[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2012) 120, 684–698.
cAMP induces neurite outgrowth in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line 12 (PC12). In particular, di-butyric cAMP (db-cAMP) induces a greater number of primary processes with shorter length than the number induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). db-cAMP up- and down-regulates GTP-RhoA levels in PC12 cells in a time-dependent manner. Tat-C3 toxin stimulates neurite outgrowth, whereas lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and constitutively active (CA)-RhoA reduce neurite outgrowth, suggesting that RhoA inactivation is essential for the neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells stimulated by cAMP. In this study, the mechanism by which RhoA is inactivated in response to cAMP was examined. db-cAMP induces phosphorylation of RhoA and augments the binding of RhoA with Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI). Moreover, RhoA (S188D) mimicking phosphorylated RhoA induces greater neurite outgrowth than RhoA (S188A) mimicking dephosphorylated form does. Additionally, db-cAMP increases GTP-Rap1 levels, and dominant negative (DN)-Rap1 and DN-Rap-dependent RhoGAP (ARAP3) block neurite outgrowth induced by db-cAMP. DN-p190RhoGAP and the Src inhibitor PP2 suppress neurite outgrowth, whereas transfection of c-Src and p190RhoGAP cDNAs synergistically stimulate neurite outgrowth. Taken together, RhoA is inactivated by phosphorylation of itself, by p190RhoGAP which is activated by Src, and by ARAP3 which is activated by Rap1 during neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells in response to db-cAMP.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: PC12 cells have been used as a model of sympathetic neurons. Nerve growth factor (NGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and cAMP induce neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. cAMP induced a greater number of neurites than did NGF. In particular, we attempted to elucidate whether PC12 cell neurites, induced by several factors including NGF, bFGF, and cAMP, form synapses, and whether each neurite has presynaptic and postsynaptic properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we observed that neurites are connected to each other. The connected regions presented dense core vesicles and a clathrin-coated membrane invagination. In addition, typical maker proteins for axon and dendrite were identified by an immuno-staining method. Tau-1, an axonal marker in neurons, was localized at a high concentration in the terminal tips of neurites from PC12 cells, which were connected to neurite processes containing MAP-2, a dendritic marker in neurons. Furthermore, neurites containing SV2 and synaptotagmin, markers of synaptic vesicles, were in contact with neurites harboring drebrin, a marker of the postsynaptic membrane, suggesting that neurites from PC12 cells induced by NGF, bFGF, and cAMP may form synapse-like structures. Tat-C3 toxin, a Rho inhibitor, augmented neurite outgrowth induced by NGF, bFGF, and cAMP. Tat-C3 toxin together with neurotrophins also exhibited synapse-like structures between neurites. However, it remains to be studied whether RhoA inhibition plays a role in the formation of synapse-like structures in PC12 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 has been widely used as a model to study neuronal differentiation. PC12 cells give rise to neurites in response to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). However, it is unclear whether bFGF promotes neurite outgrowth by inducing RhoA inactivation, and a mechanism for RhoA inactivation in PC12 cells in response to bFGF has not been reported. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) treatment and the expression of constitutively active (CA)-RhoA (RhoA V14) impaired neurite formation in response to bFGF, while Tat-C3 exoenzyme and the expression of dominant negative (DN)-RhoA (RhoA N19) stimulated neurite outgrowth. GTP-bound RhoA levels were reduced in response to bFGF, which suggests that the inactivation of RhoA is essential to neurite outgrowth in response to bFGF. To investigate the mechanism of RhoA inactivation, this study examined the roles of p190RhoGAP and Rap-dependent RhoGAP (ARAP3). DN-p190RhoGAP prevented neurite outgrowth, while WT-p190RhoGAP and Src synergistically stimulated neurite outgrowth; these findings suggest that bFGF promotes the inactivation of RhoA and subsequent neurite outgrowth through p190RhoGAP and Src. Furthermore, DN-Rap1 and DN-ARAP3 reduced neurite formation in PC12 cells. These results suggest that RhoA is likely to be inactivated by p190RhoGAP and ARAP3 during neurite outgrowth in response to bFGF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Brief treatment with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulated the migration of macrophages, whereas long-term exposure decreased their migration. Cell migration stimulated by TGF-beta1 was markedly inhibited by 10 mug/mL