[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported the detection of a truncated E1 mRNA generated from HPV-18 in HeLa cells. Although it is unclear whether a truncated E1 protein could function as a replicative helicase for viral replication, it would still retain binding sites for potential interactions with different host cell proteins. Furthermore, in this study, we found evidence in support of expression of full-length HPV-18 E1 mRNA in HeLa cells. To determine whether interactions between E1 and cellular proteins play an important role in cellular processes other than viral replication, genome-wide expression profiles of HPV-18 positive HeLa cells were compared before and after the siRNA knockdown of E1 expression. Differential expression and gene set enrichment analysis uncovered four functionally related sets of genes implicated in host defence mechanisms against viral infection. These included the toll-like receptor, interferon and apoptosis pathways, along with the antiviral interferon-stimulated gene set. In addition, we found that the transcriptional coactivator E1A-binding protein p300 (EP300) was downregulated, which is interesting given that EP300 is thought to be required for the transcription of HPV-18 genes in HeLa cells. The observed changes in gene expression produced via the silencing of HPV-18 E1 expression in HeLa cells indicate that in addition to its well-known role in viral replication, the E1 protein may also play an important role in mitigating the host's ability to defend against viral infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS or PTGIS) is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). PGI2 promotes cancer growth by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), and increases the expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that the expression of the PGIS gene was enhanced in WI-38, TIG-3-20 and HEL human lung fibroblast cells and two cancer cell lines (NB-1 and G361) under hypoxic conditions. The main localization of PGIS changed from the cytoplasm to the nucleus by hypoxia in WI-38 cells. The induced PGIS had an enzymatic activity since the intracellular level of 6-keto-prostaglandin, a useful marker of PGI2 biosynthesis in vivo, was increased with the increasing levels of PGIS. Expression of VEGF was increased in parallel with PGIS induction under hypoxic conditions. PGIS knockdown resulted in the decreased expression of VEGF mRNA. Since VEGF is a known PPARδ target gene, we examined the effects of siRNAs targeting PPARδ on the expression of VEGF under hypoxic conditions. Knockdown of PPARδ suppressed the expression of VEGF under hypoxic conditions in WI-38 cells. These findings suggest that PGIS is induced by hypoxia and regulates the expression of VEGF in fibroblasts. Fibroblasts in the hypoxic area of tumors may have an important role in tumor growth and angiogenesis.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160-250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes in RA, gastric fundic glandular epithelia, or nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) cells suggests anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cell differentiation and in oncogenesis such as the induction of survivin. Enzymatically pretreated and ultra-super sensitive detection of beclin-1 in synoviocytes in RA and gastric fundic glandular epithelia suggests enhanced autophagy. The deposition of beclin-1 in fibrinoid necrosis in RA and expression of beclin-1 in detached gastric fundic glandular cells suggest that enhanced autophagy undergoes autophagic cell death (ACD). NKTCL exhibited enhanced autophagy through LC3 labeling and showed densely LC3 labeled cell-debris in regions of peculiar necrosis without deposition of beclin-1, indicating massive ACD in NKTCL and the alternative pathway enhancing autophagy following autophagic vesicle nucleation. Autophagy progression was monitored by labeling aggregated mitochondria and cathepsin D. The cell-debris in massive ACD in NKTCL were positive for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting DNA oxidation occurred in ACD. Immunohistochemical autophagy and PCD analysis in archival human pathology specimens may offer new insights into autophagy in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR) 1 expression is strongly activated in response to interferon (IFN) treatment and viral infection, and PLSCR1 is necessary for the IFN-dependent induction of gene expression and antiviral activity. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax in vitro and in vivo. This interaction reduced the cytoplasmic distribution of Tax. PLSCR1 efficiently repressed the Tax-mediated transactivation of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat and the NF-κB binding site reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner in COS-1 and Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cell lines. Furthermore, we show that PLSCR1 repressed the homodimerization of Tax in vitro. These data reveal for the first time that PLSCR1 specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates its transactivation activity by altering the subcellular distribution and the homodimerization of Tax. PLSCR1 may play an important role in the IFN-mediated repression of Tax-dependent transactivation during HTLV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The smoking habit is the most important, but not a sufficient cause for lung cancer development. Several studies have reported the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) presence and E6 and E7 transcripts expression in lung carcinoma cases from different geographical