[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that can cause severe complications involving the central nervous system. No effective antiviral therapeutics are available for treating EV-A71 infection and drug discovery efforts are rarely focused to target this disease. Thus, the main goal of this study was to discover existing drugs with novel indications that may effectively inhibit EV-A71 replication and the inflammatory cytokines elevation. In this study, we showed that LiCl, a GSK3β inhibitor, effectively suppressed EV-A71 replication, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines production (Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1β) in infected cells. Furthermore, LiCl and an immunomodular agent were shown to strongly synergize with each other in suppressing EV-A71 replication. The results highlighted potential new treatment regimens in suppressing sequelae caused by EV-A71 replication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of acylguanidine-modified zanamivir analogs were synthesized and their inhibitory activities against the NAs of avian influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) were evaluated. In particular, zanamivir derivative , with a hydrophobic naphthalene substituent, exhibits the best inhibitory activity against group-1 NA with an IC50 of 20 nM.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA) drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR) influenza virus infections is important. Here, we propose a parallel screening strategy that simultaneously screens wild-type (WT) and MDR NAs, and identifies inhibitors matching the subsite characteristics of both NA-binding sites. These may maintain their potency when drug-resistant mutations arise. Initially, we analyzed the subsite of the dual H275Y/I223R NA mutant. Analysis of the site-moiety maps of NA protein structures show that the mutant subsite has a relatively small volume and is highly polar compared with the WT subsite. Moreover, the mutant subsite has a high preference for forming hydrogen-bonding interactions with polar moieties. These changes may drive multidrug resistance. Using this strategy, we identified a new inhibitor, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RB19, an anthraquinone dye), which inhibited WT NA and MDR NA with IC(50) values of 3.4 and 4.5 µM, respectively. RB19 comprises a rigid core scaffold and a flexible chain with a large polar moiety. The former interacts with highly conserved residues, decreasing the probability of resistance. The latter forms van der Waals contacts with the WT subsite and yields hydrogen bonds with the mutant subsite by switching the orientation of its flexible side chain. Both scaffolds of RB19 are good starting points for lead optimization. The results reveal a parallel screening strategy for identifying resistance mechanisms and discovering anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors. We believe that this strategy may be applied to other diseases with high mutation rates, such as cancer and human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From a high-throughput screening (HTS) hit with inhibitory activity against virus-induced cytophathic in the low micromolar range, we have developed a potent anti-influenza lead through careful optimization without compromising the drug-like properties of the compound. An orally bioavailable compound was identified as a lead agent with nanomolar activity against influenza, representing a 140-fold improvement over the initial hit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that NP (nucleoprotein), which possesses multiple functions in the viral life cycle, is a new potential anti-influenza drug target. NP inhibitors reliably induce conformational changes in NPs, and these changes may confer inhibition of the influenza virus. The six conserved tryptophan residues in NP can be used as an intrinsic probe to monitor the change in fluorescence of the tryptophan residues in the protein upon binding to an NP inhibitor. In the present study, we found that the fluorescence of recombinant NP proteins was quenched following the binding of available NP inhibitors (such as nucleozin) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which suggests that the inhibitor induced conformational changes in the NPs. The minimal fluorescence-quenching effect and weak binding constant of nucleozin to the swine-origin influenza virus H1N1pdm09 (SOIV) NP revealed that the SOIV is resistant to nucleozin. We have used the fluorescence-quenching property of tryptophans in NPs that were bound to ligands in a 96-well-plate-based drug screen to assess the ability of promising small molecules to interact with NPs and have identified one new anti-influenza drug, CSV0C001018, with a high SI value. This convenient method for drug screening may facilitate the development of antiviral drugs that target viruses other than the influenza virus, such as HIV and HBV.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-throughput 32D(L858R/T790M) cell-based assay to identify inhibitors of the L858R/T790M mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway was established. After screening, ten hits from among 60,000 compounds in our in-house compound library were initially identified. In the secondary assays, one hit, 1-[2-(decyloxy)-2-oxoethyl]-3-methyl-2-[(4-methylphenoxy) methyl]-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium, was confirmed to directly inhibit the kinase activity of recombinant L858R/T790M EGFR and the phosphorylation of EGFR-L858R/T790M in gefitinib-resistant H1975 cells. Thus, this high-throughput assay system may be useful for identifying novel inhibitors which suppress mutant EGFR-T790M signalling and for overcoming T790M-mediated acquired resistance for future anticancer drug discovery.