[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social amoebae are lower eukaryotes that inhabit the soil. They are characterized by the construction of a starvation-induced multicellular fruiting body with a spore ball and supportive stalk. In most species, the stalk is filled with motile stalk cells, as represented by the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, whose developmental mechanisms have been well characterized. However, in the genus Acytostelium, the stalk is acellular and all aggregated cells become spores. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that it is not an ancestral genus but has lost the ability to undergo cell differentiation.
We performed genome and transcriptome analyses of Acytostelium subglobosum and compared our findings to other available dictyostelid genome data. Although A. subglobosum adopts a qualitatively different developmental program from other dictyostelids, its gene repertoire was largely conserved. Yet, families of polyketide synthase and extracellular matrix proteins have not expanded and a serine protease and ABC transporter B family gene, tagA, and a few other developmental genes are missing in the A. subglobosum lineage. Temporal gene expression patterns are astonishingly dissimilar from those of D. discoideum, and only a limited fraction of the ortholog pairs shared the same expression patterns, so that some signaling cascades for development seem to be disabled in A. subglobosum.
The absence of the ability to undergo cell differentiation in Acytostelium is accompanied by a small change in coding potential and extensive alterations in gene expression patterns.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many de novo genome assembly projects have recently been performed using high-throughput sequencers, assembling the highly heterozygous diploid genomes is a big scientific challenge due to the increased complexity of the de Bruijn graph structure predominantly employed. To deal with an increasing demand for sequencing of non-model and/or wild-type sample, in most cases, inbred lines or fosmid-based hierarchical sequencing methods are employed with overcoming such problems. However, these methods are costly and time consuming, forfeiting the advantage of massive parallel sequencing. Here, we describe a novel de novo assembler, Platanus, which can effectively manage high-throughput data from heterozygous samples. Platanus assembles DNA fragments (reads) into contigs by constructing de Bruijn graphs with automatically optimized k-mer sizes, followed by scaffolding of contigs based on paired-end information. The complicated graph structures that result from the heterozygosity are simplified during not only the contig assembly step but also the scaffolding step. We evaluated the assembly results on eukaryotic samples with various levels of heterozygosity. Compared with other assemblers, the Platanus assembly results have a larger NG50 length without any accompanying loss of accuracy in both simulated data and real data. In addition, Platanus recorded the largest NG50 values for two of the three low heterozygous species used in the de novo assembly contest, Assemblathon2. Platanus provides, therefore, a novel and efficient approach for the assembly of Giga base-sized highly heterozygous genomes and is also an attractive alternative to the existing assemblers designed for genomes of lower heterozygosity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coelacanths are known as "living fossils", as they show remarkable morphological resemblance to the fossil record, and belong to the most primitive lineage of living Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods). Coelacanths may be key to elucidating the tempo and mode of evolution from fish to tetrapods. Here, we report the genome sequences of five coelacanths, including four Latimeria chalumnae individuals (three specimens from Tanzania and one from Comoros) and one L. menadoensis individual from Indonesia. These sequences cover two African breeding populations and two known extant coelacanth species. The genome is ~2.74 Gbp and contains a high proportion (~60%) of repetitive elements. The genetic diversity among the individuals was extremely low, suggesting a small population size and/or a slow rate of evolution. We found a substantial number of genes that encode olfactory and pheromone receptors with features characteristic of tetrapod receptors for the detection of airborne ligands. We also found that limb enhancers of bmp7 and gli3, both of which are essential for limb formation, are conserved between coelacanth and tetrapods but not ray-finned fishes. We expect that some tetrapod-like genes may have existed early in the evolution of primitive Sarcopterygii and were later co-opted to adapt to terrestrial environments. These coelacanth genomes will provide a cornerstone for studies to elucidate how ancestral aquatic vertebrates evolved into terrestrial animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commonly used classical inbred mouse strains have mosaic genomes with sequences from different subspecific origins. Their genomes are derived predominantly from the Western European subspecies Mus musculus domesticus, with the remaining sequences derived mostly from the Japanese subspecies