regions. The possible interaction between HPV infection and smoke carcinogens, however, remains unclear. In this study we address a potential cooperation between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins for alterations in proliferative and tumorigenic properties of lung epithelial cells. A549 (alveolar, tumoral) and BEAS-2B (bronchial, non-tumoral) cell lines were stably transfected with recombinant pLXSN vectors expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) at different concentrations. HPV16 E6 and E7 expression was associated with loss of p53 stability, telomerase (hTERT) and p16(INK4A) overexpression in BEAS-2B cells as demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting (WB). In A549 cells we observed downregulation of p53 but not a significant increase of hTERT transcripts. In addition, the HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cell lines showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in a HPV16 E6 and E7 expression-dependent manner. Moreover, both HPV16 E6/E7 and mock transfected cells showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in the presence of 0.1 and 10 µg/mL CSC. However, this increase was significantly greater in HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cells (p<0.001). Data were confirmed by FCSE proliferation assay. The results obtained in this study are suggestive of a functional interaction between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6/E7 oncoproteins for malignant transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. More studies are warranted in order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in this cooperation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Antigen retrieval (AR) and ultra-super sensitive immunohistochemistry (ultra-IHC) have been established for application to archival human pathology specimens. The original ultra-IHC was the ImmunoMax method or the catalyzed signal amplification system (ImmunoMax/CSA method), comprising the streptavidin-biotin complex (sABC) method and catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) reaction with visualization of its deposition. By introducing procedures to diminish non-specific staining in the original ultra-IHC method, we developed the modified ImmunoMax/CSA method with AR heating sections in an AR solution (heating-AR). The heating-AR and modified ImmunoMax/CSA method visualized expression of the predominantly simple present form of HTLV-1 proviral DNA pX region p40Tax protein (Tax) in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in archival pathology specimens in approximately 75% of cases. The simple present form of Tax detected exhibited a close relation with ATLL cell proliferation. We also established a new simplified CSA (nsCSA) system by replacing the sABC method with the secondary antibody- and horse radish peroxidase-labeled polymer reagent method, introducing the pretreatments blocking non-specific binding of secondary antibody reagent, and diminishing the diffusion of deposition in the CARD reaction. Combined with AR treating sections with proteinase K solution (enzymatic-AR), the nsCSA system visualized granular immunostaining of the complex present form of Tax in a small number of ATLL cells in most cases, presenting the possibility of etiological pathological diagnosis of ATLL and suggesting that the complex present form of Tax-positive ATLL cells were young cells derived from ATLL stem cells. The heating-AR and ultra-IHC detected physiological expression of the p53 protein and its probable phosphorylation by Tax in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of peripheral blood tissue specimens from HTLV-1 carriers, as well as physiological and pathological expression of the molecules involved with G1 phase progression and G1-S phase transition (E2F-1, E2F-4, DP-1, and cyclin E) in ATLL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma cells. The ultra-IHC with AR is useful for etiological pathological diagnosis of ATLL since HTLV-1 pathogenicity depends on that of Tax, and can be a useful tool for studies translating advanced molecular biology and pathology to human pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To clarify human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in carcinogenesis of the upper digestive tract of virological and pathological analyses.
The present study examined the presence of HPV in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (n = 71), and esophagus (n = 166) collected from Japan, Pakistan and Colombia, with different HPV exposure risk and genetic backgrounds. The viral load and physical status of HPV16 and HPV16-E6 variants were examined. Comparison of p53 and p16(INK4a) expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases was also made.
HPV16 was found in 39 (55%) oral carcinomas (OCs) and 24 (14%) esophageal carcinomas (ECs). This site-specific difference in HPV detection between OCs and ECs was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the geographical distribution of HPV16-E6 variants. Multiple infections of different HPV types were found in 13 ECs, but multiple infections were not found in OCs. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The geometric means (95% confidence interval) of HPV16 viral load in OCs and ECs were 0.06 (0.02-0.18) and 0.12 (0.05-0.27) copies per cell, respectively. The expression of p16(INK4a) proteins was increased by the presence of HPV in ECs (53% and 33% in HPV-positive and -negative ECs, respectively; P = 0.036), and the high-risk type of the HPV genome was not detected in surrounding normal esophageal mucosa of HPV-positive ECs.
