[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is regarded as a hallmark of cancer progression. In the current study, we evaluated mitochondrial genome instability and copy number in colorectal cancer using Next Generation Sequencing approach and qPCR, respectively. The results revealed higher levels of heteroplasmy and depletion of the relative mtDNA copy number in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma samples also presented an increased number of mutations in nuclear genes encoding proteins which functions are related with mitochondria fusion, fission and localization. Moreover, we found a set of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, which cooperate in the same mitochondrial function simultaneously mutated in adenocarcinoma. In summary, these results support an important role for mitochondrial function and genomic instability in colorectal tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic reprogramming mediated by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA instability of tumor cells has been pointed as a hallmark of cancer progression. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have become a powerful tool to explore the impact of genomic instability in the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells. Here, we propose that the usage of NGS technology can accurately quantify mitochondrial genome instability by assessing some features as mitochondrial mutations, heteroplasmy levels, and mtDNA copy number variations. The evaluation of those parameters joined with nDNA information can improve the understanding of the mitochondrial role in cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we searched for genes highly expressed in placenta and that could contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a malignant phenotype in different types of tumours, and in astrocytomas in particular. We employed a strategy based on the integration of in silico data from previously generated massively parallel signature sequencing and public serial analysis of gene expression databases. Among 12 selected genes, CD99 exhibited the highest relative mRNA expression in GBM compared to non-neoplastic brain tissues. In a larger cohort of astrocytic tumours, we further demonstrated increased CD99 expression in all malignant grades, with GBMs showing the highest values. These findings were confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we demonstrated the CD99 localisation profile in astrocytic tumours. Interestingly, CD99 expression was confined to the cytoplasm or membrane in more malignant astrocytomas, in contrast to non-neoplastic brain tissue or non-infiltrative pilocytic astrocytoma, which showed no obvious staining in these structures. Comparison of three GBM cell lines revealed higher CD99 expression at the membrane and higher migratory capacity in the A172 and U87MG lines, but lower CD99 expression and no migratory ability in the T98 line. Knocking down CD99 expression by siRNA decreased significantly the migration of both cell lines. These integrated CD99 gene and protein expression results suggest that CD99 expression in astrocytomas of different malignant grades might contribute to the infiltrative ability and support the importance of CD99 as a potential target to reduce infiltrative astrocytoma capacity in migration and invasion.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) cases are caused by mutations in one of the two genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding for the two chains that trimerize to form the procollagen 1 molecule. However, alterations in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for the regulation of cell fate determination and may be evolved in OI phenotype.
In this work, we analyzed the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes by sequence analysis using an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer and Big Dye Terminator Sequencing protocol. COL1A1 and miR-29b expression were also evaluated during the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) by qRT-PCR using an ABI7500 Sequence Detection System.
We have identified eight novel mutations, where of four may be responsible for OI phenotype. COL1A1 and miR-29b showed lower expression values in OI type I and type III samples. Interestingly, one type III OI sample from a patient with Bruck Syndrome showed COL1A1 and miR-29b expressions alike those from normal samples.
Results suggest that the miR-29b mechanism directed to regulate collagen protein accumulation during mineralization is dependent upon the amount of COL1A1 mRNA. Taken together, results indicate that the lower levels observed in OI samples were not sufficient for the induction of miR-29b.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are hereditary. Among hereditary syndromes, Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOC) and Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) have received the most attention. HBOC is due to mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and is characterized by breast adenocarcinoma and/or epithelial ovarian carcinoma. LFS is associated with germline mutations in TP53; the most frequent cancer types associated with this syndrome are sarcoma, breast cancer, leukemia, brain tumors and adrenocortical carcinomas. Other cancers related to LFS are found at lower frequencies. In Brazil, especially in the southern part of the country, a specific mutation in the TP53 gene, TP53 p.R337H, occurs at a high frequency in childhood adrenocortical tumors. It has been proposed that this mutation increases breast cancer risk in southern Brazilian women.