Tat-C3 exoenzyme. TGF-beta1 increased mRNA and protein levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha in the initial period, and these effects also were inhibited by 10 mug/mL Tat-C3 and a dominant-negative (DN)-RhoA (N19RhoA). Cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and antibodies against MIP-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) abolished the stimulation of cell migration by TGF-beta1. These findings suggest that migration of these cells is regulated directly and indirectly via the expression of chemokines such as MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 mediated by RhoA in response to TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 activated RhoA in the initial period, and thereafter inactivated them, suggesting that the inactivation of RhoA may be the cause of the reduced cell migration in response to TGF-beta1 at later times. We therefore attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the inactivation of RhoA by TGF-beta1. First, TGF-beta1 phosphorylated RhoA via protein kinase A, leading to inactivation of RhoA. Second, wild-type p190 Rho GTPase activating protein (p190RhoGAP) reduced and DN-p190RhoGAP reversed the reduction of cell migration induced by TGF-beta, suggesting that it inactivated RhoA via p190 Rho GAP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis of serum- and IgG-opsonized zymosan (SOZ and IOZ, respectively) particles into J774A.1 macrophages induced apoptosis of the cells, accompanied by the expression of p21(WAF1), one of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Furthermore, phagocytosis of SOZ and IOZ particles into macophages induced superoxide formation. Tat-superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is readily transduced into the cells using Tat-domain, protected the cells from the apoptosis induced by phagocytosis of SOZ and IOZ particles. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) /interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) also caused the apoptosis of the cells. However, Tat-SOD could not protect the cells from LPS/IFN-gamma induced apoptosis, suggesting that apoptosis mechanisms involved are different from each other. In the present study, we determined the amounts of nitric oxide (NO) produced by SOZ, IOZ, and LPS/IFN-gamma, and found that SOZ and IOZ did not induce the generation of NO in macrophages, whereas LPS/ IFN-gamma did. The apoptosis due to phagocytosis was accompanied with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial membrane to cytosolic fraction. Furthermore, SOZ and IOZ induced the cleavage of procasapase-3 (35 kDa) to give rise to an active caspase-3 (20 kDa), which was blocked by Tat- SOD but not by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), a scavenger of NO. On the other hand, LPS/IFN-gamma caused the activation of procaspase-3, which was blocked by PTIO but not by Tat-SOD. Taken together, phagocytosis of SOZ and IOZ particles induced apoptosis through superoxide but not NO in macrophages, accompanied with the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2003 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The release of neurotransmitter is regulated in the processes of membrane docking and membrane fusion between synaptic vesicles and presynaptic plasma membranes. Synaptic vesicles contain a diverse set of proteins that participate in these processes. Small GTP-binding proteins exist in the synaptic vesicles and are suggested to play roles for the regulation of neurotransmitter release. We have examined a possible role of GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of protein phosphorylation in the synaptic vesicles. GTPgammaS stimulated the phosphorylation of 46 kDa protein (p46) with pI value of 5.0-5.2, but GDPbetaS did not. The p46 was identified as protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK-1) by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy analysis, and anti-PICK-1 antibody recognized the p46 spot on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Rab guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RabGDI), which dissociates Rab proteins from SVs, did not affect phosphorylation of p46. Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM), which causes the small GTP-binding proteins like Rab3A and RalA to dissociate from the membranes and stimulates CaM-dependent protein kinase(s) and phosphatase, strongly stimulate the phosphorylation of p46 in the presence of cyclosporin A and cyclophylin. However, RhoGDI, which dissociates Rho proteins from membranes, reduced the phosphorylation of p46 to the extent of about 50%. These results support that p46 was PICK-1, and its phosphorylation was stimulated by GTP and Ca(2+)/CaM directly or indirectly through GTP-binding protein(s) and Ca(2+)/CaM effector protein(s). The phosphorylation of p46 (PICK-1) by GTP and Ca(2+)/CaM may be important for the regulation of transporters and neurosecretion.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine