some mouse models. The nerve growth factor-responsive PC12 cell line, established from a rat pheochromocytoma, has for almost 30 years served as a research tool for many aspects of neurobiology involving normal and neoplastic conditions. Recently developed pheochromocytoma cell lines from neurofibromatosis knockout mice supplement the PC12 line and have generated additional applications. Advantages of the mouse lines include expression of substantial levels of the epinephrine-synthesizing enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and expression of high levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase, Ret, which is characteristic of sporadic and familial human pheochromocytomas but not of PC12 cells. Disadvantages include an apparently less stable phenotype. It is difficult to establish pheochromocytoma cell lines from any species, although the tumor cells persist in culture for many months. Understanding of factors that permit pheochromocytoma cells to proliferate might itself provide important insights for tumor biology.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Histology and histopathology
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    ABSTRACT: The allelic autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders Salla disease and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) result from mutations in SLC17A5. This gene codes for sialin, a lysosomal membrane protein that transports the charged sugar, N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), out of lysosomes. ISSD has a severe phenotype with infantile onset, while the Finnish variant, Salla disease, has a milder phenotype with later onset. Both disorders cause developmental delay, and ISSD is generally fatal in early childhood. We describe a 30-month old non-Finnish, Caucasian child with global developmental delay of postnatal onset, language, and motor skills stagnant at a 3-4 month level, hypotonia, and mild but progressive coarsening of facial features. Urinary excretion of free sialic acid was elevated 4.5 times above control. EM of a skin biopsy revealed enlarged secondary lysosomes consistent with oligosaccharide storage. Free sialic acid in fibroblasts was 3.8+/-0.9 nmol/mg protein (concurrent normal controls, 0.5+/-0.1); differential centrifugation indicated a lysosomal location. Genomic analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two new SLC17A5 mutations. This child's clinical manifestations of a lysosomal free sialic acid storage disease are consistent with her sialin mutations and biochemical findings. The differential diagnosis of postnatal developmental delay should include free sialic acid storage disorders such as ISSD and Salla disease.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IIID (MPS IIID) is a lysosomal storage disease associated with deficient activity of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.14), a lysosomal hydrolase in the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG) degradation pathway. In caprine MPS IIID, enzyme replacement therapy reversed early postnatal systemic but not primary or secondary central nervous system (CNS) substrate accumulations. The caprine MPS IIID large animal model system was used in this investigation to define the developmental profile of morphological and biochemical perturbations to estimate a time frame for therapeutic intervention. Light and electron microscopy were used to compare the CNS, liver, and kidney of normal +/+, MPS IIID carrier +/-, and MPS IIID-affected -/- goat kids (kids), at 60, 113-114, 128-129, and 135 d gestation (dg) of a 150-d gestational period, at birth, and at 59-64 d of postnatal (d-pn) age. In the CNS of -/- kids, morphological correlations of HS-GAG and glycolipid accumulations were evident in early differentiating neurons at 60 dg. CNS and systemic developmental, regional, and cellular differences in -/- kids at all time points included more prominent and earlier accumulation of lucent, putative HS-GAG substrates in lysosomes of meningeal and perivascular macrophages and hepatic sinusoidal cells than in CNS, hepatic, or renal parenchymal cells. The amounts and compositions of HS-GAG substrates in the brain and liver of +/+, +/-, and -/- kids were determined at 60, 65, 113-114, and 128-135 dg, at birth, and 53-78 d-pn. In the CNS of -/- kids, HS-GAG concentrations were variable and exceeded those of age-matched control tissue samples in the third but not the second trimester. In contrast, hepatic HS-GAG levels in -/- kids exceeded control values at all time points evaluated and paralleled the progressive morphological alterations. CNS and hepatic HS-GAG compositions in -/- kids were similar to each other and were more complex at all pre- and postnatal ages than those from control kids. Based on the time frame of development of CNS lesions and biochemical perturbations, prenatal therapeutic intervention in caprine MPS IIID is likely to be necessary to prevent or ameliorate substantive CNS and systemic lesions.