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the antiviral mechanism of a novel compound, BPR3P0128. From a large-scale screening of a library of small compounds, BPR3P compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of influenza viral replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. BPR3P0128 exhibited inhibitory activity against both influenza A and B viruses. The 50% inhibitory concentrations were in the range of 51 to 190 nM in MDCK cells, as measured by inhibition-of-cytopathic-effect assays. BPR3P0128 appeared to target the viral replication cycle but had no effect on viral adsorption. The inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA transcription by BPR3P0128 was more prominent with a concurrent increase in cap-independent cRNA replication in a primer extension assay, suggesting a role of BPR3P0128 in switching transcription to replication. This reduction in mRNA expression resulted from the BPR3P-mediated inhibition of the cap-dependent endoribonuclease (cap-snatching) activities of nuclear extracts containing the influenza virus polymerase complex. No inhibition of binding of 5' viral RNA to the viral polymerase complex by this compound was detected. BPR3P0128 also effectively inhibited other RNA viruses, such as enterovirus 71 and human rhinovirus, but not DNA viruses, suggesting that BPR3P0128 targets a cellular factor(s) associated with viral PB2 cap-snatching activity. The identification of this factor(s) could help redefine the regulation of viral transcription and replication and thereby provide a potential target for antiviral chemotherapeutics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HTS hit 7 was modified through hybrid design strategy to introduce a chiral side chain followed by introduction of Michael acceptor group to obtain potent EGFR kinase inhibitors 11 and 19. Both 11 and 19 showed over 3 orders of magnitude enhanced HCC827 antiproliferative activity compared to HTS hit 7 and also inhibited gefitinib-resistant double mutant (DM, T790M/L858R) EGFR kinase at nanomolar concentration. Moreover, treatment with 19 shrinked tumor in nude mice xenograft model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A focused library of furanopyrimidine (350 compounds) was rapidly synthesized in parallel reactors and in situ screened for Aurora and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase activity, leading to the identification of some interesting hits. On the basis of structural biology observations, the hit 1a was modified to better fit the back pocket, producing the potent Aurora inhibitor 3 with submicromolar antiproliferative activity in HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. On the basis of docking studies with EGFR hit 1s, introduction of acrylamide Michael acceptor group led to 8, which inhibited both the wild and mutant EGFR kinase and also showed antiproliferative activity in HCC827 lung cancer cell line. Furthermore, the X-ray cocrystal study of 3 and 8 in complex with Aurora and EGFR, respectively, confirmed their hypothesized binding modes. Library construction, in situ screening, and structure-based drug design (SBDD) strategy described here could be applied for the lead identification of other kinases.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes serious diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) on EV71 replication and to explore the underlying mechanism.
To measure the activity of ATA in inhibiting the cytopathic effect (CPE) of EV71, a cell-based neutralization (inhibition of virus-induced CPE) assay was performed. The effect of ATA was further confirmed using plaque reduction and viral yield reduction assays. A time of addition assay was performed to identify the mechanisms of ATA's anti-EV71 activity. We examined the effects of ATA on the following key steps involved in virus replication: (i) translation of the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated viral polyprotein; (ii) the proteolytic activity of viral proteases 2A and/or 3C; and (iii) the viral 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity.
In this study, ATA was found to be a potent inhibitor of the replication of EV71. In the antiviral neutralization assay, ATA exhibited inhibitory activity against EV71 (TW/4643/98) and EV71 (TW/2231/98). Plaque assay further demonstrated that ATA inhibited EV71 replication with an EC(50) (effective concentration at which 50% of plaques were removed) of 2.9 microM. Studies on the mechanism of action revealed that ATA targets the early stage of the viral life cycle after viral entry. ATA was able to inhibit the RdRp activity of EV71, while neither the IRES-mediated translation of viral polyprotein nor the viral 3C protease activity was affected.
Overall, the findings in this study suggest that ATA is able to effectively inhibit EV71 replication through interfering with the viral 3D polymerase.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein we reveal a simple method for the identification of novel Aurora kinase A inhibitors through substructure searching of an in-house compound library to select compounds for testing. A hydrazone fragment conferring Aurora kinase activity and heterocyclic rings most frequently reported in kinase inhibitors were used as substructure queries to filter the in-house compound library collection prior to testing. Five new series of Aurora kinase inhibitors were identified through this strategy, with IC(50) values ranging from approximately 300 nM to approximately 15 microM, by testing only 133 compounds from a database of approximately 125,000 compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies and X-ray co-crystallographic analysis of the most potent compound, a furanopyrimidine derivative with an IC(50) value of 309 nM toward Aurora kinase A, were carried out. The knowledge gained through these studies could help in the future design of potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a valid drug target for development of target-based therapeutics against non-small-cell lung cancer. In this study, we established a high-throughput cell-based assay to screen for compounds that may inhibit EGFR activation and/or EGFR-mediated downstream signaling pathway. This drug screening platform is based on the characterization of an EGFR-transfected 32D cell line (32D-EGFR). The expression of EGFR in 32D cells allowed cell proliferation in the presence of either epidermal growth factor (EGF) or interleukin 3 (IL-3) and provided a system for both screening and counterscreening of EGFR pathway-inhibitory compounds. After the completion of primary and secondary screenings in which 32D-EGFR cells were grown under the stimulation of either EGF or IL-3, 9 of 20,000 compounds were found to selectively inhibit the EGF-dependent proliferation, but not the IL-3-dependent proliferation, of 32D-EGFR cells. Subsequent analysis showed that 3 compounds of the 9 initial hits directly inhibited the kinase activity of recombinant EGFR in vitro and the phosphorylation of EGFR in H1299 cells transfected with EGFR. Thus, this 32D-EGFR assay system provides a promising approach for identifying novel EGFR and EGFR signaling pathway inhibitors with potential antitumor activity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Analytical Biochemistry