We carried out a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the TP53 p.R337H mutation in 28 female cancer patients attended at the Cancer Genetic Counseling Service of the General Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School of Ribeirao Preto who fulfilled Hereditary Breast and Ovary Cancer Syndrome genetic test criteria compared to healthy woman (controls). TP53 p.R337H mutation status was determined using the High Resolution Melting (HRM) method, followed by DNA sequencing. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of TP53 p.R337H in the patient and control groups.
Two of the breast cancer cases (7.1%) and none of the controls carried the TP53 p.R337H mutation. At the time of the investigation, both cases fulfilled testing criteria for Hereditary Breast and Ovary Cancer Syndrome but not Li-Fraumeni or Li-Fraumeni-like Syndrome, based on genetic testing criteria of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (v.1.2010).
We suggest that genetic screening of Brazilian breast cancer patients who fulfill Hereditary Breast and Ovary Cancer Syndrome criteria and have a family history that includes other tumors of the LFS/LFL spectrum be tested for the TP53 p.R337H mutation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies allowed access to the vast amounts of information that are contained in the human genome. This information has contributed to the understanding of individual and population-based variability and improved the understanding of the evolutionary history of different human groups. However, the genome of a representative of the Amerindian populations had not been previously sequenced. Thus, the genome of an individual from a South American tribe was completely sequenced to further the understanding of the genetic variability of Amerindians. A total of 36.8 giga base pairs (Gbp) were sequenced and aligned with the human genome. These Gbp corresponded to 95.92% of the human genome with an estimated miscall rate of 0.0035 per sequenced bp. The data obtained from the alignment were used for SNP (single-nucleotide) and INDEL (insertion-deletion) calling, which resulted in the identification of 502,017 polymorphisms, of which 32,275 were potentially new high-confidence SNPs and 33,795 new INDELs, specific of South Native American populations. The authenticity of the sample as a member of the South Native American populations was confirmed through the analysis of the uniparental (maternal and paternal) lineages. The autosomal comparison distinguished the investigated sample from others continental populations and revealed a close relation to the Eastern Asian populations and Aboriginal Australian. Although, the findings did not discard the classical model of America settlement; it brought new insides to the understanding of the human population history. The present study indicates a remarkable genetic variability in human populations that must still be identified and contributes to the understanding of the genetic variability of South Native American populations and of the human populations history.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antidepressant fluoxetine has been under discussion because of its potential influence on cancer risk. It was found to inhibit the development of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions in colon tissue, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated anti-proliferative effects, and used HT29 colon tumor cells in vitro, as well as C57BL/6 mice exposed to intra-rectal treatment with the carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as models. Fluoxetine increased the percentage of HT29 cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase of cell-cycle, and the expression of p27 protein. This was not related to an induction of apoptosis, reactive oxygen species or DNA damage. In vivo, fluoxetine reduced the development of MNNG-induced dysplasia and vascularization-related dysplasia in colon tissue, which was analyzed by histopathological techniques. An anti-proliferative potential of fluoxetine was observed in epithelial and stromal areas. It was accompanied by a reduction of VEGF expression and of the number of cells with angiogenic potential, such as CD133, CD34, and CD31-positive cell clusters. Taken together, our findings suggest that fluoxetine treatment targets steps of early colon carcinogenesis. This confirms its protective potential, explaining at least partially the lower colon cancer risk under antidepressant therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper.
The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology.