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IIID (MPS IIID) is a lysosomal storage disease associated with deficient activity of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.14), a lysosomal hydrolase in the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG) degradation pathway. In caprine MPS IIID, enzyme replacement therapy reversed early postnatal systemic but not primary or secondary central nervous system (CNS) substrate accumulations. The caprine MPS IIID large animal model system was used in this investigation to define the developmental profile of morphological and biochemical perturbations to estimate a time frame for therapeutic intervention. Light and electron microscopy were used to compare the CNS, liver, and kidney of normal +/+, MPS IIID carrier +/-, and MPS IIID-affected -/- goat kids (kids), at 60, 113–114, 128–129, and 135 d gestation (dg) of a 150-d gestational period, at birth, and at 59–64 d of postnatal (d-pn) age. In the CNS of -/- kids, morphological correlations of HS-GAG and glycolipid accumulations were evident in early differentiating neurons at 60 dg. CNS and systemic developmental, regional, and cellular differences in -/-kids at all time points included more prominent and earlier accumulation of lucent, putative HS-GAG substrates in lysosomes of meningeal and perivascular macrophages and hepatic sinusoidal cells than in CNS, hepatic, or renal parenchymal cells. The amounts and compositions of HS-GAG substrates in the brain and liver of +/+, +/-, and -/- kids were determined at 60, 65, 113–114, and 128–135 dg, at birth, and 53–78 d-pn. In the CNS of -/- kids, HS-GAG concentrations were variable and exceeded those of age-matched control tissue samples in the third but not the second trimester. In contrast, hepatic HS-GAG levels in -/- kids exceeded control values at all time points evaluated and paralleled the progressive morphological alterations. CNS and hepatic HS-GAG compositions in -/- kids were similar to each other and were more complex at all pre- and postnatal ages than those from control kids. Based on the time frame of development of CNS lesions and biochemical perturbations, prenatal therapeutic intervention in caprine MPS IIID is likely to be necessary to prevent or ameliorate substantive CNS and systemic lesions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Primary intrapulmonary thymoma is a rare lesion with around 20 cases reported so far in the literature. A pure spindle cell morphology in these lesions is rarer still with only a single case recorded to date. We report herein an interesting case of a 47-year-old-man, status post surgical resection and radiotherapy for a squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of mouth, who was being followed up for a radiologic opacity in the right lower lobe of the lung. The lesion remained stable in size for almost 5 years and then an increase in size was noted. A right lower lobectomy was performed with a preoperative suspicion of metastasis. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a primary intrapulmonary spindle cell thymoma that displayed a prominent granulomatous reaction, a phenomenon not described so far in the literature. We discuss the possible embryologic origins and the pitfalls in diagnosis of these rare neoplasms. The remarkable granulomatous response observed in the tumor raises the possibility that similar lesions might conceivably occur in the thymus as well.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · International Journal of Surgical Pathology
  • Barbara Banner · Zachary Spicer · Joseph Alroy
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    ABSTRACT: CD3 antigen, formerly thought to be specific for T lymphocytes, has been found on gastric parietal cells in animals and humans. The common anti-CD3 antibodies recognize the epsilon subunit, which has a role in signal transduction. The aim of this study was to immunostain stomach specimens from humans and different animal species for CD3 antigen to determine if CD3 antigen is conserved across species and if CD3 antigen expression is altered in humans by use of certain drugs or the presence of gastritis. Gastric biopsies from 50 humans and necropsy sections from 13 different animals were immunostained using commercial anti CD3 epsilon antibodies on an automated immunostainer. Sections of stomach from four mice lacking the gastric H+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit and four control mice were similarly immunostained. CD3 epsilon antigen expression in cytoplasm and cell membranes of gastric parietal cells was graded subjectively based on the number of positive cells. CD3 epsilon antigen was found on gastric parietal cells in all but one species studied, with varying expression in membranes and cytoplasm. There was a trend toward a decreased frequency of CD3+ cells in biopsies from patients on drugs (n = 23) compared to those on no drugs (n = 27). This trend was most marked in patients on H2 receptor antagonists. There was no correlation between CD3 expression and inflammation or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. There was loss of CD3 expression in parietal cells in mice lacking the alpha-subunit of H+,K(+)-ATPase. These findings support previous observations that CD3 antigen is present in gastric parietal cells, and suggest that it may function in signal transduction during acid secretion.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Pathology - Research and Practice
  • Joseph Alroy · Sharda Sabnis · Jeffrey B Kopp