Based on our results, we cannot deny the possibility of HPV16 involvement in the carcinogenesis of the esophagus.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To clarify the reason for the low frequency of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in Peru, despite the high frequency reported in neighboring countries, the distribution of the distinctive EBV (type i/XhoI+) strain in EBVaGC and a healthy population was examined.
EBV polymorphisms in BamHI W1/I1 and XhoI restriction site of the latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1) were examined among 11 EBVaGCs and 172 healthy controls from Peru, and these frequencies were compared with those in a previous study of Chile and Colombia (n=303).
The frequency of the distinctive EBV strain in EBVaGCs (55%) was significantly higher than that in controls (7%). Furthermore, the frequency of this EBV type in Peruvian controls was significantly lower than that in controls from Chile and Colombia (27%, p<0.001).
The low frequency of the distinctive EBV strain among the Peruvian population might be a reason for the lower incidence of EBVaGC in Peru, as compared with neighboring countries.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study investigated autophagy in 37 cases of nasopharyngeal lymphomas including 23 nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas (NKTCL), 3 cytotoxic T-cell lymphomas (cytotoxic-TML) and 9 B-cell lymphomas (BML) by means of antigen-retrieval immunohistochemistry of beclin-1, LC3, mitochondria (AE-1) and cathepsin D. Peculiar necrosis was noted in EBV(+) lymphomas comprising 21 NKTCL, 2 cytotoxic-TML and 1 BML. Lymphomas without peculiar necrosis showed high expression of beclin-1, macrogranular cytoplasmal stain of LC3 with sporadic nuclear stain, a hallmark of autophagic cell death (ACD), some aggregated mitochondria and high expression of cathepsin D, suggesting a state of growth with enhanced autophagy with sporadic ACD. EBV(+) NKTCL with the peculiar necrosis, showed significantly low level of macrogranular staining of LC3, aggregated mitochondria and low expression of cathepsin D in the cellular areas when degenerative lymphoma cells showed decreased beclin-1, significantly advanced LC3-labeled autophagy, residual aggregated mitochondria and significantly reduced expression of cathepsin D, suggesting advanced autophagy with regional ACD. Consequently it was suggested that enhanced autophagy and reduced expression of lysosomal enzymes induced regional ACD under EBV infection in NKTCL.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · ACTA HISTOCHEMICA ET CYTOCHEMICA
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) have been found in breast carcinomas (BCs) around the world. In this study, fifty-five BCs from Chile were analyzed for HPV and EBV presence. In addition, HPV-16 viral load/physical status and E6/E7 expressions were determined.
The amplification of a housekeeping gene showed that 46/55 samples (84%) had amplifiable DNA. HPV-16 was detected in 4/46 BCs (8.7%) and EBV was detected in 3/46 (6.5%) BCs. The analysis of HPV-16 physical status showed that this virus was integrated in all of the tumors with a relatively low viral load (range: 0.14 to 33.8 copies/cell). E6 and E7 transcripts, however, were not detected in any HPV-16 positive specimens. Using a Cox-regression model, we found a statistically significant association between EBV presence and poor survival (p = 0.013).
The findings in this study suggest that it is unlikely that HPV and/or EBV play a direct role in the etiology of BC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Infectious Agents and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses of the published literature indicate that about 9% of gastric cancers contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), with consistent and significant differences by sex and anatomic subsite. This study aimed to identify additional determinants of EBV positivity and their joint effects.
From 15 international populations with consistent laboratory testing for EBV, we pooled individual-level data for 5081 gastric cancer cases including information on age, sex, subsite, histologic type, diagnostic stage, geographic region, and period of diagnosis. First, we combined population-specific EBV prevalence estimates using random effects meta-analysis. We then aggregated individual-level data to estimate odds ratios of EBV positivity in relation to all variables, accounting for within-population clustering.
