[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyze the recombinant structures and phylogenetic relationships of nine near full-length genome sequences of HIV-1 BF intersubtype recombinant viruses from Brazil, eight of them newly derived. These were obtained by PCR amplification from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) DNA or PBMCs culture supernantant RNA. The recombinants exhibited unique mosaic structures, except two viruses with a single near coincident breakpoint. Comparison with CRF12_BF revealed only two coincident breakpoints in two recombinants. Phylogenetic analyses failed to support a common ancestry of Brazilian recombinants or their relationship to CRF12_BF, which widely circulates in Argentina. Intersubtype breakpoint distribution along the genome was uneven, with the highest mean frequency in the polymerase domain of reverse transcriptase, and the lowest in env. These results indicate that HIV-1 BF recombinants from Brazil have independent origins and are unrelated to CRF12_BF, and that intersubtype breakpoints are frequent in pol segments analyzed for drug resistance detection.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop an assay for the early detection and quantification of minor human immunodeficiency virus-1 populations bearing multiple drug resistance (MDR) mutations.
The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is based on ligation of probe and detector oligonucleotides annealed to a polymerase chain reaction amplicon strand with detection by an enzyme immunoassay. In OLA-MDR, oligonucleotides were designed to detect MDR mutations. The method was validated with wild-type and MDR mutant clones mixed at different proportions.
K103N mutants were detected as minor populations (5%-30%) by OLA in 6 of 18 samples from patients treated with nonnucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors and classified as wild type by sequencing. In one patient, the kinetics of the increase of MDR mutants could be followed in sequential samples, with K103N being detected earlier by OLA than by sequencing. Q151M mutants were detected as minor populations (13%-24%) by OLA but not by sequencing in 4 samples.
Oligonucleotide ligation assay MDR exhibits higher sensitivity than sequencing for detection of minor MDR mutant populations.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of human virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The HIV-1 epidemics in Western Europe are dominated by B subtype viruses. Non-B subtype is largely restricted to individuals infected outside of Europe and to their direct contacts and is generally acquired by the heterosexual route.
Methods: Protease and a segment of reverse transcriptase were amplified and sequenced from plasma RNA in 451 individuals from seven cities of Galicia, north-western Spain. Subtype sequence homologies were determined using the BLAST algorithm. Non-B sequences were examined by phylogenetic analysis and intersubtype recombination by bootscanning. The env V3 region was analysed in all non-B and in 38 B subtype viruses.
Results: Ten different non-B genetic forms were identified in 20 (4.4%) individuals. Subtypes were concordant between pol and V3 in five viruses; 14 (70%) infections were with intersubtype recombinant viruses, and one individual had a dual B+G infection. Seven recombinant viruses were phylogenetically related to five reported recombinant forms. Three non-recombinant G and six recombinant BG viruses formed a monophyletic cluster for pol. All but three individuals with non-B infections were native Spanish. Only 6 of 16 individuals referred to sexual contacts with sub-Saharan Africans. Twelve (60%) non-B subtype infections, including all with G and BG viruses, were in injecting drug users (IDU).
Conclusions: Non-B subtype viruses were identified in 4.4%, with a high diversity of genetic forms, including 70% infections with intersubtype recombinant viruses. The majority of individuals with non-B infections were IDU, most of them without known contacts with non-European sources, and among whom BG recombinant viruses are circulating.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence of genotypic resistance mutations, including single and multidrug resistance (MDR) to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in treated and untreated patients from two geographical areas in Spain (Madrid and Galicia).
Resistance mutations to RT inhibitors were studied by line probe assay (LiPA) or by automated sequencing in 468 patients (Madrid, 268; Galicia, 200), and resistance mutations to PR inhibitors were studied by automated sequencing in 295 patients (Madrid, 85; Galicia, 210).
The proportion of resistance mutations in treated and untreated patients results were higher by the LiPA method than by sequencing. By sequencing, we detected resistance mutations to nucleoside analogue RT (NRT) inhibitors and NRT inhibitors plus nonnucleoside RT (NNRT) inhibitors in 35.4% and 17.2% of treated patients, respectively. We also detected MDR to zidovudine plus lamivudine in 13.9% of treated patients from Galicia, in 1.7% from Madrid (p < 0.001), and in 1.5% of untreated patients from Galicia. Also, we detected MDR to NRT inhibitors in 3.8% and to NNRT inhibitors in 9.1%. We found resistance mutations to PR inhibitors in 38.1% of treated patients and in 0.9% of untreated patients.
These findings reinforce the usefulness of testing for resistance mutations in some cases to evaluate their prevalence in a given population and in the follow-up of treated patients.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · Journal of human virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We attempted to define optimal conditions for amplification of low copy number HIV-1 RNA sequences in plasma samples, applying improved conditions for nucleic acid extraction and amplification.
Several methodologic parameters were evaluated, including methods of RNA extraction, volumes of plasma samples, proportion of extracted RNA used as a template for amplification, and reverse transcriptase-DNA polymerase enzyme combination employed in cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction amplification.
With this improved assay, we were able to obtain sufficient amounts of amplified material for direct sequencing in 97% of all plasma samples in our study, including 88% of samples with viral loads <80 copies/mL, 78% of samples with viral loads <50 copies/mL, and even 2 (67%) of 3 samples with <20 copies/mL.
This procedure could be useful for testing resistance mutations in patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy, in which the viral load is commonly <400 copies/mL, and even if it is <20 RNA copies/mL.
No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of human virology