[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sepsis, a highly lethal systemic inflammatory syndrome, is associated with increases of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, HMGB1) and the accumulation of apoptotic cells that have the potential to be detrimental. Depending on the timing and tissue, prevention of apoptosis in sepsis is beneficial; however, thwarting the development of secondary necrosis through the active removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis may offer a novel anti-sepsis therapy. Immature dendritic cells (IDCs) release exosomes that contain milk fat globule EGF factor VIII (MFGE8), a protein required to opsonize apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. In an experimental sepsis model using cecal ligation and puncture, we found that MFGE8 levels decreased in the spleen and blood, which was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Administration of IDC-derived exosomes promoted phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and significantly reduced mortality. Treatment with recombinant MFGE8 was equally protective, whereas MFGE8-deficient mice suffered from increased mortality. IDC exosomes also attenuated the release of proinflammatory cytokines in septic rats. Liberation of HMGB1, a nuclear protein that contributes to inflammation upon release from unengulfed apoptotic cells, was prevented by MFGE8-mediated phagocytosis in vitro. We conclude that IDC-derived exosomes attenuate the acute systemic inflammatory response in sepsis by enhancing apoptotic cell clearance via MFGE8.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In sepsis, phagocytosis and the killing of bacteria by phagocytes are important. Similarly, the clearance of accumulating apoptotic cells is critical in maintaining normal immunity. Upon maturation, peritoneal macrophages (PM) become a major source of proinflammatory cytokines, while losing their efficacy of phagocytosis. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we investigated the differential effects of apoptotic thymocytes (AoTC) on TNF-alpha release in immature thioglycolate-elicited PM (TGPM) and mature resident PM (RPM) in vitro by culturing them with or without AoTC and/or LPS. MFG-E8 expression was assessed using Western blotting and the ability to engulf AoTC was determined histologically. Cytokine secretion was measured by ELISA. MAP kinase phosphorylation was assessed using Western blotting. Mature RPM express <50% of TGPM MFG-E8 levels and have a 30% lower capacity to clear AoTC. The proinflammatory response (TNF-alpha release) to LPS is 5 times higher, and the capability to phagocytose is decreased along with further down-regulation of MFG-E8 after LPS-stimulation. RPMs also lack phagocytosis-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha release after LPS stimulation. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK is more enhanced in RPM compared to TGPM. MFG-E8-mediated apoptotic cell phagocytosis results in an inhibition of MAPK and NFkappaB signaling pathways. Differential MAPK activation may play a role in the enhanced LPS responsiveness of RPM and the lack of MFG-E8 impedes post-phagocytic suppression of LPS-response through the inhibition of those signaling pathways. These results provide a potential mechanistic insight into the benefit of promoting apoptotic cell clearance via MFG-E8 under inflammatory conditions.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Clearance of apoptotic cells is crucial to maintain cellular function under normal and pathological conditions. We have recently shown that administration of immature dendritic cell-derived exosomes to septic animals promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and improves survival by providing milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8). MFG-E8 acts as an opsonin for apoptotic cells to be engulfed by phagocytosis. In the present study we investigated whether the CX(3)C-chemokine fractalkine (CX(3)CL1) promotes apoptotic cell clearance through the induction of MFG-E8 in peritoneal macrophages. Cultured rat peritoneal macrophages (pMphi) and RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with LPS and CX(3)CL1. MFG-E8 expression was assessed by Western blot, cytokine secretion was assessed by ELISA, and phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes was determined by microscopy. For in vivo studies, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis in rats and mice. LPS significantly decreased MFG-E8 levels and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, whereas CX(3)CL1 induced MFG-E8 expression in both nonstimulated and LPS-stimulated pMphi, without affecting TNF-alpha and IL-6 release. Anti-MFG-E8 blocking antibodies completely abrogated the prophagocytic effect of CX(3)CL1. Twenty hours after the induction of sepsis in rats via CLP, plasma CX(3)CL1 levels as well as MFG-E8 production in peritoneal macrophages decreased by 21% and 56%, respectively. Administration of CX(3)CL1 on the other hand induced MFG-E8 and prevented tissue injury. We conclude that CX(3)CL1 induces MFG-E8 in vitro and in vivo and enhances clearance of apoptotic cells in an MFG-E8-dependent manner. These findings suggest a possible novel treatment for patients in sepsis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Molecular Medicine