    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal disorder characterized by deficient -galactosidase A activity and intracellular accumulations of glycosphingolipids, mainly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Clinically, patients occasionally present CNS dysfunction. To examine the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction, we examined glucose utilization (CMRglc) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) globally and locally in 18 brain structures in the -galactosidase A gene knockout mouse. Global CMRglc was statistically significantly reduced by 22% in Fabry mice (p < 0.01). All 18 structures showed decreases in local CMRglc ranging from 14% to 33%. The decreases in all structures of the diencephalon, caudate-putamen, brain stem, and cerebellar cortex were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and local CBF measured in the same 18 structures were lower in Fabry mice than in control mice, but none statistically significantly. Histological examination of brain revealed no cerebral infarcts but abundant Gb3 deposits in the walls of the cerebral vessels with neuronal deposits localized to the medulla oblongata. These results indicate an impairment in cerebral energy metabolism in the Fabry mice, but one not necessarily due to circulatory insufficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal disorder characterized by deficient alpha-galactosidase A activity and intracellular accumulations of glycosphingolipids, mainly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Clinically, patients occasionally present CNS dysfunction. To examine the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction, we examined glucose utilization (CMR(glc)) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) globally and locally in 18 brain structures in the alpha-galactosidase A gene knockout mouse. Global CMR(glc) was statistically significantly reduced by 22% in Fabry mice (p < 0.01). All 18 structures showed decreases in local CMR(glc) ranging from 14% to 33%. The decreases in all structures of the diencephalon, caudate-putamen, brain stem, and cerebellar cortex were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and local CBF measured in the same 18 structures were lower in Fabry mice than in control mice, but none statistically significantly. Histological examination of brain revealed no cerebral infarcts but abundant Gb3 deposits in the walls of the cerebral vessels with neuronal deposits localized to the medulla oblongata. These results indicate an impairment in cerebral energy metabolism in the Fabry mice, but one not necessarily due to circulatory insufficiency.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The canine prostate has often been proposed as a model for abnormal growth of the human gland. Hyperplasia of the prostate is common in aging men and has been estimated to be present in 100% of old intact dogs. While prostatic carcinoma is common in older men, it appears to be rare in dogs and unlike the disease in humans, it occurs with relatively high frequency in castrated animals. Since basal cells are thought to be key participants in normal and abnormal growth of the human gland, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the role that they may play in canine prostatic development, the evolution of hyperplasia and carcinoma, and the effects of sex hormones on these cells. Prostate specimens were obtained at autopsy from seven sexually immature dogs, autopsy and biopsy samples from 14 sexually mature intact animals, from four castrates, and from19 dogs with prostatic carcinoma. In addition, we also studied the prostates from two intact dogs treated with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 6 months and two castrated dogs that were subsequently treated with 5alpha-androstane-3alpha diol and estradiol-17alpha, as well as specimens from two sexually ablated animals given DHT for 2 weeks. All specimens were immunostained for high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC), pancytokeratin, androgen receptor (AR), and the proliferative marker KI-67. We find that basal cells are the major proliferative cell type in the neonatal and adult canine prostate and that the expression of HMC staining, which defines these cells, may be regulated by androgens. In the adult gland, ductal basal cells formed a contiguous layer, whereas those lining acini were discontinuous. Populations of both basal cell types were variably AR positive, but while HMC immunostaining was abolished in acinar cells following long-term castration, staining remained in ductal cell counterparts. Paralleling the histological development of hyperplasia, the acinar basal cell population increased with age and were the major cell type that expressed KI-67. In contrast, ductal basal cell populations did not expand in the prostates of older dogs and were seldom positively stained for KI-67. The numbers of HMC and KI-67-stained acinar basal cells were dramatically increased in the prostates of intact dogs treated with DHT when compared with glands of untreated controls. This was not the case with ductal basal cells. Androgens given alone or together with estrogen to castrated dogs induced widespread HMC and KI-67 immunostaining in both populations