In unadjusted analyses, EBV positivity was significantly higher in males, young subjects, non-antral subsites, diffuse-type histology, and in studies from the Americas. Multivariable analyses confirmed significant associations with histology and region. Sex interacted with age (P=0.003) and subsite (P=0.002) such that male predominance decreased with age for both subsites. The positivity of EBV was not significantly associated with either stage or time period.
Aggregating individual-level data provides additional information over meta-analyses. Distinguishing histologic and geographic features as well as interactions among age, sex, and subsite further support classification of EBV-associated gastric cancer as a distinct aetiologic entity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The I-mfa domain proteins I-mfa and HIC are considered to be candidate tumor suppressor genes and have been shown to be involved in transcriptional regulation. We show here that I-mfa and HIC specifically interact with SEI-1 through their C-terminal I-mfa domains in vivo. This interaction affects the intracellular localization of I-mfa and requires the region of SEI-1 between 30 and 90 amino acids, which includes its SERTA domain, and results in repression of its intrinsic transcriptional activity. I-mfa also decreases the levels of the SEI-1·DP-1 complex and endogenous Fbxw7 mRNA, the expression of which is coregulated by E2F·DP-1 and SEI-1 in an interaction-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, I-mfa also specifically interacts with other SERTA domain-containing proteins, including SEI-2, SEI-3, SERTAD3 and SERTAD4, through its I-mfa domain in vivo. This interaction also affects the intracellular localization of I-mfa and represses the intrinsic transcriptional activities of SEI-2 and SERTAD3, which are also involved in the E2F-dependent transcription. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with SERTA domain proteins and negatively regulate their transcriptional activity. Because SEI-1, SEI-2 and SERTAD3, whose intrinsic transcriptional activities are repressed by I-mfa, are suggested to be oncogenes, I-mfa domain proteins may be involved in their oncogenic functions by negatively regulating their transcriptional activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Although human papillomavirus (HPV) genome has been detected in lung cancer, its prevalence is highly variable around the world. Higher frequencies have been reported in far-east Asian countries, when compared with European countries. The present study analysed the HPV-16 presence in 60 lung carcinomas from the Asian countries China, Pakistan and Papua New Guinea.
HPV-16 was present in 8/59 (13%) samples. According to histological type, HPV-16 was detected in 8/18 (44%) squamous cell carcinomas (SQCs), which were mainly from Pakistan; 0/38 (0%) adenocarcinomas (ACs), which were mainly from China; and in 0/4 (0%) small cell carcinomas (SCLCs). The observed histological difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). HPV-16 viral load was also determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); it ranged between 411 to 2345 copies/100 ng of genomic DNA. HPV-16 genome was found integrated into the host genome in every HPV-16 positive carcinoma.
These results support the notion that HPV-16 infection is highly associated with SQCs in Pakistan. Our results show a frequent HPV-16 integration in SQCs, although the low viral load casts doubt respect a direct etiological role of HPV in lung carcinomas from Asia. Additional HPV-16 characterization is necessary to establish a direct or indirect etiological role of HPV in this malignancy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Infectious Agents and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein has been reported to interact with glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) and to negatively regulate its activity, leading to stimulation of GSK-3beta-dependent beta-catenin degradation. We show here that the I-mfa domain proteins, HIC (human I-mfa domain-containing protein) and I-mfa (inhibitor of MyoD family a), interacted in vivo with LANA through their C-terminal I-mfa domains. This interaction affected the intracellular localization of HIC, inhibited the LANA-dependent transactivation of a beta-catenin-regulated reporter construct, and decreased the level of the LANA.GSK-3beta complex. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with LANA and negatively regulate LANA-mediated activation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription by inhibiting the formation of the LANA.GSK-3beta complex.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the etiological roles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the development of EBV-associated GC (EBV-GC), EBV-GCs and non EBV-GCs were compared with regard to the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), which is known to have angiogenic activity in various tumor tissues.
TP expression was examined by immunohistochemistry assay among 156 gastric carcinoma cases (21 EBV-GC cases and 135 non EBV-GC cases).
The frequency of tumors with TP expression was nearly twice as high in EBV-GCs (71%) than in non EBV-GCs (37%) (p=0.005). However, such an association was only observed in Lauren's diffuse-type tumors.