M. m. molossinus. However, it remains unknown how this intersubspecific genome introgression occurred during the establishment of classical inbred strains. In this study, we resequenced the genomes of M. m. molossinus -derived two inbred strains, MSM/Ms and JF1/Ms. MSM/Ms originated from Japanese wild mice, and ancestry of JF1/Ms was originally found in Europe and then transferred to Japan. We compared the characteristics of these sequences to those of the C57BL/6J reference sequence and the recent datasets from the resequencing of 17 inbred strains in the Mouse Genome Project (MGP), and the results unequivocally show that genome introgression from M. m. molossinus into M. m. domesticus provided the primary framework for the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains. Furthermore, the genomes of C57BL/6J and other classical inbred strains have long consecutive segments with extremely high similarity (>99.998%) to the JF1/Ms strain. In the early 20th century, Japanese waltzing mice with a morphological phenotype resembling that of JF1/Ms mice were often crossed with European fancy mice for early studies of "Mendelism" which suggests that that the ancestor of the extant JF1/Ms strain provided the origin of the M. m. molossinus genome in classical inbred strains and largely contributed to its intersubspecific genome diversity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volvocalean green algae have among the most diverse mitochondrial and plastid DNAs (mtDNAs and ptDNAs) from the eukaryotic domain. However, nearly all of the organelle genome data from this group are restricted to unicellular species, like , and presently only one multicellular species, the ∼4,000-celled , has had its organelle DNAs sequenced. The organelle genomes are repeat rich, and the ptDNA is the largest plastome ever sequenced. Here, we present the complete mtDNA and ptDNA of the colonial volvocalean , which is comprised of ∼16 cells and occupies a phylogenetic position closer to that of than within the volvocine line. The mtDNA and ptDNA of are circular-mapping AT-rich molecules with respective lengths and coding densities of 16 and 222.6 kilobases and 73 and 44%. They share some features with the organelle DNAs of , including palindromic repeats within the plastid compartment, but show more similarities with those of , such as a compact mtDNA architecture and relatively low organelle DNA intron contents. Overall, the organelle genomes raise several interesting questions about the origin of linear mitochondrial chromosomes within the Volvocales and the relationship between multicellularity and organelle genome expansion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nearly complete genome sequence of Candidatus 'Acetothermum autotrophicum', a presently uncultivated bacterium in candidate division OP1, was revealed by metagenomic analysis of a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 367 prokaryotes suggests that Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' is one of the earliest diverging bacterial lineages. It possesses a folate-dependent Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway of CO(2) fixation, is predicted to have an acetogenic lifestyle, and possesses the newly discovered archaeal-autotrophic type of bifunctional fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase. A phylogenetic analysis of the core gene cluster of the acethyl-CoA pathway, shared by acetogens, methanogens, some sulfur- and iron-reducers and dechlorinators, supports the hypothesis that the core gene cluster of Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' is a particularly ancient bacterial pathway. The habitat, physiology and phylogenetic position of Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' support the view that the first bacterial and archaeal lineages were H(2)-dependent acetogens and methanogenes living in hydrothermal environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted genome sequencing of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus sojae NBRC4239 isolated from the koji used to prepare Japanese soy sauce. We used the 454 pyrosequencing technology and investigated the genome with respect to enzymes and secondary metabolites in comparison with other Aspergilli sequenced. Assembly of 454 reads generated a non-redundant sequence of 39.5-Mb possessing 13 033 putative genes and 65 scaffolds composed of 557 contigs. Of the 2847 open reading frames with Pfam domain scores of >150 found in A. sojae NBRC4239, 81.7% had a high degree of similarity with the genes of A. oryzae. Comparative analysis identified serine carboxypeptidase and aspartic protease genes unique to A. sojae NBRC4239. While A. oryzae possessed three copies of α-amyalse gene, A. sojae NBRC4239 possessed only a single copy. Comparison of 56 gene clusters for secondary metabolites between A. sojae NBRC4239 and A. oryzae revealed that 24 clusters were conserved, whereas 32 clusters differed between them that included a deletion of 18 508 bp containing mfs1, mao1, dmaT, and pks-nrps for the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) biosynthesis, explaining the no productivity of CPA in A. sojae. The A. sojae NBRC4239 genome data will be useful to characterize functional features of the koji moulds used in Japanese industries.