of basal cells. In addition, our results indicate that the majority of canine prostatic carcinomas likely arise exclusively from ductal epithelium. Only one of the 19 cases of carcinoma contained cells that expressed AR, which suggests that androgens may not be required for the initiation or progression of these cancers. Our findings indicate that two biologically distinct populations of basal cells may exist in the canine prostate. In this regard, the age-related expansion of proliferating acinar basal cell populations, probably mediated by sex steroids, is a key factor in the pathogenesis of canine prostatic hyperplasia. Additionally, we find that prostatic carcinoma in the dog likely arises from ductal cells. Taken together, these findings may indicate that canine acinar basal cells and ductal epithelium have separate susceptibilities to factors that promote hyperplastic or neoplastic development.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2001 · The Prostate
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    ZY Cao · Z Zhao · R Mohan · J Alroy · P Stanley · N Panjwani
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we demonstrate that in corneal epithelium there is cell-cell contact-regulated expression of a 145-kDa glycoprotein (GP) bearing the glycan determinant Lewisx (Lex) (Galβ(1,4)[Fucα(1,3)]GlcNAc). This glycoprotein (Lex-GP) was expressed in confluent/contact-inhibited cultures but not in sparse cultures of corneal epithelium. In contrast, a 135-kDa glycoprotein bearing precursor, unfucosylated, lactosamine-containing glycans (Galβ1–4GlcNAcβ1-R) was expressed in sparse cultures. Immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy of confluent cultures revealed that in corneal epithelium, Lex antigen is located in high density at sites of cell-cell adhesion. In in vitro cell-cell adhesion assays, anti-Lex, but not anti-sialyl-Lex monoclonal antibodies, inhibited the formation of corneal epithelial cell-cell adhesion. Also, when added to confluent cultures, antibodies to Lex disrupted the monolayer and caused tightly packed polygonal cells to round up. Analysis of the expression ofFut genes that encode α-1,3-fucosyltransferases, the enzymes that generate the Lex determinant, revealed that confluent/contact-inhibited cultures of rabbit corneal epithelium contain markedly elevated levels of Fut4 andFut3/5/6 gene transcripts compared with sparse cultures. These data suggest that the Fut4 and Fut3/5/6 genes are targets of cell-cell contact-regulated signals and thatFut gene products direct cell-cell contact-associated expression of Lex on the Lex-GP in corneal epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of Lex antigen in the epithelium of adult and developing corneas is related to the stage of differentiation of the cells. Although early differentiated cells robustly expressed Lex, relatively undifferentiated cells did not, and the expression level was relatively low in terminally differentiated cells. Overall, these data provide evidence that a Lex-bearing glycoprotein plays a role through the Lex determinant in corneal epithelial cell-cell adhesion, and these data suggest that Lex-mediated cell-cell interactions contribute to mechanisms that mediate corneal epithelial cell differentiation.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The canine prostate has often been proposed as a model for abnormal growth of the human gland. Hyperplasia of the prostate is common in aging men and has been estimated to be present in 100% of old intact dogs. While prostatic carcinoma is common in older men it appears to be rare in dogs and unlike the disease in humans it occurs with relatively high frequency in castrated animals. Since basal cells are thought to be key participants in normal and abnormal growth of the human gland, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the role that they may play in canine prostatic development, the evolution of hyperplasia and carcinoma, and the effects of sex hormones on these cells.METHODS Prostate specimens were obtained at autopsy from seven sexually immature dogs, autopsy and biopsy samples from 14 sexually mature intact animals, from four castrates, and from19 dogs with prostatic carcinoma. In addition, we also studied the prostates from two intact dogs treated with 5-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 6 months and two castrated dogs that were subsequently treated with 5-androstane-3 diol and estradiol-17 as well as specimens from two sexually ablated animals given DHT for 2 weeks. All specimens were immunostained for high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC), Pancytokeratin, androgen receptor (AR), and the proliferative marker KI-67.RESULTSWe find that basal cells are the major proliferative cell type in the neonatal and adult canine prostate and that the expression of HMC staining, which defines these cells, may be regulated by androgens. In the adult gland, ductal basal cells formed a contiguous layer whereas those lining acini were discontinuous. Populations of both basal cell types were variably AR positive but while HMC immunostaining was abolished in acinar cells following long-term castration, staining remained in ductal cell counterparts. Paralleling the histological development of