This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-fat (HF) diet, the serotonergic system and stromal elements have all been implicated in colon carcinogenesis. We investigated whether the colonic serotonergic system could play a main role in the development of colonic dysplasia and stromal reactivity in carcinogen-treated rats under HF diet. For this, dimethylhydrazine-treated rats were fed with standard diet and a HF diet. Fat distribution was quantified by computerized tomography exam, serotonergic activity was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry, which along with histopathological technique enabled us to enumerate dysplasia, microvessels density, cell proliferation and COX-2 expression. We found that the HF diet induced an increase in the amount of visceral adipose tissue, even without expressive changes in the average body weight. This was correlated with a loss of serotonergic balance in colon tissue. Moreover, the HF diet promoted dysplasia and microvessel density in association with increased proliferation and COX-2 expression within pericryptal colonic stroma. Our current findings suggest that a HF diet promotes the enlargement of adipose tissue via loss of control in colon serotonergic activity, which enhances colonic dysplasia by supporting microvessel development.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up-regulation of S100A7 (Psoriasin), a small calcium-binding protein, is associated with the development of several types of carcinomas, but its function and possibility to serve as a diagnostic or prognostic marker have not been fully defined. In order to prepare antibodies to the protein for immunohistochemical studies we produced the recombinant S100A7 protein in E. coli. mRNA extracted from human tracheal tumor tissue which was amplified by RT-PCR to provide the region coding for the S100A7 gene. The amplified fragment was cloned in the vector pCR2.1-TOPO and sub-cloned in the expression vector pAE. The protein rS100A7 (His-tag) was expressed in E. coli BL21::DE3, purified by affinity chromatography on an Ni-NTA column, recovered in the 2.0 to 3.5 mg/mL range in culture medium, and used to produce a rabbit polyclonal antibody anti-rS100A7 protein. The profile of this polyclonal antibody was evaluated in a tissue microarray.
The rS100A7 (His-tag) protein was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry and was used to produce an anti-recombinant S100A7 (His-tag) rabbit serum (polyclonal antibody anti-rS100A7). The molecular weight of rS100A7 (His-tag) protein determined by linear MALDI-TOF-MS was 12,655.91 Da. The theoretical mass calculated for the nonapeptide attached to the amino terminus is 12,653.26 Da (delta 2.65 Da). Immunostaining with the polyclonal anti-rS100A7 protein generated showed reactivity with little or no background staining in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells, detecting S100A7 both in nucleus and cytoplasm. Lower levels of S100A7 were detected in non-neoplastic tissue.
The polyclonal anti-rS100A7 antibody generated here yielded a good signal-to-noise contrast and should be useful for immunohistochemical detection of S100A7 protein. Its potential use for other epithelial lesions besides human larynx squamous cell carcinoma and non-neoplastic larynx should be explored in future.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a drug commonly used as antidepressant. However, its effects on tumorigenesis remain controversial. Aiming to evaluate the effects of FLX treatment on early malignant changes, we analyzed serotonin (5-HT) metabolism and recognition, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), proliferative process, microvessels, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colon tissue. Male Wistar rats received a daily FLX-gavage (30mgkg(-1)) and, a single dose of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH; i.p., 125mgkg(-1)). After 6 weeks of FLX-treatment, our results revealed that FLX and nor-fluoxetine (N-FLX) are present in colon tissue, which was related to significant increase in serotonin (5-HT) levels (P<0.05) possibly through a blockade in SERT mRNA (serotonin reuptake transporter; P<0.05) resulting in lower 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels (P<0.01) and, 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expressions. FLX-treatment decreased dysplastic ACF development (P<0.01) and proliferative process (P<0.001) in epithelia. We observed a significant decrease in the development of malignant microvessels (P<0.05), VEGF (P<0.001), and COX-2 expression (P<0.01). These findings suggest that FLX may have oncostatic effects on carcinogenic colon tissue, probably due to its modulatory activity on 5-HT metabolism and/or its ability to reduce colonic malignant events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent bone tumor in children and adolescents. Tumor antigens are encoded by genes that are expressed in many types of solid tumors but are silent in normal tissues, with the exception of placenta and male germ-line cells. It has been proposed that antigen tumors are potential tumor markers.
The premise of this study is that the identification of novel OS-associated transcripts will lead to a better understanding of the events involved in OS pathogenesis and biology.
We analyzed the expression of a panel of seven tumor antigens in OS samples to identify possible tumor markers. After selecting the tumor antigen expressed in most samples of the panel, gene expression profiling was used to identify osteosarcoma-associated molecular alterations. A microarray was employed because of its ability to accurately produce comprehensive expression profiles.
PRAME was identified as the tumor antigen expressed in most OS samples; it was detected in 68% of the cases. Microarray results showed differences in expression for genes functioning in cell signaling and adhesion as well as extracellular matrix-related genes, implying that such tumors could indeed differ in regard to distinct patterns of tumorigenesis.