Our finding suggests that the mechanism involved in TP expression of gastric carcinoma appears to be different in intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A number of studies have reported the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in lung carcinoma. Interestingly, its detection rate appears to differ histologically and geographically. The present study examined 30 adenocarcinomas and 27 squamous cell carcinomas of the lung in a southern area of Japan, and detected high-risk HPV genome in 9 (30%) adenocarcinomas and 2 (7%) squamous cell carcinomas, using PCR with SPF10 primers and INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assay. The difference of HPV detection rates in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas was statistically significant (P=0.044, Fisher's exact test). HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV genotype, and was detected in 27% (8/30) of adenocarcinomas and in 7% (2/27) of squamous cell carcinomas. High-risk-HPV positive carcinomas had decreased proportions of pRb (P=0.107) and significantly increased proportions of p16INK4a expressing cells (P=0.031) when compared to HPV-negative lung carcinomas. All HPV-16-positive cases were considered to have an integrated form of HPV-16 but its viral load was low (geometric mean = 0.02 copy per cell). In 20 additional adenocarcinomas treated with gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor specific for epidermal growth factor receptor, the presence of HPV was examined. Note that East Asian ethnicity is a predictive factor of gefitinib response. High-risk HPV genome was found in 75% (6/8) of adenocarcinomas with complete or partial response to gefitinib but was not found in the remaining 12, which did not respond to gefitinib. In conclusion, the present study suggests that high-risk HPV may be more strongly related to adenocarcinomas, particularly gefitinib-responsive adenocarcinomas, when compared to squamous cell carcinomas. However, its low viral load makes it difficult to determine the etiological significance of these findings.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a prominent infection in transplant recipients. The immunosuppressive drug mizoribine was shown to have anti-CMV activity in vitro and was reported to have an anti-CMV effect in renal transplantation. This study characterized the anti-CMV activity of mizoribine in vitro and its synergistic activity with ganciclovir. Mizoribine suppressed replication and at the EC(50) for plaque inhibition of 12.0 microg/ml. Mizoribine and ganciclovir exerted a strong synergism in anti-CMV activity. Mizoribine depletes guanosine nucleotides by inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and may increase the ratio of ganciclovir to guanosine in treated cells, resulting in a strong synergistic augmentation of the anti-CMV activity of ganciclovir. Two clinical isolates with UL97 mutations were less susceptible to mizoribine than the Towne strain but were equally susceptible in the presence of guanine. Two mizoribine-resistant strains were isolated after culture for 3 months with 100 microg/ml mizoribine, but they were as sensitive to ganciclovir as the parent Towne strain. The anti-CMV activity of mizoribine was antagonized by 2'-deoxyguanosine. Mizoribine inhibited CMV replication directly, and the sequence of mizoribine-resistant mutants of UL97 and UL54 was identical to that of the parent Towne strain, indicating the different anti-CMV action from ganciclovir, foscarnet, and maribavir. Mizoribine as an immunosuppressive and anti-CMV drug in the clinical regimen was suggested to suppress replication of CMV in vivo and control CMV infection in transplant recipients in combination with ganciclovir.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus associated with serious diseases in immunocompromised subjects. The region between ORF UL133 and UL151 from HCMV, named ULb' is frequently deleted in attenuated AD169 and in highly passaged laboratory strains. However, this region is conserved in low-passaged and more virulent HCMV, like the Toledo strain. The UL146 gene, which is located in the ULb' region, encodes a CXC-chemokine analogue. The diversity of UL146 gene was evaluated among fifty-six clinical isolates of HCMV from Japan. Results show that UL146 gene was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in only 17/56 strains (30%), while the success rate for UL145/UL147 gene was 18/56 strains (32%). After DNA sequencing, the 35 amplified strains were classified into 8 groups. When compared, variability of UL146 ranged from 25.1% to 52.9% at the DNA level and from 34.5% to 67% at the amino acid level. Seven groups had the interleukin-8 (IL-8) motif ERL (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC and one group had only the CXC motif, suggesting the absence of the IL-8 function of UL146. In conclusion, we found that UL146 gene of HCMV is hyper-variable in clinical strains from Japan suggesting the possibility of a different function in each sequence group.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Biological research