hyperplasia, the acinar basal cell population increased with age and were the major cell type that expressed KI-67. In contrast, ductal basal cell populations did not expand in the prostates of older dogs and were seldom positively stained for KI-67. The numbers of HMC and KI-67-stained acinar basal cells were dramatically increased in the prostates of intact dogs treated with DHT when compared with glands of untreated controls. This was not the case with ductal basal cells. Androgens given alone or together with estrogen to castrated dogs induced widespread HMC and KI-67 immunostaining in both populations of basal cells. In addition, our results indicate that the majority of canine prostatic carcinomas likely arise exclusively from ductal epithelium. Only one of the 19 cases of carcinoma contained cells that expressed AR which suggests that androgens may not be required for the initiation or progression of these cancers.CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that two biologically distinct populations of basal cells may exist in the canine prostate. In this regard the age-related expansion of proliferating acinar basal cell populations, probably mediated by sex steroids, is a key factor in the pathogenesis of canine prostatic hyperplasia. Additionally we find that prostatic carcinoma in the dog likely arises from ductal cells. Taken together these findings may indicate that canine acinar basal cells and ductal epithelium have separate susceptibilities to factors that promote hyperplastic or neoplastic development. Prostate 47:149–163, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2001 · The Prostate
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID (MPS IIID) is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from lack of activity of the lysosomal hydrolase N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (6S) (EC 3.1.6.14). The syndrome is associated with systemic and central nervous system (CNS) heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG) accumulation, secondary storage of lipids, and severe, progressive dementia. In this investigation, caprine MPS IIID, established as a large animal model for the human disease, was used to evaluate the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Recombinant caprine 6S (rc6S) (1 mg/kg/dose) was administered intravenously to one MPS IIID goat kid at 2, 3, and 4 wks of age. Five days after the last dose, the uronic acid (UA) content and the composition of uncatabolized HS-GAG fractions in the brain of the ERT-treated MPS IIID kid were similar to those from a control, untreated MPS IIID animal. However, hepatic uronic acid levels in the treated MPS IIID kid were approximately 90% lower than those in the untreated MPS IIID control; whereas the composition of the residual hepatic HS-GAG was identical to that in the untreated animal. Marked reduction of lysosomal storage vacuoles in hepatic cells of the treated MPS IIID kid was observed, but ERT had no effect on CNS lesions. No residual 6S activity was detected in brain or liver. This preliminary investigation indicates that other treatment regimens will be necessary to ameliorate MPS III-related CNS lesions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Transplantable tumors and cell lines have been developed from pheochromocytomas arising in mice with a heterozygous knockout mutation of the neurofibromatosis gene, Nf1. Nf1 encodes a ras-GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin, and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in primary cultures typically show extensive spontaneous neuronal differentiation that may result from the loss of the remaining wild-type allele and defective regulation of ras signaling. However, all MPC cell lines express neurofibromin, suggesting that preservation of the wild-type allele may be required to permit the propagation of MPC cells in vitro. MPC lines differ from PC12 cells in that they express both endogenous phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and full-length PNMT reporter constructs. PNMT expression is increased by dexamethasone and by cell-cell contact in suspension cultures. Mouse pheochromocytomas are a new tool for studying genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation in adrenal medullary neoplasms and are a unique model for studying the regulation of PNMT expression.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Cell and Tissue Research
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    Christopher D. Warren · Joseph Alroy

    Preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