The hypothesis inferred in this study was gathered mostly from available data concerning other kinds of tumors. There is circumstantial evidence that PRAME expression might be related to distinct patterns of tumorigenesis. Further investigation is needed to validate the differential expression of genes belonging to tumorigenesis-related pathways in PRAME-positive and PRAME-negative tumors.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Orthopaedic Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances in head and neck cancer, the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer has not improved in the last 30 years. Several recent studies indicate that specific targets for immunotherapeutic approaches can be useful in the control of cancer. There is considerable interest in the expression of cancer testis antigens in human cancers since they may serve as the basis for an immunologic approach to therapy.
We evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis the expression of cancer testis antigens MAGE-A4 (57B), MAGE-C1 (CT7-33), MAGE-A1 (MA454), MAGE-A3 (M3H67), MAGE-C2 (CT10.5), NY-ESO-1 (E978), and GAGE (GAGE) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx.
A total of 63 cases (57 men and 6 women) of laryngeal SCC were available for this study. The findings were correlated with the clinical course and laboratory data. Expression of at least 1 cancer testis antigen was detected in 42 of 63 of the laryngeal SCCs (67%). In 34 of 42 of the positive cases (81%) there was simultaneous expression of ≥2 cancer testis antigens. There was significant correlation between antigen expression and advanced tumor stage (stage III/IV) in cases with reactivity to only 1 antibody (p = .01) as well as in the cases with reactivity to ≥2 primary antibodies (≥2 mAbs, p = .04). There was no association between survival and expression of any of the analyzed antigens.
We find a high incidence of cancer testis antigen expression in SCCs of the larynx, which was correlated with advanced clinical stage. Our data indicate that cancer testis antigens could be valuable vaccine targets in laryngeal tumors, especially in those with a worse prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constant light (LL) is associated with high incidence of colon cancer. MLT supplementation was related to the significant control of preneoplastic patterns. We sought to analyze preneoplastic patterns in colon tissue from animals exposed to LL environment (14 days; 300 lx), MLT-supplementation (10mg/kg/day) and DMH-treatment (1,2 dimethylhydrazine; 125 mg/kg). Rodents were sacrificed and MLT serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicated that LL induced ACF development (p < 0.001) with a great potential to increase the number of CD133(+) and CD68(+) cells (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). LL also increased the proliferative process (PCNA-Li; p < 0.001) as well as decreased caspase-3 protein (p < 0.001), related to higher COX-2 protein expression (p < 0.001) within pericryptal colonic stroma (PCCS). However, MLT-supplementation controlled the development of dysplastic ACF (p < 0.001) diminishing preneoplastic patterns into PCCS as CD133 and CD68 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). These events were relative to decreased PCNA-Li index and higher expression of caspase-3 protein. Thus, MLT showed a great potential to control the preneoplastic patterns induced by LL.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 172 persons from nine South Amerindian, three African and one Eskimo populations were studied in relation to the Paired box gene 9 (PAX9) exon 3 (138 base pairs) as well as its 5'and 3'flanking intronic segments (232 bp and 220 bp, respectively) and integrated with the information available for the same genetic region from individuals of different geographical origins. Nine mutations were scored in exon 3 and six in its flanking regions; four of them are new South American tribe-specific singletons. Exon3 nucleotide diversity is several orders of magnitude higher than its intronic regions. Additionally, a set of variants in the PAX9 and 101 other genes related with dentition can define at least some dental morphological differences between Sub-Saharan Africans and non-Africans, probably associated with adaptations after the modern human exodus from Africa. Exon 3 of PAX9 could be a good molecular example of how evolvability works.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tissue differentiation and in maintaining basal physiology, little is known about the miRNA expression levels in stomach tissue. Alterations in the miRNA profile can lead to cell deregulation, which can induce neoplasia.