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    ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy, a lethal disease characterized by left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction, is relatively common in humans and other mammals. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is a primary myocardial disease of unknown cause and can be a familial disorder. This report describes autosomal recessive IDCM in dogs. It occurs in Portuguese Water Dog (PWD) pups and is manifested by acute, vague clinical signs and sudden death. Affected pups have progressive reduction of fractional shortening that can be demonstrated by echocardiography prior to the development of clinical signs. Furthermore, these pups have low plasma taurine levels when consuming certain diets. Affected pups had dilation of the left ventricle and alterations in the sarcomere appearance, while immunohistochemical and biochemical studies demonstrate an increase in desmin, a cytoskeleton protein. The clinical and morphologic findings of IDCM in PWDs are distinct from those reported in adult IDCM. Finally, the clinical and echocardiographic manifestations were reversible in some pups following oral taurine supplementation for 2 months. These results suggest that IDCM in PWDs is correlated with low plasma taurine levels.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy, a lethal disease characterized by left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction, is relatively common in humans and other mammals. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is a primary myocardial disease of unknown cause and can be a familial disorder. This report describes autosomal recessive IDCM in dogs. It occurs in Portuguese Water Dog (PWD) pups and is manifested by acute, vague clinical signs and sudden death. Affected pups have progressive reduction of fractional shortening that can be demonstrated by echocardiography prior to the development of clinical signs. Furthermore, these pups have low plasma taurine levels when consuming certain diets. Affected pups had dilation of the left ventricle and alterations in the sarcomere appearance, while immunohistochemical and biochemical studies demonstrate an increase in desmin, a cytoskeleton protein. The clinical and morphologic findings of IDCM in PWDs are distinct from those reported in adult IDCM. Finally, the clinical and echocardiographic manifestations were reversible in some pups following oral taurine supplementation for 2 months. These results suggest that IDCM in PWDs is correlated with low plasma taurine levels. Am. J. Med. Genet. 95:57–66, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The acid beta-galactosidase cDNA of Portuguese Water dogs was isolated and sequenced. The entire coding region of the gene consists of 2004 nucleotides encoding a protein of 668 amino acids. Its encoding sequence indicates approximately 86.5% identity at the nucleotide level and about 81% identity at the amino acid level with the encoding region of the human acid beta-galactosidase gene. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a 24-amino-acid putative signal sequence, six possible glycosylation sites, and seven cysteine residues. A homozygous recessive mutation, causing canine GM1-gangliosidosis, was identified at nucleotide G200-->A in exon 2 resulting in an Arg60-->His (mutation R60H) amino acid substitution. The mutation creates a new restriction enzyme site for Pml1. Genotyping 115 dog samples for this acid beta-galactosidase gene alteration readily distinguished affected homozygous recessives (n=5), heterozygous carriers (n=50) and normal homozygotes (n=60). DNA mutation analysis provided a method more specific than enzyme assay of beta-galactosidase for determination of carriers.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic peripheral neuropathy is a frequent, irreversible complication of lower extremity vascular insufficiency. We investigated whether ischemic peripheral neuropathy could be prevented and/or reversed by gene transfer of an endothelial cell mitogen designed to promote therapeutic angiogenesis. Intramuscular gene transfer of naked DNA encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) simultaneously with induction of hindlimb ischemia in rabbits abrogated the substantial decrease in motor and sensory nerve parameters, and nerve function recovered promptly. When gene transfer was administered 10 days after induction of ischemia, nerve function was restored earlier and/or recovered faster than in untreated rabbits. These findings are due in part to enhanced hindlimb perfusion. In addition, however, the demonstration of functional VEGF receptor expression by Schwann cells indicates a direct effect of VEGF on neural integrity as well. These findings thus constitute a new paradigm for the treatment of ischemic peripheral neuropathy.
    Preview · Article · May 2000 · Nature Medicine

Publication Stats

5k Citations
721.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1986-2014
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • Molecular Oncology Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1978-2014
    • Tufts University
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Tufts Center for Conservation Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases
      Бостон, Georgia, United States
  • 2005
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      BVY, Massachusetts, United States
    • Chestnut Hill College
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1980-2002
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1987-1992
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Pathology
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1985-1989
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1988
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Urology
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1977-1981
    • Rush Medical College
      Chicago, Illinois, United States