A small RNA library of stomach tissue was sequenced using high-throughput SOLiD sequencing technology. We obtained 261,274 quality reads with perfect matches to the human miRnome, and 42% of known miRNAs were identified. Digital Gene Expression profiling (DGE) was performed based on read abundance and showed that fifteen miRNAs were highly expressed in gastric tissue. Subsequently, the expression of these miRNAs was validated in 10 healthy individuals by RT-PCR showed a significant correlation of 83.97% (P<0.05). Six miRNAs showed a low variable pattern of expression (miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-19b, miR-31, miR-148a, miR-451) and could be considered part of the expression pattern of the healthy gastric tissue.
This study aimed to validate normal miRNA profiles of human gastric tissue to establish a reference profile for healthy individuals. Determining the regulatory processes acting in the stomach will be important in the fight against gastric cancer, which is the second-leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The post-genomic era has brought new challenges regarding the understanding of the organization and function of the human genome. Many of these challenges are centered on the meaning of differential gene regulation under distinct biological conditions and can be performed by analyzing the Multiple Differential Expression (MDE) of genes associated with normal and abnormal biological processes. Currently MDE analyses are limited to usual methods of differential expression initially designed for paired analysis.
We proposed a web platform named ProbFAST for MDE analysis which uses Bayesian inference to identify key genes that are intuitively prioritized by means of probabilities. A simulated study revealed that our method gives a better performance when compared to other approaches and when applied to public expression data, we demonstrated its flexibility to obtain relevant genes biologically associated with normal and abnormal biological processes.
ProbFAST is a free accessible web-based application that enables MDE analysis on a global scale. It offers an efficient methodological approach for MDE analysis of a set of genes that are turned on and off related to functional information during the evolution of a tumor or tissue differentiation. ProbFAST server can be accessed at http://gdm.fmrp.usp.br/probfast.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · BMC Bioinformatics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease affecting the epithelium of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Conditions of most patients are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, and no sensitive and specific predictors of aggressive behavior have been identified yet. Therefore, early detection and prognostic biomarkers are highly desirable for a more rational management of the disease. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms that leads to gene silencing in tumors and has been extensively used for the identification of biomarkers. In this study, we combined rapid subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis in a hierarchical manner to select genes that are putatively reactivated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC) in HNSCC cell lines (FaDu, UM-SCC-14A, UM-SCC-17A, UM-SCC-38A). This combined analysis identified 78 genes, 35 of which were reactivated in at least 2 cell lines and harbored a CpG island at their 5' region. Reactivation of 3 of these 35 genes (CRABP2, MX1, and SLC15A3) was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR; fold change, >or=3). Bisulfite sequencing of their CpG islands revealed that they are indeed differentially methylated in the HNSCC cell lines. Using methylation-specific PCR, we detected a higher frequency of CRABP2 (58.1% for region 1) and MX1 (46.3%) hypermethylation in primary HNSCC when compared with lymphocytes from healthy individuals. Finally, absence of the CRABP2 protein was associated with decreased disease-free survival rates, supporting a potential use of CRABP2 expression as a prognostic biomarker for HNSCC patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-throughput molecular approaches for gene expression profiling, such as Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) or Sequencing-by-Synthesis (SBS) represent powerful techniques that provide global transcription profiles of different cell types through sequencing of short fragments of transcripts, denominated sequence tags. These techniques have improved our understanding about the relationships between these expression profiles and cellular phenotypes. Despite this, more reliable datasets are still necessary. In this work, we present a web-based tool named S3T: Score System for Sequence Tags, to index sequenced tags in accordance with their reliability. This is made through a series of evaluations based on a defined rule set. S3T allows the identification/selection of tags, considered more reliable for further gene expression analysis.
This methodology was applied to a public SAGE dataset. In order to compare data before and after filtering, a hierarchical clustering analysis was performed in samples from the same type of tissue, in distinct biological conditions, using these two datasets. Our results provide evidences suggesting that it is possible to find more congruous clusters after using S3T scoring system.
These results substantiate the proposed application to generate more reliable data. This is a significant contribution for determination of global gene expression profiles. The library analysis with S3T is freely available at http://gdm.fmrp.usp.br/s3t/. S3T source code and datasets can also be downloaded from the aforementioned website.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · BMC Bioinformatics